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Future activities-Potential Projects Dr. Sunil Saran.

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1 Future activities-Potential Projects Dr. Sunil Saran

2 Selection of states  Basis Agro climatic diversity Requirement for horticulture development Unexploited potential Huge number of small and marginal farmers Lack of post harvest and marketing infrastructure We have selected 15 states for the proposed project

3 Uttar Pradesh  Horticulture Scenario Uttar Pradesh contributes to 18 % in the National Basket of horticulture crops % in vegetables (ranks 1st) % in fruits (ranks 2nd) % in Potato (ranks 1st) 33 lakh hectares under horticulture crops which is 12 % of the total cultivated area of the state Area and production of horticulture crops lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 3.16 lakh ha prod lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 9.60 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems Inadequate availability of quality planting material Poor post harvest management and marketing facility Lack of infrastructure and marketing facility

4 Uttarakhand  Horticulture Scenario The hill areas are capable of growing off-season vegetables that have a great demand in the plains. Proximity to Delhi and other North Indian urban centres Area and production of horticulture crops lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 1.71 lakh ha prod 7.17 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 0.80 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems Transportation and transaction costs are prohibitively high for a small farmer lack of irrigational infrastructure Lack of sufficient agro processing units and agro industries in the state Unseasonal or heavy rains sometimes completely destroy the vegetables before they are ready for harvesting. Hailstorms regularly destroy a significant part of the output from fruit orchards and vegetable farms.

5 Bihar  Horticulture Scenario Presently fruits and vegetable crops cover about 19.5% of the net cropped area and 14% of gross cropped area of the state. Now the state ranks fourth in fruit production and third in vegetable production in the country. Area and production of horticulture crops lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 2.86 lakh ha prod lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 8.23 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems inadequate infrastructure for horticulture produce Cold storages located very far about 50 km Given the bad transportation facilities, it is unattractive for the horticulture producers to keep their produce in cold storage lack of access to big markets Processing facilities not accessible

6 Rajasthan  Horticulture Scenario  State has made considerable progress in the development of horticulture State government is taking a keen interest in horticulture development in the state There has been a significant development in terms of marketing infrastructure and transportation Area and production of horticulture crops 9.21 lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 0.27 lakh ha prod 4.01 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 1.35 lakh ha Production 8.18 lakh tonnes Spices Area 5.56 lakh0 ha Production 5.20 lakh tonnes  Problems More focus needed on processing and value addition activities

7 Himanchal Pradesh  Horticulture Scenario Horticulture generates gross domestic income of about Rs crore annually Area and production of horticulture crops 2.84 lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 2.02 lakh ha prod 7.13 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 0.63 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems Transportation and transaction costs are prohibitively high for a small farmer Lack of irrigation infrastructure Lack of post harvest, processing and marketing infrastructure

8 Orissa  Horticulture Scenario Area and production of horticulture crops lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 2.65 lakh ha prod lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 6.60 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes Spices 1.47 lakh ha Production 1.99 lakh tonnes  Problems Lack of irrigation facilities in dry land and rainfed areas Lack of agro processing, post harvest and marketing facilities Lack of quality planting material Declining land ownership

9 Sikkim  Horticulture Scenario Most potential crops-Sikkim Orange, Large Cardamom, Ginger, Bird’s Eye chilli Area and production of horticulture crops lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 0.92 lakh ha prod 0.14 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 0.20 lakh ha Production 0.95 lakh tonnes Spices lakh ha Production 5.20 lakh tonnes Problems Sikkim suffers from horticulture research backup, as there is no Agriculture College or University with the exception of ICAR sub-center and Spices Board Lack of irrigation facility Lack of food processing and value addition facilities

10 Mizoram  Horticulture Scenario Out of the cultivable area, potential area for horticultural activities is found to be 6.31 lakh hectares, which consist of gentle to moderate slope Area and production of horticulture crops 1.01 lakh ha 6.85 lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 0.22 lakh ha prod 2.19 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 0.01 lakh ha Production 0.37 lakh tonnes  Problems Jhum cultivation (shifting cultivation) Non-availability of Quality Planting Material Lack of awareness about the potentiality of horticultural crop as commercial crops Lack of irrigation facility, production and marketing infrastructure Lack of food processing and value addition facilities Lack of awareness of new technology Difficult transportation Lack of research and development facilities

