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 All of Earth’s energy comes from the Sun.. Living organisms need energy for growth and movement.

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Presentation on theme: " All of Earth’s energy comes from the Sun.. Living organisms need energy for growth and movement."— Presentation transcript:

1  All of Earth’s energy comes from the Sun.

2 Living organisms need energy for growth and movement.

3  Energy can be neither created nor destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another.

4  All forms of energy can be converted into other forms. ◦ The sun’s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. ◦ Green plants convert the sun’s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

5  Process where plants make their own food.

6

7 6H 2 O + 6CO > C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

8 carbon dioxide sunlight oxygen water glucose photosynthesis REACTANT FROM AIR FROM SOIL USED BY PLANT TO AIR OR USED FOR RESPIRATION PRODUCT Where do they come from? What are the products of the reaction? What happens to the products? Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that happens in the leaf. What are the reactants?

9 carbon dioxide CO 2 ‘photo’ = LIGHT ‘synthesis’ = BUILD chlorophyll Photosynthesis means building with Light + water H 2 O glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 + oxygen O 2  Green plants can make their own food from ……..… and ………..…  using energy in the form of ………………….  which is absorbed by chlorophyll in the ………………...  The end products of photosynthesis are ………. and ………….

10  What is photosynthesis?  Where does photosynthesis take place  What is the formula for photosynthesis

11  All living things need energy  Energy in the form of…  Food =chemica l energy  Cell energy= ATP

12 ATP

13  The process of converting food energy into ATP energy  C 6 H 12 O O 2 → 6 CO H 2 O + 36 ATP

14  Takes place in the mitochondria

15  Angiosperms (Flowering plants)  Gymnosperms (Cone bearing plants)  Ferns  Mosses

16 The branch of biology that concerns interactions between organisms and their environments or habitats

17 Levels of Biological Organization Biomolecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Within the purview of ecology

18 Communities of organisms that interact with one another and with their physical environment, including sunlight, rainfall, and soil nutrients.

19 These region are called biomes. Some of these areas would be prairies, tropical rainforests, and deserts.

20  Occupy large regions  Plants & animals  Have specific climate with similar plants and animals  Species composition is not the same in different areas

21  Tundra  Taiga  Grasslands  Deserts  Deciduous Forests  Tropical Rainforests

22 Biotic Factors include plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms Biotic factors are living factors. Anything living OR THAT WAS ONCE LIVING is considered a biotic factor.

23 Abiotic Factors include air, water, soil, temperature, wind, source of energy (usually sun) Abiotic, meaning not alive, are nonliving factors that affect living organisms.

24  We can think about the interactions and types of living things by organizing them into groups, smallest to largest.  A species includes only one type of organism. ◦ Example: pigeon  A population includes all members of one species that live in the same area. ◦ Example: all the pigeons in Brockton

25  A community includes all of the different species that live in the same area. ◦ Example: all the pigeons, ants, maple trees, dogs, etc. that live in Brockton  An ecosystem includes both the community and the abiotic factors. ◦ Example: the Brockton community plus the cars, buildings, rocks, air…

26 species community population ecosystem

27  Here are some important terms that will help you describe interactions in a food web. 1. Producer (autotroph) ◦ can make its own food ◦ forms the base of the food web

28 A producer is an organism that uses an outside energy source like the Sun to make energy- rich molecules.

29  A consumer is an organism that cannot make their own energy-rich molecules. Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms. Wolves can’t make their own food. They are consumers. The Cape Buffalo can’t make its own food. It is a consumer.

30 2. Consumer (heterotroph) ◦ cannot make its own food There are several words that describe consumers… ◦ Prey: the hunted ◦ Predator: the hunter ◦ Herbivore: eats plants ◦ Carnivore: eats animals ◦ Omnivore: eats both plants and animals

31 There are 4 general types of consumers:  Herbivores  Carnivores  Omnivores  Decomposers

32 Herbivores – Plant eaters  Deer  Rabbits  Grasshoppers

33 Zebras eat grass. They are herbivores. Cows are herbivores.

34 Carnivores – Meat Eaters – Eat other animals  Frogs  Spiders  Cougars

35 Lions definitely eat meat! Not all carnivores have razor sharp teeth.

36 Omnivores – Eat both plants and animals  Bears  Pigs  Humans

37 While the panda’s digestive system is that of a carnivore, their diet consists of 99% bamboo. Raccoons are omnivores. They eat both plants and animals.

