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CCGPS SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. –a. Explain.

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Presentation on theme: "CCGPS SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. –a. Explain."— Presentation transcript:

1 CCGPS SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. –a. Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. We will discuss: –Photosynthesis –Cellular Respiration –Fermentation

2 Assessments Quizzes –Photosynthesis –Cellular Respiration –Fermentation Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Project

3 We are going to… work in the classroom and the computer lab take notes complete our homework learn!!!!!

4 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Project Design a project that will show information about photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the connections between the two. Can create one of the following: –Children’s Storybook –Song –Recipe –Play –PreziPrezi Required to create a handout and present final product

5 Photosynthesis Sections The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy. This Powerpoint is hosted on Please visit for free powerpoints

6 Overview All energy on earth comes from the sun. We depend on: –Plants –Algae (underwater plants) –Cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria) To provide this energy to us!

7 Overview

8 Photosynthetic organisms are producers. Producers make their own source of chemical energy. Plants use photosynthesis and are producers. Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.

9 Overview Carbon dioxide and water are taken in by plants Plants absorb light energy and convert it to a usable form. –ATP Energy is used to “fix” carbon dioxide into sugar molecules –Chemical energy Sugar is converted to starch and stored for use by the plant, and by animals when they eat plants.

10 Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy. In plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts. leaf leaf cell chloroplast

11 Plants are green because of the pigment chlorophyll. (which absorbs light energy) green chlorophyll greatly reduced pigments, this is the reason leaves turn brown in the fallDuring the fall, the green chlorophyll pigments are greatly reduced revealing the other pigments, this is the reason leaves turn brown in the fall. Carotenoids redyellowCarotenoids are pigments that are either red or yellow.

12 Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts. –grana (thylakoids) –stroma chloroplast stroma grana (thylakoids)

13 Chloroplasts Have TWO membranes –A “bi-bilayer!” The inner membrane is called the thylakoid. The thylakoid is folded and looks like stacks of coins called granum (grana=singular). The stroma is the space surrounding the granum. Image source:

14 Chloroplasts Chlorophyll molecules are embedded in the thylakoid membrane Act like a light “antenna” These molecules can absorb sunlight energy. Image from Biology 11: College Preparation. Pg 73. Nelson, Toronto

15 Light (dependent)Reactions Happen ONLY in sunlight –Hence they depend on light! –Water is also required 1.Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules in the thylakoid 2.The energy generates molecules of ATP (ADP converted to ATP) 3.Convert NADP+ to NADPH (Electron Carriers)-Energy then goes to Light Independent reaction 4. Produce Oxygen (O 2 ) gas

16 Light (dependent)Reactions Image from: Biology 11: College Preparation. Pg 74. Nelson, Toronto

17 Light (dependent)Reactions

18 Light Independent Reactions (formerly the “dark reactions”) Happen in sunlight, and in the dark. –Hence “independent of light” –Makes sugars 1.Takes place in the stroma. 2.CO 2 enters from the atmosphere 3.ATP generated by sunlight drives the Calvin Cycle. 4.Monosaccarides (eg. glucose) are manufactured in the cycle. 5.Monosaccarides are used to “build” polysaccharides (eg. Starch).

19 Light Independent Reactions (formerly the “dark reactions”) Image from: Biology 11: College Preparation. Pg 74. Nelson, Toronto

20 Light Independent Reactions (formerly the “dark reactions”)

21 Overall Reaction What is the equation for photosynthesis? carbon dioxide + water  glucose + oxygen + energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + energy

22 C 6 H 12 O 6 granum (stack of thylakoids) thylakoid sunlight 1 six-carbon sugar 6H 2 O 6CO 2 6O 2 chloroplast energy stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)

23 SunLIGHTSunLIGHT H2OH2O CO 2 Light Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle CHLOROPLAST Sugars O2O2

24 Factors that affect the rate of Photosynthesis are… Availability of Water Temperature Intensity of Light Concentration of CO 2


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