Presentation on theme: "CCGPS SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. –a. Explain."— Presentation transcript:
CCGPS SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. –a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. We will discuss: –Photosynthesis –Cellular Respiration –Fermentation
We are going to… work in the classroom and the computer lab take notes complete our homework learn!!!!!
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Project Design a project that will show information about photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the connections between the two. Can create one of the following: –Children’s Storybook –Song –Recipe –Play –PreziPrezi Required to create a handout and present final product
Photosynthesis Sections 4.2-4.3 The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy. This Powerpoint is hosted on www.worldofteaching.comwww.worldofteaching.com Please visit for 1000+ free powerpoints
Overview All energy on earth comes from the sun. We depend on: –Plants –Algae (underwater plants) –Cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria) To provide this energy to us!
Photosynthetic organisms are producers. Producers make their own source of chemical energy. Plants use photosynthesis and are producers. Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.
Overview Carbon dioxide and water are taken in by plants Plants absorb light energy and convert it to a usable form. –ATP Energy is used to “fix” carbon dioxide into sugar molecules –Chemical energy Sugar is converted to starch and stored for use by the plant, and by animals when they eat plants.
Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy. In plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts. leaf leaf cell chloroplast
Plants are green because of the pigment chlorophyll. (which absorbs light energy) green chlorophyll greatly reduced pigments, this is the reason leaves turn brown in the fallDuring the fall, the green chlorophyll pigments are greatly reduced revealing the other pigments, this is the reason leaves turn brown in the fall. Carotenoids redyellowCarotenoids are pigments that are either red or yellow.
Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts. –grana (thylakoids) –stroma chloroplast stroma grana (thylakoids)
Chloroplasts Have TWO membranes –A “bi-bilayer!” The inner membrane is called the thylakoid. The thylakoid is folded and looks like stacks of coins called granum (grana=singular). The stroma is the space surrounding the granum. Image source: http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/C/chloroplasts.html
Chloroplasts Chlorophyll molecules are embedded in the thylakoid membrane Act like a light “antenna” These molecules can absorb sunlight energy. Image from Biology 11: College Preparation. Pg 73. Nelson, Toronto. 2003.
Light (dependent)Reactions Happen ONLY in sunlight –Hence they depend on light! –Water is also required 1.Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules in the thylakoid 2.The energy generates molecules of ATP (ADP converted to ATP) 3.Convert NADP+ to NADPH (Electron Carriers)-Energy then goes to Light Independent reaction 4. Produce Oxygen (O 2 ) gas
Light Independent Reactions (formerly the “dark reactions”) Happen in sunlight, and in the dark. –Hence “independent of light” –Makes sugars 1.Takes place in the stroma. 2.CO 2 enters from the atmosphere 3.ATP generated by sunlight drives the Calvin Cycle. 4.Monosaccarides (eg. glucose) are manufactured in the cycle. 5.Monosaccarides are used to “build” polysaccharides (eg. Starch).
Light Independent Reactions (formerly the “dark reactions”) Image from: Biology 11: College Preparation. Pg 74. Nelson, Toronto. 2003.
Light Independent Reactions (formerly the “dark reactions”)
Overall Reaction What is the equation for photosynthesis? carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen + energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy
C 6 H 12 O 6 granum (stack of thylakoids) thylakoid sunlight 1 six-carbon sugar 6H 2 O 6CO 2 6O 2 chloroplast 1 2 43 energy stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)