38 Mushrooms and other fungi break- down dead decaying matter.

39  All organisms need FOOD to survive!  Food webs show what eats what.

40 A food chain is a simple model of the feeding relationship in an ecosystem.

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42 3 rd level consumers consumers mostly carnivores & mostly carnivores & some omnivores some omnivores 2 nd level consumer carnivores & omnivores carnivores & omnivores 1 st level consumer herbivores herbivores Producers: green plants make their own energy from sunlight green plants make their own energy from sunlight 10,000 Kcal 1000 Kcal 100 Kcal 10 Kcal 1 Kcal An energy pyramid from the Andrews

43 10,000 Kcal 1000 Kcal 100 Kcal 10 Kcal 0.1% 1% 10% 100% 1 Kcal 0.01% When an owl eats a flying squirrel it uses about 90% of the calories to live— move, digest, produce body heat, reproduce and escape from predators. move, digest, produce body heat, reproduce and escape from predators. When a frog eats a cricket or a cricket eats a plant, they use 90% of those calories to move, digest, produce body heat, reproduce and escape from predators. When a frog eats a cricket or a cricket eats a plant, they use 90% of those calories to move, digest, produce body heat, reproduce and escape from predators.

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45 You might think that competition for resources would make it impossible for so many species to live in the same habitat. However, each species has different requirements for its survival. As a result, each species has its own niche. An organism’s niche is its role in its environment – how it obtains food and shelter, finds a mate, cares for its young, and avoids danger.

46 An organism’s niche includes how it avoids being eaten and how it finds or captures its food. Predators are consumers that capture and eat other consumers. The prey is the organism that is captured by the predator.

47 Predator Prey

48

49 What is Symbiosis? I.) Symbiosis – 2 or more species live together in a close, long-term association.

50 MUTULISM COMMENSALISM PARASITISM

51  1.) Mutualism – both organisms benefit  Ex. Shark & remora / herd animals & birds. Attaches to sides of other fish and turtles and eats food they drop. Mutualism

52  2.) Commensalism – one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. ◦ Ex. Sea anemone & tropical fish Commensalism

53  3.) Parasitism – one organism feeds on & usually lives on or in another organism. ◦ Ex. Ticks, mosquitoes, tapeworm, heartworm,  +, - Parasitism

54 Wrote the book “The Origin of Species” Research was conducted on the Galapagos Islands where he studied finches.

55 Darwin’s voyage aboard HMS Beagle trip around the world. Set out to document the “hand of God” in nature. Collected countless specimens and kept detailed notes.

56 Finches of the Galapagos Islands

57  Natural selection rests on three indisputable facts: ◦ Organisms produce more offspring than can survive. ◦ Individuals vary in their characteristics. ◦ Many characteristics are inherited by offspring from their parents.

58  All living things have certain adaptations to survive. If they didn’t, they would die and become extinct eventually.  Here are some of the different kinds of animal adaptation: ◦ Migration ◦ Hibernation ◦ Camouflage ◦ Mimicry ◦ Metamorphosis ◦ Unique Defenses ◦ Special Adaptations

59 Camouflage is a Physical adaptation Camouflage (use of color in a surrounding) The chameleon can change its color to match its surroundings. Can you do that?

60  Mimicry allows one animal to look, sound, or act like another animal to fool predators into thinking it is poisonous or dangerous.

61 Chemical defenses (like venom, ink, sprays) Unique Defenses are Physical Adaptation

62  Evaporation – process by which water changes from a liquid into an atmospheric gas  Transpiration – loss pf water from a plant through its leaves  Condensation – process by which water changes from an atmospheric gas into a liquid  Precipitation - rain, sleet, hail, snow and other forms of water falling from the sky

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64  Respiration ◦ CO 2 is given off ◦ O 2 is used ◦ Glucose (containing carbon) is used  Photosynthesis ◦ CO 2 is used ◦ O 2 is given off ◦ Glucose (containing carbon) is produced

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66  Consumers eat plants → use glucose or sugars (containing carbon) in respiration, which starts again  Consumers die → decomposers give off CO 2  Consumers die → heat, pressure, time → become fossil fuel (coal, oil and natural gas)

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68  N2 in air (80% of the atmosphere) animals cannot use ◦ Nitrogen fixing bacteria convert N 2 → NH 3 (ammonia) → converted to nitrates/nitrites →plants use to grow → LEGUMES (beans, alfalfa) nodules contain bacteria that can take atmospheric N 2 and convert it to usable nitrogen

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70  extrinsic & abiotic ◦ weather ◦ drought ◦ volcanoes ◦ floods ◦ landslides

