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CO 7 Chapter 7 Photosynthesis Name a plant you have seen recently.

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Presentation on theme: "CO 7 Chapter 7 Photosynthesis Name a plant you have seen recently."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CO 7 Chapter 7 Photosynthesis Name a plant you have seen recently.

3 Nutrition Patterns Autotrophs (producers) Photosynthesis:plants, algae and some prokaryotes Chemosynthesis - rare - some bacteria obtains organic food without eating other organisms Heterotrophs (consumers/decomposers) -obtains organic food by eating other organisms or their by-products

4 Oxidation: partial or complete loss of electrons -exergonic (release energy) Reduction: partial or complete gain of electrons -endergonic (absorb energy)

5 A. Photosynthetic Reaction 1. In 1930 C. B. van Niel showed that O 2 given off by photosynthesis comes from water and not from CO The net equation reads: 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 light Water + Carbon dioxide Glucose + oxygen in the chloroplast

6 How are they connected? glucose + oxygen  carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6CO 2 6H 2 O ATP  +++ Heterotrophs + water + energy  glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide 6CO 2 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 light energy  +++ Autotrophs making energy & organic molecules from light energy making energy & organic molecules from ingesting organic molecules Where ’ s the ATP? oxidation = exergonic reduction = endergonic

7 Photosynthetic Organisms 2. Photosynthesis transforms solar energy into chemical energy Organic molecules (carbs!) built by photosynthesis provide both the building blocks and energy for cells.

8 Figure 7.1b 3. Plants use the raw materials: carbon dioxide and water 4. Chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis -Stoma: opening in the leaf to exchange gas aka: stomata

9 Figure 7.1c Chlorophylls and other pigments involved in absorption of solar energy reside within thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts

10 4. The chloroplast  Stomata: opening in leaf for gas exchange  Pigment: chlorophyll  Mesophyll: Plant cell photosynthetic layer: Sites of photosynthesis (Double membrane) granum (stack) Thylakoids (pancake) contains: chlorophyll molecules electron transport chain ATP synthase - Location of light reaction Stroma-fluid-filled interior (syrup) - Location of dark reaction

11 Quick Check - FIVE OR FEWER 1. Chloroplast 2. Thylakoid 3. Photosynthesis 4. Organic Molecules involved Two words that sound alike but are not at all similar: Stroma: liquid in chloroplast Stoma: pore in leaves

12 7.2 Plants as Solar Energy Converters Solar Radiation - Only 42% of solar radiation that hits the earth’s atmosphere reaches surface; most is visible light.

13 Sunlight has all the colors Objects only reflect some colors

14 A. Photosynthetic Pigments - Pigments found in chlorophyll absorb various portions of visible light; absorption spectrum. 1. Two major photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. 2. Both chlorophylls absorb violet, blue, and red wavelengths best. - Most green is reflected back; this is why leaves appear green.

15 3. Carotenoids are yellow-orange pigments which absorb light in violet, blue, and green regions. 4. When chlorophyll breaks down in fall, the yellow-orange pigments in leaves show through.

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17 Chromatography - Separation of pigments based on their size and solubility

18 B. Absorption and action spectrum - A spectrophotometer measures the amount of light that passes through a sample of pigments. 1) As different wavelengths are passed through, some are absorbed. 2) Graph of percent of light absorbed at each wavelength is absorption spectrum.

19 3) Photosynthesis produces oxygen; production of oxygen is used to measure the rate of photosynthesis. 4) Oxygen production and, therefore, photosynthetic activity is measured for plants under each specific wavelength; plotted on a graph, this produces an action spectrum. 5) Since the action spectrum resembles absorption spectrum, this indicates that chlorophylls contribute to photosynthesis. Absorption spectrum action spectrum

20 Checkpoint: S12/LS12.html S12/LS12.html 1.What is the relationship between the absorption spectrum and the action spectrum? 2. How can we measure the rate of photosynthesis? 3. How is the wavelength of light related to the rate of photosynthesis? 4. A radish plant is grown behind using lights of different colors. Explain the chart.

21 QOD: 1.write the equation for photosynthesis (from memory) 2.How can we measure the rate of photosynthesis? 3. How is the wavelength of light related to the rate of photosynthesis? 4. A radish plant is grown using lights of different colors. Explain the chart.

22 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 light Water + Carbon dioxide Glucose + oxygen in the chloroplast

23 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplast Light H2OH2O O2O2 CO 2 Sugars C 6 H 12 O 6 NADP + ADP + P Calvin Cycle Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle

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25 1. Light reactions cannot take place unless light is present. They are the energy-capturing reactions. b. Chlorophyll within thylakoid membranes absorbs solar energy and energizes electrons. c. Energized electrons move down the electron transport system; energy is capture d and used for ATP production. d. Energized electrons are also taken up by NADP+, becoming NADPH.

