Presentation on theme: " Energy-ability to do work Autotrophs-organisms able to capture energy from sunlight and produce their own food (producer) Heterotrophs-organisms."— Presentation transcript:
Energy-ability to do work Autotrophs-organisms able to capture energy from sunlight and produce their own food (producer) Heterotrophs-organisms that obtain energy from the food it consumes (consumer)
Comes in different forms: light, heat, & electricity Made when electrons move from high energy orbitals to lower How do we store and release/transfer energy? ATP-adenosine triphosphate (tri=3) Stores energy ADP-adenosine diphosphate (di=2)
ATP-adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate ADP-adenine, ribose, and 2 phosphate Energy is stored between the bonds of the 2 nd and 3 rd phosphate and transferred when broken ***ATP is the basic energy source of all cells -active transport -protein synthesis -muscle contractions -light produced by fireflies
Cells only have a small amount of ATP because it can’t be stored very well in the body Cells are constantly regenerating ATP from ADP by using the energy in glucose Glucose stores more than 90x chemical energy than ATP Glucose is a product of photosynthesis and a reactant of respiration !!!
1. Light “white light”-actually a mixture of different wavelengths of light Ingenhousz & Priestly Different wavelengths=different colors 2. Carbon Dioxide-from environment 3. Water-from environment 4. Chloroplast Plants gather energy from sunlight with pigments chlorophyll (green) and carotene (reddish/orange) Chlorophyll doesn’t absorb green…green light is reflected. Remember: light is energy, so when light is absorbed so is its energy
As the chlorophyll in leaves decays in the autumn, the green color fades and is replaced by the oranges and reds of carotenoids. nm-very little light is absorbed. This light is in the green region of the spectrum, and since it is reflected plants appear green. Chlorophyll absorbs so strongly that it can mask other less intense colors
Plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates and produce oxygen as a waste product 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen What’s missing???? Light (energy) and Chloroplasts!!
Organelle: Chloroplast Two reactions in photosynthesis Light –Dependent Calvin Cycle (Light- Independent)
LIGHT-DEPENDENT LIGHT-INDEPENDENT -Location: Thylakoid Membrane -Requires Light -Uses H 2 0 -Produces Oxygen -ADP is converted to ATP -NADP + is converted to NADPH -Location: Stroma -Light not required -Uses CO 2 -Produces Sugars -ATP is converted to ADP -NADPH is converted to NADP +
Photosystem-cluster of chlorophyll & pigments Electron Transport Chain -chain of proteins that transfer high-energy electrons Carrier Molecule -Compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons & transfer them to another molecule (NADP + accepts electrons & H + ion, which turns it into NADPH)
Location: Thylakoid Membrane (Chloroplast) Step 1: Light absorbed by photosystem II is used to break up water molecules into energized electrons, hydrogen ions (H+), and oxygen
Step 2: High-energy electrons from photosystem II move through the electron transport chain to photosystem I. As they lose energy, H + ions are forced from the stroma into the thylakoid membrane through a protein.
Step 3: Electrons released by PSII are energized again in PSI. Enzymes in the membrane use the electrons to form NADPH from NADP+.
Step 4: Inside the thylakoid there are many positively charged H + ions. The outside of the membrane is negative. The difference in charge provides energy to from ATP.
Step 5: As hydrogen (H + ) ions pass through ATP synthase (carrier protein), their energy is used to convert ADP into ATP. ATP Synthase has to rotate to bind the P & ADP (energy).
Location: Thylakoid Membrane -Requires Light -Uses H 2 0 -Produces Oxygen -ADP is converted to ATP (high energy) -energy stored -NADP + is converted to NADPH (high energy) -energy stored
Location: Stroma 1 st -CO 2 enters from the environment 2 nd -CO 2 combines with 5-carbon molecule to form two 3-carbon molecules 3 rd -ATP and NADPH provide energy to rearrange the 3-carbon molecules into higher energy forms ATP from Light-Dependent Reaction converted to ADP NADPH from Light-Dependent Reaction converted to NADP+
3 rd -The higher energy 3-carbon molecules have two options: 1. One will leave the Calvin Cycle to make sugars, lipids, or amino acids (so autotrophs can grow) or 2. Five others get converted back to 5-carbon molecules to go through the cycle again *Uses six CO 2 molecules to make one glucose molecule (go back to the equation)
Location: Stroma in the chloroplast Uses CO2 ATP is converted back to ADP Energy was released NADPH is converted back to NADP+ Energy was released
sunlight & water O 2 Light Dependent Reactions Light Independent Reactions NADP + ADP NADPH ATP Compounds for growth (Sugars) CO 2