11 Assam  Horticulture Scenario Horticulture play a crucial role in the states economy About 90% of the farmer belongs to small and marginal group, the average operational holding being 1.37 hectares. Area and production of horticulture crops 5.83 lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 1.22 lakh ha prod lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 3.28 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems Non-availability of Quality Planting Material Lack of awareness about the potentiality of horticultural crop as commercial crops Lack of irrigation facility Lack of production and marketing infrastructure Undulated topography and small land holdings Lack of food processing and value addition facilities Lack of awareness of new technology

12 Meghalaya  Horticulture Scenario Meghalaya has a lot of potential for horticulture development Potential crops- Ginger, Turmeric, Passion fruit, Orange Area and production of horticulture crops lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 0.28 lakh ha prod 2.34 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 0.42 lakh ha Production 3.45 lakh tonnes Spices Area 0.18 lakh ha Production 0.83 lakh tonnes  Problems Non-availability of Quality Planting Material Lack of awareness about the potentiality of horticultural crop as commercial crops Lack of irrigation facility Lack of production and marketing infrastructure Undulated topography and small land holdings Lack of food processing and value addition facilities Lack of awareness of new technology

13 Nagaland  Horticulture Scenario Horticulture crops covers 9.95% of the gross cropped area. Of the ha. under culturable wasteland and ha. under permanent fallow, an estimated 29lakh ha could be developed under horticultural crops Area and production of horticulture crops 0.27 lakh ha 1.44 lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 0.11 lakh ha prod 0.53 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 0.10 lakh ha Production 0.63 lakh tonnes  Problems Lack of post-harvest technology and storage facilities; inadequate transport and communication Absence of proper marketing and infrastructure facilities has further hampered

14 West Bengal  Horticulture Scenario Largest producer of pineapple The state is also the second largest producer of potato and lychee. Area and production of horticulture crops lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 1.94 lakh ha prod lakh tonnes Vegetables Area lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems Lack of irrigation facilities in dry land and rainfed areas Lack of agro processing facilities Lack of quality planting material Declining land ownership

15 Haryana  Horticulture Scenario Due to close proximity to National Capital and better infrastructure facilities existing in the State Favorable climate for production of quality spices, Kinnow, Sapota, Mango, Aonla, Guava, Ber Area and production of horticulture crops 3.20 lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 0.33 lakh ha prod 2.40 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 2.74 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems Water scarcity Lesser-availability of quality seeds of vegetable and spices and quality planting material of fruits Poor post harvest management and marketing facilities like cold storage, pre-cooling and waxing centers, processing units etc Lack of farmer training programmes for horticulture

16 Madhya Pradesh  Horticulture Scenario Horticulture crop covers 2.6% of the gross cropped area in the State Area and production of horticulture crops 4.72 lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 0.46 lakh ha prod lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 2.09 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems There is inadequate power supply in many parts of the state The linkage between farmers and R&D institutions is currently weak. There is low focus on post harvest management and facilities like cold storage, pre-cooling and waxing centers, processing units etc. The marketing channels are not well developed This is limited focus on farmer training programmes for horticulture. There is a lack of awareness on Hi-tech horticulture / quality consciousness among growers Dwindling water resources

17 Jharkhand  Horticulture Scenario The horticulture scenario of the State is not very good Cropped area is only 22 lakh hectares Area and production of horticulture crops lakh ha lakh tonnes respectively Fruits Area 0.37 lakh ha prod 3.82 lakh tonnes Vegetables Area 2.38 lakh ha Production lakh tonnes  Problems The technology available at the state level was in operation at district level also. The linkage between farmers and R&D institutions is currently weak. There is low focus on post harvest management and facilities like cold storage, pre-cooling and waxing centers, processing units etc. The marketing channels are not well developed This is limited focus on farmer training programmes for horticulture. There is a lack of awareness on Hi-tech horticulture / quality consciousness among growers

18 Problems in appropriate income realization  Pre-Harvest: Inadequate planning regarding planting and harvesting dates. Growing cultivars that mature when market prices are lowest. Use of poor quality planting materials. Indiscriminate fertilizer use Use of flooding as an irrigation method Poor orchard and field sanitation practices Lack of orchard management Lack of IPM

19 Harvesting & Curing  Harvesting at inappropriate maturity  Use of rough and/or unsanitary field containers.  Rough handling, dropping or throwing produce, fingernail punctures.  No use of support  Leaving long or sharp stems on harvested produce  Long exposure to direct sun after harvesting. Over-packing of field containers  Lack of curing or improper curing of root and tuber crops before storage  Improper drying of bulb crops