26 2. Calvin Cycle Reactions a. These reactions take place in the stroma; can occur in either the light or the dark. b. These are synthesis reactions that use NADPH and ATP to reduce CO2. -- and make a carbohydrate, sugar

27 What you should know by now.. 1. The equation for photosynthesis. Write it! 2. The structure of a chloroplast. Sketch it! 3. The two reactions of photosynthesis. **Things are about to get much more difficult**

28 The Light Reactions 1. PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION = ATP production also called CHEMIOSMOSIS, - occurs on thylakoid membrane 2. Two paths operate within the thylakoid membrane noncyclic and cyclic *straight line *in a circle 3. Both paths use ATP, but the noncyclic also produces NADPH

29 1. Light hits photosystem II and excites an electron, H The primary electron acceptor passes the electron down the ETC and generates ATP 3. Light is required for PSI, but not water, it generates NADPH

30 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Thylakoid membrane Stroma Inside thyloakoid

31 Photosystems: Light harvesting units of the thylakoid membrane  Composed mainly of protein and pigment antenna complexes  Antenna pigment molecules are struck by photons  Energy is passed to reaction centers (redox location)  Excited e- from chlorophyll is trapped by a primary e- acceptor

32 Something trivial.... Photosystem I and Photosystem II are named based on when they were discovered, PSI was established first.

33 Light-Dependent Reactions 1. Photosynthesis begins when pigments in photosystem II absorb light, increasing their energy level. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II

34 Light-Dependent Reactions These high-energy electrons are passed on to the electron transport chain. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II Electron carriers High-energy electron

35 Light-Dependent Reactions 2. Enzymes on the thylakoid membrane break water molecules into: Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II 2H 2 O Electron carriers High-energy electron

36 Light-Dependent Reactions -hydrogen ions -oxygen atoms -energized electrons Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II 2H 2 O + O 2 Electron carriers High-energy electron

37 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II 2H 2 O + O 2 (2)The energized electrons from water replace the high-energy electrons that chlorophyll lost to the electron transport chain. High-energy electron

38 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II 2H 2 O (2) As plants remove electrons from water, oxygen is left behind and is released into the air. + O 2 High-energy electron

39 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II 2H 2 O (2)The hydrogen ions left behind when water is broken apart are released inside the thylakoid membrane. + O 2 High-energy electron Pq Pc Cytochrome complex

40 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II 2H 2 O 3. Energy from the electrons is used to transport H + ions from the stroma into the inner thylakoid space. + O 2 Pq Pc Cytochrome complex Cytochrome complex: catalyzing the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin plastoquinol plastocyanin

41 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II 2H 2 O 3. High-energy electrons move through the electron transport chain from photosystem II to photosystem I. + O 2 Photosystem I Pq Pc Cytochrome complex

42 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O 4. Pigments in photosystem I use energy from light to re-energize the electrons. + O 2 Photosystem I Cytochrome complex

43 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O 5. NADP + then picks up these high-energy electrons, along with H + ions, and reduces to NADPH. + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

44 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O 5. As electrons are passed from chlorophyll to NADP +, more H + ions are pumped across the membrane. + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

45 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O (5) Soon, the inside of the membrane fills up with positively charged hydrogen ions, which makes the outside of the membrane negatively charged. + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

46 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O 6. The difference in charges across the membrane provides the energy to make ATP + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

47 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O (6) H + ions cannot cross the membrane directly. + O 2 ATP synthase 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

48 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O (6) The cell membrane contains a protein called ATP synthase that allows H + ions to pass through it + O 2 ATP synthase 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

49 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O (6) As H + ions pass through ATP synthase, the protein rotates. + O 2 ATP synthase 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

50 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O (6) As it rotates, ATP synthase binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP. + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2 ATP synthase ADP

51 Light-Dependent Reactions Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2H 2 O Because of this system, light-dependent electron transport produces not only high-energy electrons but ATP as well. + O 2 ATP synthase ADP 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

52 Photosystems of photosynthesis 2 photosystems in thylakoid membrane collections of chlorophyll molecules Photosystem II: contains chlorophyll a P 680 = absorbs 680nm wavelength red light Photosystem I: contains chlorophyll b P 700 = absorbs 700nm wavelength red light reaction center antenna pigments

53 1. Light hits photosystem II and excites an electron, H The primary electron acceptor passes the electron down the ETC and generates ATP 3. Light is required for PSI, but not water, it generates NADPH

54 Figure 7.5

55 Indicate which system (PS1 or PS2 or BOTH) ____1. Splits water ____2. Produces NADPH ____3. Has an electron transport chain ____4. Requires light ____5. Utilizes a primary electron acceptor ____6. Occurs in the thylakoid ____7. Requires the input of H20 ____8. The cyclic path ____9. Uses chlorophyll ____10. Releases oxygen ____11. chlorophyll a ____12. chlorophyll b PS2 PS1 Both PS2 Both PS2 PS1

