Presentation on theme: "Gerard Logan. Post-vineyard planning; Surveyors return to peg the corners Layout is checked against the plan “Measure twice, cut once” Further."— Presentation transcript:
Post-vineyard planning; Surveyors return to peg the corners Layout is checked against the plan “Measure twice, cut once” Further adjustments made Detailed marking out can then begin
This is the last chance to reconfirm the following; Waterway location Soil type variation Block layout Row orientation Headlands Roads Irrigation design Dam and bore locations
Pythagoras theorem Horizontal distance 100m, 10% slope, ground distance z; Z = √x 2 + y 2 Z = √ Z = √10100 Z = m Thus; 3m row spaces require 3.018m on the ground to give flat layout Failure to ensure this results in curves on trellis matrix and variable row width
Trigonometric calculation If given the angle of slope (∞ = 8°), trigonometry will yield the same result; Z = x/Cos ∞ Z = 100/Cos 8 Z = 100/0.992 Z = m
To ensure a rectangle has been achieved: Ensure: A - D = B - C A - B = C - D Check: A - C = B - D
Soils vary greatly – especially in Hawke’s Bay This directly impacts soil preparation Grapevines are tough plants, but balance can be severely effected Thus poor soil environment, produces weak, unproductive vines Preparation and maintenance of soil is therefore critical
Subsoil is difficult to access and difficult to alter Poor structure however, must be rectified for drainage and root penetration
Generally; Sandy soils require minimal preparation Benefits from a single rip line Loams and light clays are easily ripped and softened for planting Medium/Heavy clays require more ripping and cracking Cross-ripping and gypsum addition can start improving soil structure Permeability decreases with colour change; Red>Brown>Yellow>Black>Grey
Essential in most sites pre-planting Fracture and loosen soil down to 1m deep Single tined ripper fractures 1.5x its length in dry soil Normally sites ripped along vine rows with bulldozer Bulldozer guided by; Laser guide Pegs Guide line
If the soil is too wet, ripping will only slice soil If soil is too dry, ripping causes cloddy soil Heavy soils require; Multiple rip lines 80cm tines placed 1m apart Cross ripping at 90°, or better, 60° angles across the block yields optimum shatter for root penetration Generally only the vine lines are ripped
Does the soil require amendments? Test results Yes? Amendments should be made before trellis installation Broad spectrum spreaders cheaper/more effective
Acid soils Lime (CaCO 3 ) Soil should be pH 6.0 Improve Ca content and nutrient availability Lime is best when Ca:Mg is below 3:1 (5:1 optimal) Acid subsoils require deep banding of lime Avoid overliming (Max. 6T/ha at once) Monitor K, Mg, B, Zn deficiencies after liming
Acid soils (continued) Dolomite (CaCO 3 + MgCO 3 ) Used to maintain balance of Ca:Mg near 5:1 when pH requires adjustment Usually 13% Ca, 8% Mg (depends on source) Mg deficiencies limited to topsoil due to leaching
Sodic soils Soils high (>6%) in Na Dense and cloddy High Na or low Ca Soils become dense and airless Gypsum (CaSO 4 ) is used to provide soluble Ca Does not change soil pH Avoid >6T/ha, increased salt reduces water uptake
Organic matter Essential to maintain soil biology and structure Green manure crops Brassica’s very useful Provide biofumigation Forage rape, mustards and canola contain glucosinolate Reduces nematodes, beetle larvae, cutworms and other pests
Nutrition N, K essential for young vines Balanced levels of all macro and micronutrients required for optimal plant growth Very important subject area in obtaining balanced vines
Well regulated metabolism depends upon elements being provided in suitable proportions Macronutrient Micronutrient Adequate quantities Appropriate proportions If one is limiting – growth will be restricted
If one element alone is not available in sufficient quantities, plant performance is limited to the extent of the supply of that element. If two elements are not available in sufficient quantities, the most deficient element will be what limits growth.
These criteria must be meet: Deficiency prevents plant from completing life cycle Deficiency is specific for the element in questions Element is directly involved in the nutrition of the plant Constituent of an essential metabolite Required for activity of an enzyme system
Elements are required in different amounts Macronutrients N P K Ca Mg S Micronutrients B Cl Cu Fe Mn Mo Zn A micronutrient deficiency has the same impact on plant growth and development as a macronutrient deficiency
Individual deficiency of elements can result in characteristic growth restrictions or alterations in the colour and shape of leaves and shoots. Deficiencies are not always obvious. By the time that visible symptoms exist, a significant loss of growth may have occurred.
1-2% of dry matter, ~ 2 kg/T grapes, primary component of proteins, chlorophyll and energy transfer.
% of dry matter, ~ 0.6 kg/T grapes, component of cell membranes, part of compounds that fix CO 2, metabolise sugars and store energy.
Up to 3% of dry matter, ~5 kg/T of grapes, provides electrical balance within cells, and maintains cell turgor, but is not part of plant structural components
A catalyst involved in chlorophyll formation and nitrogen metabolism
Component of proteins and an enzyme co-factor
The central element of chlorophyll
Involved in chlorophyll formation and energy trapping and transfer in photosynthesis
Important part of cell walls
Catalyst for enzyme function
Involved in hormone regulation of growth and pollen germination
Component of enzymes for oxidation
Involved in nitrogen metabolism
Most nutrients in a soil are unavailable (98%) Most available nutrients are in solution (~0.2%) Nearly all nutrients are bound to either soil humus or soil mineral fractions Remaining fraction bound to colloids or chelates (2%) Explains differences in nutrient supply of sand and clay soils
The negative charge on organic and inorganic colloids retain cations Most anions exist organically bound in humus Anions do not sorb well onto soil particles, and are comparatively mobile and readily leached out of soil Tendency of ions to sorb to colloids decreases in the order: Ca 2+ Mg 2+ NH 3 + K + PO 4 3- SO 4 3- NO 3 - Cl -
Dependant on physiological characteristics of the scion and rootstock Uptake and storage of nutrients in the permanent structures of the vine can take place throughout the growing season Post harvest depleted nutrient supplies can be replenished.
Amount of nutrients extracted is relatively small Senesced leaves are returned Pruning's largely returned Fruit removed Estimated removal (kg/Ha/yr) from 20t crop N38-60 P 8-12 K60-62 Mg 3-10
Need to watch soil testing Grapes are deep rooted and heterogeneous Surface samples may not represent the soil profile Not an absolute assessment 2g of 1000 ton Measures soluble nutrient concentration Not necessary a reflection of nutrient availability Nitrogen source hard to establish N content in constant flux NO 3 NH 3, OM equilibria Fertiliser applications are not even Soil tests are good to establish pH and salinity issues
Picture of ph and nut aval. include boxes from soil acidity lecture
Gives an assessment of a plants integration with its environment Allows comparisons Across a range of sites and vines Between good and poor parts of the vineyard Where and when to sample are important factors Nutrient concentration change over time Young organs generally have a higher concentration Need to account for a spray programme A programme of leaf analysis over a number of seasons will enable a predictive measure of likely deficiency developing and will allow one to monitor the response to fertiliser application.
Dormant period Bud break Rapid shoot growth FloweringSetVeraisonHarvestLeaf fall N P K Ca Mg
ElementRemobilisationPlant part on which deficiency symptoms are first seen Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chlorine Very goodOld leaves Copper zinc, iron, molybdenum, sulphur Very poorYoung leaves Calcium, boronExtremely poor or nilYoung leaves and growing tip ManganeseVariableYoung and mid-stem leaves
Planting and Training Vines 17, 24 September Vineyard Business 15, 22 October Exam Revision 29 October, 5 November