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The orange sections summarize key information and vocabulary terms are underlined. Image.

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Presentation on theme: "The orange sections summarize key information and vocabulary terms are underlined. Image."— Presentation transcript:

1 The orange sections summarize key information and vocabulary terms are underlined. Image

2  All life depends on energy, or the ability to do work, in order to function.  The original source of all energy on Earth is the sun.  All cells are constantly needing and using energy.  Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of compounds such as carbohydrates [sugars] and lipids [fats] found in living things. /sun-soho z.jpg

3  The ATP created during cellular respiration is one of the most important compounds within cells because it is used to store/release energy. Adenosine Tri Phosphate (AKA ATP)  Think of ATP as a fully charged battery, ready to do work for the cell.  When the last phosphate bond in the compound are broken in ATP, energy is released. b.ca/cusb/abernier/Biologi e/Module1/Images/atp.jpg

4  Observe the simulation; breaking off the last phosphate creates ADP (Adenosine Di Phosphate) and releases energy to be used in the cell.  Sketch it! ergy/images/atp.gif

5  The two energy equations that relate to energy for living things are photosynthesis in autotrophs, which makes glucose [C 6 H ], and cellular respiration, which converts glucose to ATP. 5_Photo_CellResp_Relation.GIF

6  Draw a plant in your notebook. Take a minute to brainstorm anything and everything that you know about photosynthesis, adding arrows to what goes “in” and what comes “out”.

7  Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs create glucose using carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun. Animation Scene 1Animation Scene 1  The chemical equation for photosynthesis: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Sunlight  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 (Carbon Dioxide) (Water) (Energy) (Glucose) (Oxygen) tosynthesis.jpg

8  Chloroplasts are the organelles where photosynthesis occurs in eukaryotes, prokaryotes photosynthesize differently – we will review that later. Chlorophyll is the main pigment that absorbs light energy from the sun within the chloroplasts. Animation Scene 2 0/Ferns/Gametophyte_Images/Chloropl asts_MC.low.jpg

9 Turn and talk to your table mates:  How has the artist represented the equation for photosynthesis in this image? Image

10 Sketch a simplified diagram of a chloroplast in your notebooks, include the following labels:  Thylakoid  Stroma Image

11  Light Dependent Reaction: (Requires water and sunlight)  Takes place in a the thylakoid, a sac-like membranes within the chloroplast where chlorophyll absorbs the light energy  Light energy transferred to electrons in the electron transport chain  Move to the stroma; uses NADP+ and 2 electrons to make NADPH  One water molecule is split to produce ATP and release oxygen from the chloroplast  Animation Scene 3 Animation Scene 3

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13  Light Independent Reaction:  Calvin Cycle (Without light)  Takes place in the stroma (gel like material outside the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast)  Series of reactions that use CO 2 + ATP to make glucose to use for energy  Overview Animation Overview Animation content/uploads/2011/11/schema- semplificato-fotosintesi-in-un-cloroplasto.gif

14  Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes – but how do they photosynthesize without chloroplasts?  oldest known fossils, 3.5+ billion years old  contain chlorophyll and have thylakoid-like plasma membranes with multiple layers for photosynthesis mullineaux/CellBiol.html

15  Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria of ALL eukaryotes, while photosynthesis occurs only in plants and other photosynthetic life.  It releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules, most often in the presence of oxygen.  Animation Scene 1 Animation Scene 1 :Auto-and_heterotrophs.png

16  The chemical equation for cellular respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6H 2 O + 6CO 2 + ATP (Glucose) (Oxygen) (Water) (Carbon Dioxide) (Energy) and_heterotrophs.png

17 Sketch a simplified diagram of a mitochondrion in your notebooks, include the following labels:  Cristae  Matrix (L) Image (L) Image ; (R) Image(R) Image

18  Glycolysis:  Takes place in the cytoplasm  Reaction converts glucose (using ATP) in to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid [C 3 H 4 O 3 ].  Pyruvic acid then moves through the mitochondrial membrane, converts to acetyl-CoA and gives off CO 2. Animation Scene 2 Animation Scene 2 Biology – The Dynamics of Life, pg. 232

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20  Citric Acid Cycle [AKA Kreb’s Cycle]:  Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion  Complicated reactions convert acetyl-CoA to ATP and CO 2  Uses multiple enzymes and ATP to carry out the process  Uses NAD+ and FAD as electron carriers to create NADH and FADH 2  Animation Scene 3 Animation Scene 3

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22  Electron Transport Chain:  Takes place in the folds of the cristae of the mitochondrion  Complicated reactions move NADH and FADH 2 through transport proteins within the membrane to create ATP and H 2 O  End result = 36 ATP molecules for every glucose  Animation Scene 4 Animation Scene 4 g/assets/wgbh/tdc02/tdc02_im g_electronchai/tdc02_img_elect ronchai.jpg

23  Prokaryotes need ATP to fuel cell processes – but how do they create ATP without mitochondria?  process occurs in specialized membranes and the cytoplasm microbialworld/Structure.html

24  There are times when mitochondria within your cells cannot get enough O 2 to support the cells’ energy needs.  Anaerobic respiration is respiration to create ATP in the absence of oxygen, known as fermentation.  Fermentation produces many items found in the home  Types of Fermentation: Lactic acid fermentation Alcoholic fermentation O2O2 12/01/no-symbol.jpeg

25  Lactic Acid Fermentation  Fermentation that mainly occurs in the muscle cells of animals and a few other types of cells  Lactic acid is produced during this form of respiration; it is filtered out in the liver of animals Causes muscles to be sore after a hard workout Dairy industry uses LAF in bacteria to make cheese Other microbe fermentation creates soy sauce from soy beans  End result = 2 ATP molecules for every glucose

26  Alcoholic Fermentation  Fermentation that mainly occurs in yeast and a few types of bacteria  Ethanol [a type of alcohol] is produced during this form of respiration; it is toxic waste released by the yeast in to their surroundings Wine industry uses AF to make wine; yeasts die in the wine vat when the alcohol concentration reaches 14%  End result = 2 ATP molecules for every glucose  Video Video

27 23_ProductsOfFerment_L.jpg

28  Fossil record indicates that eukaryotes first appeared ~2 billion+ years ago – how did these cells containing complex organelles, evolve?  Endosymbiotic Theory, first proposed by Lynn Margulis of the University of Massachusetts, suggests that chloroplasts and mitochondria [w/ their own DNA & ribosomes] – historically, were prokaryotic organisms that lived within [“living together”] other, larger cells, slowly evolving over time to live as one organism.  Video 1 Video 1  Video 2 Video 2 Dr. Lynn Petra Margulis, Evolutionary Biologist, Image

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