56 ETC of Photosynthesis Photosystem IIPhotosystem I chlorophyll a chlorophyll b

57 split H 2 O ETC of Photosynthesis O ATP to Calvin Cycle H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ e e e e sun

58 split H 2 O ETC of Photosynthesis O ATP to Calvin Cycle H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ e e e e sun

59 Two Pathways of Light Reactions 1. Noncyclic 2. Cyclic ATP Production --> CHEMIOSMOSIS When H20 is split, two H+ remain These H+ are pumped from the stroma into the thylakoid This creates a gradient used to produce ATP from ADP ATP is the whole point of Photosystem II and will be used to power the Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)

60 Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Light reactions elevate electrons in 2 steps (PS II & PS I) – PS II generates energy as ATP – PS I generates reducing power as NADPH ATP

61 Cyclic photophosphorylation If PS I can’t pass electron to NADP…it cycles back to PS II & makes more ATP, but no NADPH – coordinates light reactions to Calvin cycle – Calvin cycle uses more ATP than NADPH  18 ATP + 12 NADPH 1 C 6 H 12 O 6  ATP

62 Photophosphorylation NONcyclic photophosphorylation cyclic photophosphorylation ATP NADP

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64 Are you still confused? This is pretty hard to visualize, but through the magic of technology, we can watch these processes as animations McGraw Hill Animation: iew0/chapter10/animations.html# https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g78utcLQrJ4

65 Figure 7.7

66 https://www.youtube.com/v/mYbMPwmwx88

67 Chemiosmosis is difficult to visualize. So... you get to color it! Yay! colori ng!

68 Schedule: Thurs 10/23Photosynthesis Lab Fri 10/24: Calvin Cycle Tues 10/28: Photosynthesis Quiz Start Cellular respiration Thurs: 10/30 Finish Cellular Respiration Tues 11/ 4 Quiz Cellular Respiration Start Genetics Unit Ch 9

69 Relate a plants anatomy to it’s function of photosynthesis. (how do roots, stem, leaves, stoma all help with photosynthesis) - Stoma: opening in the leave to exchange gas

70 The Calvin Cycle Whoops! Wrong Calvin… 1950s | 1961

71 The Calvin Cycle Also called *The Light Independent Reactions *The Dark Reactions 1. Named after Melvin Calvin, who used a radioactive isotope of carbon to trace the reactions.

72 2. Joseph Priestley Experiment: a.He put a dome over a candle, the candle went out. b.He added a plant for a few days to the dome, the candle stayed lit for a while Conclusion: The plant produced a substance required for burning. 3.Jan Ingenhousz: showed the effect observed by Priestly occurred only when the plant was exposed to light Conclusion: Light is necessary to produce oxygen a. b. b

73 The Calvin Cycle is a series of reactions producing carbohydrates. carbon dioxide fixation, carbon dioxide reduction, and regeneration of RuBP. Convert solar energy to chemical energy ATP NADPH  energy  reducing power

74 Fixation of Carbon Dioxide 1. CO 2 fixation is the attachment of CO 2 to an organic compound called RuBP. 2. RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) is a five- carbon molecule that combines with carbon dioxide.

75 3. The enzyme RuBP carboxylase (RuBisCo) speeds this reaction; this enzyme comprises 20–50% of the protein content of chloroplasts Calvin Cycle Animation Mainly this is a reshuffling of carbons using ATP and NADPH as energy

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78 Fortunately.... Summary Statements: What is the purpose of the Calvin Cycle? Where does the cell get its energy to perform these reactions? What are the main molecules involved in carbon fixation? What is the final product? AP Biology no longer requires the memorization of every step of the Calvin Cycle, but you should understand the beginning and the end and what it's purpose is.

79 starch, sucrose, cellulose & more 1C CO 2 Calvin cycle 5C RuBP 3C RuBisCo 1. Carbon fixation 2. Reduction 3. Regeneration of RuBP ribulose bisphosphate ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase 6 NADP 6 NADPH 6 ADP 6 ATP 3 ADP 3 ATP used to make glucose 3C G3P glyceraldehyde-3-P CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC 6C CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC PGA phosphoglycerate CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC C C C CCC == | H | H | H | H | H | H CCC –– 5C

80 Molecules of Calvin Cycle RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) is a five- carbon molecule that combines with carbon dioxide= carbon fixation RuBisCo: the enzyme that fixes carbon from the air (most important enzyme in the world?) G3P: Glyceraldehyde-3-P: end product of Calvin cycle, energy rich 3 carbon sugar - 2 G3P combine to form 1 glucose

