Presentation on theme: "ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology. ATP All cells need __________for life. Some things we use energy for are: Moving Thinking Sleeping Breathing Growing."— Presentation transcript:
ATP All cells need __________for life. Some things we use energy for are: Moving Thinking Sleeping Breathing Growing Reproducing ENERGY
The principal chemical compound used by living things to store energy is: adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups Labeled Sketch:
Energy Storage/ Energy Release Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + PhosphateAdenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Energy can be stored by adding a phosphate group to ADP, creating ATP, called phosphorylation. Breaking the phosphate chemical bond in ATP releases energy, changing the ATP back into ADP.
ATP: ATP is used for active transport, movement of cell organelles and other basic functions (mitosis, etc) Glucose: sugar molecule that stores 90 times more energy than ATP. Glucose is used to regenerate ATP.
Comparison of burning a marshmallow at a campfire vs in your body. When sugar burned in fire: Both have in common (Similarities) When sugar burned in body Energy is released quickly as heat and light -Glucose and oxygen are reactants. -Carbon dioxide and water are products. -Both release energy. Energy is stored in small ATP molecules for slow use
Why do we use ATP? Why not just get energy from sugar directly? ATP is small units of energy. Sugar is a very high energy molecule (if you burn it all at once…spontaneous combustion!)
Analogy: sugar Power lines= sugar = tons of energy ATP Wall socket = ATP = smaller units of energy
Basic Equation 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosynthesis Process by which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and energy from sunlight to produce sugar (and oxygen).
Photosynthesis Experiments 1600’s – Van Helmont Determined that mass gained during plant growth does NOT come from the soil. He concluded it must come from the water he added. 1700’s – Preistly Determined that plants release oxygen 1700’s – Ingenhousz Building on Preistly’s work, he determined that oxygen was only produced in the presence of light.
Chemical Equation 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + ATP + NADPH Photosynthesis Equation in Detail Glucose continues to be processed into ATP. How do plants USE these raw materials? Oxygen released for use in aerobic reactions ATP utilized as energy for reactions NADPH used to convert oxidized molecules such as carbon dioxide
Light and Pigments -Why are most plants green? -Are there plants / photosynthetic organisms that are other colors? -Why? The answer lies in: 1) Light Spectra 2) Pigments
Light and Pigments What is the light spectra? Visible light is just a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum
Light and Pigments The longest wavelengths have the lowest energies. (radio) As wavelengths decrease, the energy increases. (gamma)
Light and Pigments Different colors correspond to different wavelengths The colors of the rainbow are ROY G BIV: red orange yellow green blue indigo violet. red has the longest wavelength, and the lowest energy violet has the shortest wavelength, and the highest energy
Homework Seeing color The color an object appears depends on the colors of light it reflects. For example, a red book only reflects red light: White light Only red light is reflected
Homework A white hat would reflect all seven colors: A pair of purple pants would reflect purple light (and red and blue, as purple is made up of red and blue): Purple light White light
Homework Using colored light If we look at a colored object in colored light we see something different. White light Shorts look blue Shirt looks red
Homework In different colors of light these clothes would look different: Red light Shirt looks red Shorts look black Blue light Shirt looks black Shorts look blue
Light and Pigments Plants gather light spectra with light absorbing molecules called PIGMENTS The major pigment used by plants is chlorophyll There are two main chlorophyll types a and b
Light and Pigments Chlorophyll a and b absorb light very well in the violet/blue and orange/red parts of the spectrum. But very poorly in the green part of the spectrum. This makes most plants green (remember, to see a color it needs to be reflected)
Light and Pigments Other pigments are also present in plants that use other wavelengths These include: (orange) - Beta-carotene (orange) (yellow) - Xanthophyll (Lutein) (yellow)
Light and Pigments Autumn Leaves There is so much chlorophyll, it masks other pigment colors. Light regulates chlorophyll production, so shorter days means less chlorophyll is produced, and the green color fades. Anthocynanins, producing red color, are produced during the breakdown of chlorophyll.
Overview of Reactions 1) The Light Reaction Reactants H 2 OLight NADP+ ADP + P Products ATPNADPHO 2 2) The Calvin Cycle (AKA The Dark Reaction) Reactants CO 2 ATPNADPH Products SugarNADP+ ADP + P
Location of Reactions Thylakoid: Sac-like photosynthetic membranes, location of the light reaction Granum: A collection or stack of thylakoids Stroma: Gel-like space outside the thylakoid, location of the Calvin Cycle
Chloroplast Water O2O2 Sugars CO 2 Light- Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle NADPH ATP ADP + P NADP + Chloroplast Location of Reactions Thylakoid Stroma
Photophosphorylation Definition: Using light energy to phosphorylate ADP to make ATP
Light Reaction Overview 1.Photosystem II absorbs light energy 2.This light energy increases the energy level of electrons in pigments 3.Enzyme on the thylakoid breaks up water into 2 electrons, 2 H+, 1 Oxygen 4.The electrons replace those lost in the pigment 5.Oxygen is released out of the chloroplast 6.H+ stays inside the thylakoid membrane
Light Reaction Overview 1.Electron Transport Chain 2.Electrons leave photosystem II, and are accepted by plastoquinone 3.Plastoquinone passes the electrons to the proton pump in b6-f complex 4.The proton pump moves protons (H+) from the stroma into the thylakoid 5.The thylakoid now has a high concentration of H+ compared to the stroma
What is NADPH / NADP+ ? NADPH is a co- enzyme that is an electron carrier. It exists in two forms: NADPH has the electron NADP+ lacks the electron
Light Reaction Overview 1.Photosystem I absorbs light energy 2.This light energy increases the energy level of electrons passed from photosystem II 3.Electrons pass through ferrodoxin to NADP reductase enzyme 4.NADP reductase transfers electrons to NADP+ and H+ to form NADPH 5.NADPH is used in the Calvin Cycle
Light Reaction Overview 1.ATP Formation 2.High concentration of H+ has been built up in the thylakoid 3.The thylakoid membrane contains ATP synthase, which allows H+ to pass through 4.As H+ passes through, it spins ATP synthase, binding ADP and P, creating ATP 5.ATP is used in the Calvin Cycle
The Calvin Cycle Where does the Calvin Cycle take place? In the Stroma Does the Calvin Cycle require light? No. It’s also called ‘light-independent’ Why do plants need the Calvin Cycle? The ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions are unstable. The Calvin Cycle creates longer lasting compounds (sugars)
Calvin Cycle Overview 1.Carbon Dioxide enters from the atmosphere, combines with RuBP, a 5 carbon molecule, using the enzyme RuBisCo 2.This 6 carbon molecule is unstable, and breaks into (2x) 3-PGA 3.ATP and NADPH turn 3-PGA into a more stable G3P 4.Most of the G3P is converted back to RuBP, using ATP 5.1 of 6 G3P molecules is used to make sugar