71  tend to be biotic & intrinsic  resource competition  intraspecific (within species) ◦ when resources become limiting, intensity of competition increases ◦ quick, healthy, and strong individuals will prevail ◦ territoriality can control access to resources

72  interspecific (between species)  competition ( -, -)  predator-prey  mutualism (+,+)  commensalism (+, 0)  parasitism (+,-)

73 According to the 6 Kingdom system of classification.

74 Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Eubacteria Archaebacteria

75 Type of Cell prokaryotic/eukaryotic # of Cells - unicellular/multicellular Feeding - autotrophic/heterotrophic-

76 What is a Eukaryotic Cell No NucleusNucleus

77 What is Multicellular? Only one cell More than one cell

78 Make their own food What is a Heterotroph? Do NOT make their own food

79 What is Classification? Grouping of objects or information based on similarities. In Biology this is called Taxonomy.

80 What is Taxonomy? The branch of biology concerned with the grouping and naming of organisms

81 Who is Linnaeus? Father of modern taxonomy Developed the method of classification that is used today. Classified organisms based on physical characteristics Created the 7 taxonomic categories:

82 What is Linnaeus’s System of Classification King Philip Came Over For Great Spaghetti Taxon – each level within a naming system. Kingdom Phyllum Class Order Family Genus Species

83 Binomial nomenclature used Binomial nomenclature used Genus species Genus species Latin or Greek Latin or Greek Italicized in print Italicized in print Capitalize genus, but NOT species Capitalize genus, but NOT species Underline when writing Underline when writing 83 Turdus migratorius American Robin

84 84

85 Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species  85

86  King  Phillip  Came  Over  For  Gooseberr y  Soup! 86

87 Used to identify organisms Used to identify organisms Characteristics given in pairs Characteristics given in pairs Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism 87

88  1a Tentacles present – Go to 2  1b Tentacles absent – Go to 3  2a Eight Tentacles – Octopus  2b More than 8 tentacles – 3  3a Tentacles hang down – go to 4  3b Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone  4a Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish  4b Body NOT balloon-shaped

89 89 Archaea live in harsh environments and may represent the first cells to have evolved. Sewage treatment plants, thermal vents, etc.

90 Thermophiles Yellowstone N.P. Hot Springs Halophiles in Great Salt Lake, Utah

91 91 Eubacteria, some of which cause human diseases, are present in almost all habitats on earth. Many bacteria are important environmentally and commercially. Live in the intestines of animals

92 Nostoc (photosynthetic) E. coli

93 93 Protista (protozoans, algae…) Protista (protozoans, algae…) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) Plantae (multicellular plants) Plantae (multicellular plants) Animalia (multicellular animals) Animalia (multicellular animals) 

94 Euglena Amoeba

95 95 Most are unicellular Most are unicellular Some are multicellular Some are multicellular Some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic Some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic

96 Rhizopus Ringworm

97 97 Multicellular, except yeast Multicellular, except yeast Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Cell walls made of chitin Cell walls made of chitin

98 Plants ! The green stuff!

99 99 Multicellular Multicellular Autotrophic Autotrophic Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis Cell walls made of cellulose Cell walls made of cellulose

100  Have unique reproductive organs called flowers  Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds.  Enclosed seed  Ovary develops into a fruit, which protects the seed and helps on dispersal.

101 A flowering plant has both male and female parts. The male part is called the stamen. The female part is called the pistil.

102 Named for the number of seed leaves, or cotyledons.  Monocots  Dicots

103  Look at leaf venation Monocots Parallel-veined leaves Dicots Net-veined leaves

104  1 seed leaf  Flowering parts in multiples of 3.  Parallel veins  Ex. Corn and Lily

105  2 seed leaves  Flowering parts in multiples of 4 or 5  Branched veins  Ex. Bean, Rose, and Maple

106  Reproduce with seeds that are exposed  Pollen (Example Pine Trees/Conifers)

107

108 108 Multicellular Multicellular heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Feed on plants or animals Feed on plants or animals

109 Categories Red Maple Acer rubrum Sugar Maple Acer saccharum Common Dandelion Taraxicum officinale Yellow Lady's Slipper Cypripedium parviflorum White Pine Pinus strobus Kingdom Plantae Phylum Tracheophyta Class Angiospermae Gymnospermae Subclass Dicotyledonae Monocotyledonae Order Sapindales Campanulales Orchidales Coniferales FamilyAceraceae Compositae Orchidaceae Pinaceae Genus * Acer * Taraxicum * Cypripedium * Pinus * Species * A. rubrum * A. saccharum * T. officinale * C. parviflorum * P. strobus * 109


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