2 What Is a Chemical? Short answer : Everything is a chemical. Longer answer : Chemistry is the study of matter and its interactions with other matter. Anything made of matter is therefore a chemical. Any liquid, solid, gas. Any pure substance; any mixture. Water is a chemical. Technically speaking, so is a chunk of your computer. A chemical can often be broken down into components, as is true with your computer. However, people generally use the term 'chemical' to refer to a substance that appears homogeneous or the same throughout its structure.
3 VocabularyPlasma : The colorless fluid part of blood, lymph, or milk, in which corpuscles or fat globules are suspended. Photosynthesis : The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a by-product. Aerobic Cellular Respiration : Aerobic cellular respiration is the process in which our cells break down food and turn it into energy that cells need to perform their life functions. Anaerobic Respiration : A form of cellular respiration that occurs when oxygen is absent or scarce. Morbidity : The proportion of sickness or of a specific disease in a geographical locality . Malformation : An abnormally formed part of the body.
4 Matter and Chemicals Anything that has mass and occupies space is matter. Matter consists of particles. So, basically anything you can taste, smell, or hold consists of matter and is therefore a chemical. Examples of chemicals include the chemical elements, such as zinc, helium, and oxygen; compounds made from elements including water, carbon dioxide, and salt; and more complex materials like your computer, air, rain, a chicken, a car, etc.
5 More Examples of Chemicals GasesLiquidsSolidsPlasma (including most of a flame)Examples of Things That Are not ChemicalsHeatKinetic energyGravityPotential energyUltraviolet light
6 What Is a Chemical Reaction? Simply put, a chemical reaction is any transformation from one set of chemicals into another set. If the starting and ending substances are the same, a change may have occurred, but it is not a chemical reaction.Examples of Chemical ReactionsThere are millions of chemical reactions!Here are some examples:Fire (combustion)Baking a cakeMixing baking soda and vinegar to produce saltand carbon dioxide gas
7 10 Examples of Chemical Reactions in Everyday Life 1. Photosynthesis2. Aerobic Cellular Respiration3. Anaerobic Respiration4. Combustion5. Rust6. Mixing Chemicals7. Batteries8. Digestion9. Acid-Base Reactions10. Soaps and Detergents
8 Exposure to Toxic Chemicals DeathMorbidity : 1) Irreversible a. Death & b. Life long disability and 2) ReversibleEffects on pregnancy outcome : 1) Abortion and 2) Malformation genetic effectsEffects on growing children : 1) Growth and development and 2) Behavioral changesEffects on Immune systemEffects on InheritanceCancer
9 Biological effects on skin Effects on nervous system and sense organsEffects on other Physiological functions