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Range Recreation Timber Watershed Wildlife and Fish USFS manages lands for

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Nursery plants Bulbs, transplants, etc. Arts, crafts, and floral harvesting Pine cones, vines, moss, mistletoe, limbs, etc. Regeneration and silviculture uses Cones, nuts, seed, cuttings, etc. Edible fruits, nuts, berries, and sap Fungi, mushrooms, ferns, etc. Grazing forage Grass, hay, alfalfa, etc. Herbs and medicinals Roots, wildflowers, etc. Non-timber uses of forests

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Christmas trees Fuelwood Posts Etc. Other

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USFS has a major branch that deals with rangelands. Done properly, grazing is compatible with forest production. Forests can provide shelter for livestock. Must match type of livestock to forest. Forest Grazing

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annual forage production X seasonal utilization rate CC = ------------------------------------------------------------------- average daily intake X length of grazing season Example for cattle Carrying capacity

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Crown density needs to be reduced until forage plants can receive light, nutrients, and moisture. Crown density historically measured with Spherical Densiometers, today with hemispherical lens and software analysis. Thick forest canopies also increase stands risk to insect damage, diseases, and fire. Forage

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Spherical Densiometer

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Hemispherical Photos

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Can measure slope steepness, soil stability and other indicators to determine the forests’ ability to handle traffic and recreation use. Recreation

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A = R X LS X K X C X P A = predicted soil loss in tons per acre per year R = rainfall erosivity factor LS = slope Length and Steepness K = Soil Erodibility Factor C = cover factor P = erosion-control Practice factor For recreation calculations, P = 1 so ignored Universal Soil Loss Equation

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A = R K LS C P R is the rainfall factor R = EI E is the Energy in the Rainfall I is the maximum half-hour rainfall intensity for the storm. R varies with the climate at a particular location. USLE

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Average Annual Rainfall Factor (R)

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A = R K LS C P K is the soil erodibility factor (tons/acre/unit of R) K depends on the type of soil Texture Clay and Organic Matter Content Structure, Permeability, Drainage USLE

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USLE K-factors

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A = R K LS C P LS is the field topography factor L is the slope length factor S is the slope degree factor L = 1 for a field length of 72.6 feet S = 1 for a field slope of 9% LS is a ratio of erosion for the given condition to erosion for the standard USLE

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1/29/9917

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A = R K LS C P C is the Cropping and management factor C is a ratio of the erosion rate for the given condition to the erosion rate for the standard condition The standard condition is a bare soil All other conditions will have C<1 C also depends on rainfall timing USLE

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Continuous Fallow 1.00 Fresh Clean-Tilled Seedbed 0.80 Corn at Full Canopy0.25 Established Thick Meadow0.004 Established Meadow Poor Cover0.1 Typical Rowcrop Annual Value0.40 Native Forest0.01 USLE C-Factor

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A = R K LS C P P is the factor for supporting conservation practices. The standard condition for P is direct up-and-down the slope cultivation. P will be less than one for all other conditions. P depends on field slope USLE

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The P-factor is the ratio of soil loss under the given condition to soil loss from up-and-down-slope farming. Therefore it is a value between 0 and 1 Contour plowing, terrace farming, etc. Not used in forests so P = 1. CONSERVATION PRACTICE FACTOR: P

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A = R K LS C P A = 150 X.12 X 20 X.01 X 1 A = 3.6 tons/acre/year For sandy loam soil on a long 45% slope For different soils on flatter slopes much less i.e. change to a 35% slope, A = 1.8 KY soil formation is roughly 1.7 tons/acre/year USLE EXAMPLE – KY Forest

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Inventoried using standard cruising techniques Can be used for timber of smaller sizes used for poles/posts and pulp also Sawtimber

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Can intercrop rows of trees with rows of crops in plantations Crops such as wheat or soybeans can produce annual returns while waiting for the forest to mature. Can be done with walnut trees etc. Those with periodic nut crops help financially even more. Would need to measure soil productivity and tree spacing for this intensely managed area. Agroforestry

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Point versus Non-point source pollution Soil erosion is a non-point source pollutant Water

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Generally accomplished via calculating the cross sectional area of the channel and using a flow meter to get volume For permanent monitoring installations, weirs and flumes are used Water Volume Measurement

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Water speed varies

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Flow rate measure

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Channel volume

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Weir

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For V-notch weirs, the formula varies depending on the angle of the V-notch. The formula for weirs having V-notch angles of 90, 60 and 45 degrees is Q = k * h^2.5, where the value of k is 2.5, 1.443 or 1.035, respectively. For a V- notch weir having an angle of 30 degrees, the formula is Q = 0.685 h^2.45. There are also online sources for doing this calculation.

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Flume

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Dissolved Oxygen pH Specific Conductance Temperature Total Chlorophyll Total Dissolved Solids (Turbidity) Additional chemicals Water Quality Measurement

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Help prevent water degradation KY BMP Field Guide KY BMP Field Guide Best Management Practices

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Specific habitat measurement and management (promotion or retardation) for certain species Measure available cover, food (animal or vegetable), population estimates, etc. Generally a properly managed timber stand is a good place for wildlife as well. Wildlife

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Wildlife species that have evolved to need very mature trees and/or large contiguous tracts of undisturbed forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker, spotted owl, etc. Before BMPs - logging often ruined habitat for rare fish and mollusks (too much sediment for extended time, higher temperatures, etc.) Exceptions

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Forest wildlife food sources

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Species known to damage forests: Bear, beaver, deer, elk, gophers, mice, pig, porcupine, rabbit, vole. Physical damage to trees or overeating of seeds for regeneration. Control measures: Hunting, Trapping Harmful in large numbers

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