2 ATP WHAT IS ATP? Universal Energy Molecule Energy in a form the cell can useMakes energy readily availableContinuously being remadeStands for Adenosine TriphosphateP P PAdenosine
3 ATP WHAT IS ATP? High Energy Bond Universal Energy Molecule Makes energy readily availableContinuously being remadeStands for Adenosine TriphosphateP P PP P PAdenosineAdenosineHigh Energy Bond
4 ATP What is ATP used for? 1.Motion 2. Transport of ions and molecules. 3. Building molecules4. Switching reactions on or off
5 Electron TransferThe transfer of electrons is important in ATP production.Electron carriersstrip a hydrogen proton and its electron from a number of organic compoundsRespirationNAD (becomes NADH)PhotosynthesisNADP+ (becomes NADPH)
7 Introduction Solar Energy Chemical Bond Converted Energy of Photosynthesis is…the process by which plants and some bacteria use chlorophyll, a green pigment, to trap sunlight energy.The energy is used to synthesize carbohydratesSolarEnergyChemical BondEnergy ofCarbohydratesConverted
8 Chlorophyll A green chemical which traps sunlight energy Located in the chloroplast
9 Chloroplast Parts Thylakoid Stroma Disk Granum = stack of disks Grana = many stackssite of light dependent reactionStromagel surrounding the thylakoidssite of light independent reaction
11 Leaves in the fallWhy do leaves change colors in the fall?
12 Pigments White light is composed of all colors Chlorophyll red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violetChlorophyllreflects green lightabsorbs blue and red ends of the spectrumchlorophyll a -- blue greenchlorophyll b -- greenOther pigments absorb light energy from other parts of the spectrum.Carotenoids (orange)Xanthophyll (yellow)
13 Leaves in the fall Because of light. A decrease in light intensity and length.Causes the chlorophyll molecule to break down, exposing the other pigments
14 General Equation C H O + 6O 6 CO + 6 H O 2226126There are two steps in photosynthesisLight Dependent ReactionLight Independent Reaction (no light required)
15 General Outline Water Light Energy ATP NADPH Sugar Oxygen Carbon DioxideLightDependentReactionLightIndependentReactionATPNADPHSugarOxygen
17 Cellular RespirationExplain how glucose is oxidized during Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle to produce reducing power in NADH and FADHDescribe where in the cell this takes placeExplain how chemiosmosis converts the reducing power of NADH and FADH to store chemical potential energy as ATPDescribe where in the mitochondrion this takes place
20 Notice that the wastes from photosynthesis are used as raw materials in cellular respiration Atmospheric CO2 and water are used in photosynthesis, while Oxygen is released.Atmospheric oxygen is used during Cellular respiration, while CO2 and water is released.
21 General InformationCellular respiration the process by which cells break down glucose into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energyYou can think of respiration as the combustion of gasses in a car’s engine.
22 Car’s EngineMAIN ENGINE = Mitochondrion – The site of the majority of ATP synthesisMAIN FUEL = Glucose – fats and proteins may also be used in some instancesMAIN EXHAUST = CO2 and H2O.
23 The 4 Steps of Cellular Respiration GlycolysisPyruvate Oxidation3. Krebs Cycle4. Electron Transport Chain
25 Mitochondriamitochondrial matrix the fluid that fills the interior space of the mitochondrion
26 2. Pyruvate OxidationAfter glycolysis, if there is oxygen available, the pyruvate molecules are changed so the Krebs cycle can use them.CO2 portion is removed and released as waste productAn electron is released to NAD+ NADHPyruvate Acetyl-CoA
27 3. Krebs Cycle Discovered by Sir Hans Kreb in 1937 The Krebs cycle is an eight-step processKey features of the Krebs CycleDuring one complete cycle a total of three NAD+ and one FAD are reduced to form three NADH and one FADHDuring one complete cycle one ATP is formedDuring one complete cycle three CO2 molecules are producedHowever since glycolysis provides 2 pyruvate molecules, we double all our numbers!
28 Krebs Cycle 2 ADP 2P 2 ATP 2 Acetyl CoA 4 Carbon Dioxide 6 NADH 6 NAD 2 FADH2 FAD
30 4. Electron Transport Chain Occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondrionInvolves a group of molecules built into the inner membrane of the mitochondrionElectrons pulled off of food by Glycolysis and Krebs are passed between these molecules.This will ultimately result in the production of ATPOxygen is required for this step.Lots of ATP is made (32)
43 What’s Up With Oxygen? Oxygen is the final electron acceptor. If there is no oxygen, the electron transport chain gets “backed up” as there is no where for the electrons to go.NADH NAD+As a result, Krebs stops due to lack of NAD+Lack of NAD+ also causes [H+] to increaseThe body’s pH begins to fall inhibiting normal enzyme activity.
44 ReviewExplain how glucose is oxidized during Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle to produce reducing power in NADH and FADHDescribe where in the cell this takes placeExplain how chemiosmosis converts the reducing power of NADH and FADH to store chemical potential energy as ATPDescribe where in the mitochondrion this takes place
45 Let’s revisit Glycolysis! Glycolysis created two molecules of pyruvateOxygen available aerobic respiration occurs (Krebs, ETC)No oxygen anaerobic respiration
46 Anaerobic Respiration Since pyruvic acid is poisonous, it must be converted into a safer form.In animals (muscles!) -- LACTIC ACIDcauses muscle crampsprocess is called Lactic Acid Fermentation
47 Anaerobic Respiration In bacteria and yeast -- ETHYL ALCOHOL & CO2process is called Alcohol FermentationBoth only Yield 2 ATP! Very inefficient!
48 Comparison of Photosynthesis and Respiration Energy requiredOxygen releasedCO2 and H20 requiredGlucose producedRespirationEnergy ProducedOxygen requiredCO2 and H20 producedGlucose required