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 Energy-ability to do work  Autotrophs-organisms able to capture energy from sunlight and produce their own food (producer)  Heterotrophs-organisms.

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Presentation on theme: " Energy-ability to do work  Autotrophs-organisms able to capture energy from sunlight and produce their own food (producer)  Heterotrophs-organisms."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Energy-ability to do work  Autotrophs-organisms able to capture energy from sunlight and produce their own food (producer)  Heterotrophs-organisms that obtain energy from the food it consumes (consumer)

3  Comes in different forms: light, heat, & electricity  Made when electrons move from high energy orbitals to lower  How do we store and release/transfer energy?  ATP-adenosine triphosphate (tri=3)  Stores energy  ADP-adenosine diphosphate (di=2)

4  ATP-adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate  ADP-adenine, ribose, and 2 phosphate  Energy is stored between the bonds of the 2 nd and 3 rd phosphate and transferred when broken ***ATP is the basic energy source of all cells -active transport -protein synthesis -muscle contractions -light produced by fireflies

5  Cells only have a small amount of ATP because it can’t be stored very well in the body  Cells are constantly regenerating ATP from ADP by using the energy in glucose  Glucose stores more than 90x chemical energy than ATP  Glucose is a product of photosynthesis and a reactant of respiration !!!

6  1. Light  “white light”-actually a mixture of different wavelengths of light  Ingenhousz & Priestly  Different wavelengths=different colors  2. Carbon Dioxide-from environment  3. Water-from environment  4. Chloroplast  Plants gather energy from sunlight with pigments  chlorophyll (green) and carotene (reddish/orange)  Chlorophyll doesn’t absorb green…green light is reflected.  Remember: light is energy, so when light is absorbed so is its energy

7  As the chlorophyll in leaves decays in the autumn, the green color fades and is replaced by the oranges and reds of carotenoids.  nm-very little light is absorbed.  This light is in the green region of the spectrum, and since it is reflected plants appear green.  Chlorophyll absorbs so strongly that it can mask other less intense colors

8  Plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates and produce oxygen as a waste product  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  Carbon Dioxide + Water  Glucose + Oxygen  What’s missing????  Light (energy) and Chloroplasts!!

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10  Organelle: Chloroplast  Two reactions in photosynthesis  Light –Dependent  Calvin Cycle (Light- Independent)

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12 LIGHT-DEPENDENT LIGHT-INDEPENDENT -Location: Thylakoid Membrane -Requires Light -Uses H 2 0 -Produces Oxygen -ADP is converted to ATP -NADP + is converted to NADPH -Location: Stroma -Light not required -Uses CO 2 -Produces Sugars -ATP is converted to ADP -NADPH is converted to NADP +

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14  Photosystem-cluster of chlorophyll & pigments  Electron Transport Chain -chain of proteins that transfer high-energy electrons  Carrier Molecule -Compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons & transfer them to another molecule (NADP + accepts electrons & H + ion, which turns it into NADPH)

15  Location: Thylakoid Membrane (Chloroplast)  Step 1: Light absorbed by photosystem II is used to break up water molecules into energized electrons, hydrogen ions (H+), and oxygen

16  Step 2: High-energy electrons from photosystem II move through the electron transport chain to photosystem I. As they lose energy, H + ions are forced from the stroma into the thylakoid membrane through a protein.

17  Step 3: Electrons released by PSII are energized again in PSI. Enzymes in the membrane use the electrons to form NADPH from NADP+.

18  Step 4: Inside the thylakoid there are many positively charged H + ions. The outside of the membrane is negative. The difference in charge provides energy to from ATP.

19  Step 5: As hydrogen (H + ) ions pass through ATP synthase (carrier protein), their energy is used to convert ADP into ATP. ATP Synthase has to rotate to bind the P & ADP (energy).

20 Location: Thylakoid Membrane -Requires Light -Uses H 2 0 -Produces Oxygen -ADP is converted to ATP (high energy) -energy stored -NADP + is converted to NADPH (high energy) -energy stored

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23  Location: Stroma  1 st -CO 2 enters from the environment  2 nd -CO 2 combines with 5-carbon molecule to form two 3-carbon molecules  3 rd -ATP and NADPH provide energy to rearrange the 3-carbon molecules into higher energy forms  ATP from Light-Dependent Reaction converted to ADP  NADPH from Light-Dependent Reaction converted to NADP+

24  3 rd -The higher energy 3-carbon molecules have two options: 1. One will leave the Calvin Cycle to make sugars, lipids, or amino acids (so autotrophs can grow) or 2. Five others get converted back to 5-carbon molecules to go through the cycle again *Uses six CO 2 molecules to make one glucose molecule (go back to the equation)

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26  Location: Stroma in the chloroplast  Uses CO2  ATP is converted back to ADP  Energy was released  NADPH is converted back to NADP+  Energy was released

27 sunlight & water O 2 Light Dependent Reactions Light Independent Reactions NADP + ADP NADPH ATP Compounds for growth (Sugars) CO 2

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