20 Packing house operations  Lack of proper sorting  Lack of cleaning, washing or sanitation  Rough handling  Improper trimming  Misuse of post harvest treatments (over-waxing, misuse of hot water dips for pest management)  Inadequate concentrations of chlorine in wash water  Use of inappropriate chemicals or misuse of registered compounds  Long delays without cooling  Lack of accepted and/or implemented quality grades or standards for commodities  Lack of quality inspection

21 Packing and Packaging Material  Use of flimsy or rough packing containers  Lack of liners in rough baskets or wooden crates  Over-use of packing materials intended to cushion produce (causing interference with ventilation)  Containers designed without adequate ventilation  Over-loading containers  Use of containers that are too large to provide adequate product protection  Misuse of films for Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)  Over-reliance on MAP versus appropriate temperature management

22 Cooling and Storage  General lack of cooling during packing, transport, storage or marketing of fruits or vegetables  Inadequate monitoring of temperature and chlorine levels in hydro-cooler water  General lack of storage facilities on-farm or at wholesale or retail markets in developing countries  Lack of ventilation and cooling in existing on-farm facilities  Poor sanitation  Inadequate management of temperature and relative humidity (RH) in larger scale storages  Over-loading of cold stores  Stacking produce too high for container strength  Mixing lots of produce with different temperature/RH requirements  Lack of regular inspections for pest problems, temperature/RH management

23 Transportation  Over-loading vehicles.  Use of bulk transport or poor quality packages leading to compression damage.  Lack of adequate ventilation during transport.  Lack of air suspensions on transport vehicles.  Rough handling during loading  Lack of cooling during delays.  Ethylene damage and/or chilling injury resulting from transporting mixed loads

24 Destination handling  Rough handling during unloading  Lack of sorting, poor sanitation, improper disposal of culls.  Improper de-greening of citrus crops and misuse of ripening practices.  Lack of protection from direct sun during direct marketing.  Open horticultural markets exposed to sun, wind, dust and rain.  Over-cooling in supermarket displays of chilling-injury susceptible produce

25 Integrated Post Harvest Centre  Need The production of fruits and vegetables is significant only when they reach the consumer in good condition at a reasonable price Considerable gap between the gross production and net availability of fruits & vegetables due to heavy post harvest losses The success of production lies in:  Loss reduction  Prevention of market gluts  Proper distribution of the produce  Subsequent use  100% utilization of the production To bring quality awareness Adoption of low cost processing/ preservation technique

26 Integrated Post Harvest Centre  Aims & Objectives  Act as light house to the small and marginal farmers  Communicate the latest technical knowledge  Reduce post harvest losses for increasing farmer income by using low cost technologies  Establishment of basic infrastructure in value chain  Promote fruits and vegetable preservation and processing by awareness campaign, orientation of farmer groups/associations, training and exposure visits  Act as training centre for farmers/ growers, small traders & entrepreneurs  Act as a common facility for small and marginal farmers on payment basis

27 Integrated Post Harvest Management Harvesting Fresh MarketingProcessing Packing station Processed products. Canned, frozen, Dried, Pulps, Beverages, Ketchups, Sauces etc. Sorting, grading & primary processing e.g. Trimming, removal of undesirable parts Waste: Seed, peel, Pomace etc. Value added products e.g. Food colours, enzymes, essences, Pectins etc Animal feed Pre-treatments Waxing, antisprouting fungicide treatments, ripening, fumigation, VHTetc. Bulk packaging (Pallet bins) Unit packaging Palletization Pre-cooling Transport for Wholesale/ Retail marketing Cold Storage for future marketing Cattle Feed Wastes Cull/damaged Value added products Minimal Processing Reefer van / container

28 Proposed infrastructural facilities Collection and sorting unit Integrated pack house with primary and minimal processing facilities Low cost evaporative cool chamber Cold room Transport Vehicle (Evaporatively cooled) – 2 Ton Capacity Low cost processing/preservation unit Solar Drier Laboratory Facilities Estimated budget- Rs. 50 lacs

29 Potential Partners  NERAMAC- North Eastern Regional Agricultural Marketing Corporation Ltd. Contact- Shri S. Bhattacharjee Phone:  IFFCO-Contact- Indian Farmers Fertiliser Co- operative Limited Dr. U.S. Awasthi Ph ,  NHRDF- National Horticulture Research and Development Foundation-Dr. R. P. Gupta- Ph , ,  Indian Institute of Packaging Contact- Mr. Mohan Singh Kathayat Ph

30 Potential Partners (contd..)  APEDA- Agricultural and Processed Product Export Development Authority- Shri Asit Tripathi  NHB- National Horticulture Board Shri Bijay Kumar Ph ,  HARC-Himalayan Action and Research Centre Ph-Contact- Mahendra Singh Kunwar  State Agriculture Universities  IVRI- Indian Vegetable Research Institute-Contact- Dr. Mathura Rai

31 Participatory NGOs  Himalayan Environmental Studies & Conservation Organization Dr. Anil P. Joshi Ph  Madhya Pradesh Vigyan Sahba, Dr. Ajay Kumar  Society for Technology & Development Ph

32 Model Projects (Solar drying) Solar drying of fruits and vegetables under polyethylene cover retains better quality compared to open sun drying

33 Retention of Chlorophyll

34 Retention of -carotene (Pro-Vitamin A)

35 Utilization of leafy portion of certain vegetables  It is known that leafy vegetables can be rich consolidated sources of micronutrients such as calcium, iron carotene and vitamin-C compared to other vegetables.  It will not be out of place to highlight that the leafy portion of some of the important vegetables are rejected and fleshy portion are consumed regularly without knowing that a rich source of micronutrients such as calcium, iron, vitamin-C and carotene is being discarded (Details on continuing slide)  When half of World’s under nourished live in Asia how can India afford to lose this valuable as waste.  This entire leafy portion can be suitably solar dried and used in food fortification.

36 Nutrient value of leafy vegetable

37 Utilization of Mango Waste Mango processing industry produces 40-50% waste which constitutes peel, fibre and stone during processing (Plate 15). The valuable waste, if not properly utilized can create lots of environmental problems. Methods can be standardized to take water extract pulp adhered to peel, fibre and stone. The water extract (containing pulp) thus obtained are utilized for making different mango products viz nectar, ready to serve beverage, mango wine, vinegar etc. The peel and stone free from adhered pulp could also be utilized for making various value added products like starch, pectin, dietary fibre, fat, flour etc. On the basis of the result obtained it is very useful to utilize the wastage generated during processing of mango. This approach will add value, reduce cost of processed products, prevent environmental pollution, generate employment, increase income of processer/farmer and thereby bring ultimate benefit to the country. Pulp Fiber

38 AMITY participatory institutions  Amity Institute of Rural Management has adopted 28 villages in Haryana and 40 in Madhya Pradesh under “Providing Urban Amenities In Rural Areas (PURA) ” scheme promoted by the Former President of India, Dr. A.P.J. Kalam. This Institute has already organized two international study tours to Australia and New Zealand for farmers and agricultural officers in agricultural marketing.  Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, has well established, internationally acclaimed Centre on symbiotic mycorrhiza for augmenting yields in various crops.  Amity Centre for Bio-Control & Plant Disease Management is actively involved in demonstration and training of farmers on their fields in the area of soil amendment for control of nematodes and other fungal diseases.  Amity Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Safety and Management is working on a project funded by the Ministry of Environment & Forest which deals with pesticide residues on vegetables cultivated in National Capital Region besides ground water contamination caused by seepage of sewage and city municipal waste.  Amity Institute of Biotechnology is running several projects related to genetic engineering in crop plants.

39 AMITY participatory institutions  Amity Institute of Food Technology is fully equipped to handle all aspects of Food Processing through use of pilot plants etc.  Amity Institute of Organic Agriculture has developed a strong linkage with farmers by organizing nearly 20 training and demonstration programs in which Postharvest Technology was one of the themes. These programs have been funded by the Central Government.  Amity Centre for Extension Services is being funded by Uttar Pradesh, Department of Horticulture for organizing workshops /trainings to the farmers of District of Ghaziabad under its Agricultural Technology Management Agency. (ATMA) One such program is going to be held in November in which 100 farmers of District Ghaziabad will be participating in a one day program dealing with nutritive values of fruits and vegetables, minimizing postharvest losses and marketing supported under UP DASP.  Under Amity Science, Technology & Innovation Foundation, Dr. Kuldeep Singh, a renowned soil scientist is already conducting soil testing for nutrient for farmers of District of Gautam Budh Nagar targeting NPK as well as micronutrients.  Amity Institute of Bio-Organic Research & Studies is working on an effective method for controlling diseases caused by Alternaria species


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