81 G3P: Glyceraldehyde-3-P: end product of Calvin cycle, energy rich 3 carbon sugar This is called “C3 photosynthesis” (normal) G3P is an important intermediate G3P   glucose   carbohydrates   lipids   phospholipids, fats, waxes   amino acids   proteins   nucleic acids   DNA, RNA

82 G3P can be converted into other things

83 QOD: photosynthesis copy and fill out this table as best you can. ProcessLight?LocationReactantProduct (photosynt hesis) 1. ETC 2. Calvin Cycle 3. Relate a plants anatomy to it’s function of photosynthesis. (how do roots, stem, leaves, stoma all help with photosynthesis)

84 ProcessLight?LocationReactantProduct (photosynt hesis) 1. ETC Light dependent rxn Thylakoid membrane Light H 2 O ATP NADPH O 2 2. Calvin Cycle Light Independent rxn stromaATP NADPH CO 2 Glucose

85 Relate a plants anatomy to it’s function of photosynthesis. Roots: collect water for light rxn Stem: transport water, minerals, Leaves: collect sun light, stoma: collect CO 2 ) - Stoma: opening in the leave to exchange gas

86 From CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 has very little chemical energy – fully oxidized C 6 H 12 O 6 contains a lot of chemical energy – highly reduced (contains energy in form of e - ) Synthesis = endergonic process – put in a lot of energy Reduction of CO 2  C 6 H 12 O 6 proceeds in many small uphill steps – each catalyzed by a specific enzyme – using energy stored in ATP & NADPH

87 Photosynthesis summary Light reactions produced ATP produced NADPH consumed H 2 O produced O 2 as byproduct Calvin cycle consumed CO 2 produced G3P (sugar) regenerated ADP regenerated NADP NADPADP

88 Types of phosphorylation Alternative Pathways C3 PLANTS: use the normal Calvin Cycle exclusively to fix carbon, the MOST Common Pathway Adaptations: Plants in hot dry environments have a problem with water loss, so they keep their stomata partly closed... this results in: CO 2 deficit (Used in Calvin Cycle), and the level of O 2 RISES (as Light reactions Split Water Molecules).

89 In order for photosynthesis to occur, plants must open tiny pores on their leaves called STOMATA. Opening these pores can lead to loss of water. Some Plant Taxonomy

90 The problem: Calvin cycle when O 2 is high 5C RuBP 3C 2C to mitochondria ––––––– lost as CO 2 without making ATP Photorespiration: RuBisCo fixation of O 2, lose carbon to CO2 without making ATP, makes photosynthesis less efficient O2O2 Hey Dude, are you high on oxygen! RuBisCo It’s so sad to see a good enzyme, go BAD!

91 Figure 7.10 C4 plants and CAM plants use an alternate pathway to FIX carbon dioxide from the air.

92 Reducing photorespiration Alternative pathways: Separate carbon fixation from Calvin cycle C4 plants: PHYSICALLY separate carbon fixation from Calvin cycle (corn, sugar cane) different cells to fix carbon vs. where Calvin cycle occurs store carbon in 4C compounds different enzyme to capture CO 2 (fix carbon) called PEP carboxylase different leaf structure CAM plants: separate carbon fixation from Calvin cycle by TIME OF DAY (cactus, pineapple) fix carbon during night store carbon in 4C compounds perform Calvin cycle during day

93 C4 vs CAM Summary C4 plants separate 2 steps of C fixation anatomically in 2 different cells CAM plants separate 2 steps of C fixation temporally = 2 different times night vs. day solves CO 2 / O 2 gas exchange vs. H 2 O loss challenge Ex: Sugarcan e Corn Crabgrass Ex: Pineapple Cactus

94 Photophosphorylation NONcyclic photophosphorylation cyclic photophosphorylation ATP NADP

95 Quick Practice

96 thylakoid O2O2 stroma grana

97 starch, sucrose, cellulose & more 1C CO 2 Summarize what is happening at 1, 2,and 3 5C RuBP 3C RuBisCo 1. Carbon fixation 2. Reduction 3. Regeneration of RuBP ribulose bisphosphate ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase 6 NADP 6 NADPH 6 ADP 6 ATP 3 ADP 3 ATP used to make glucose 3C G3P glyceraldehyde-3-P CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC 6C CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC PGA phosphoglycerate CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC C C C CCC == | H | H | H | H | H | H CCC –– 5C

98 What Factors the Affect Photosynthesis? 1. Light Quality (color/wavelength) 2. Light intensity 3. Carbon Dioxide Availability 4. Water Availability *Using the photosynthesis simulation, design and test an experiment to test light intensity and wavelength Photosynthesis Simulation Waterweed Simulator

99 Pg 129b Light & H 2 O O2O2 CO 2 glucose ATP NADPH ADP NADP

100 A = photosystem II B = photosystem I C = H20 D = Electron Transport Chain E = ATP Synthase AB = ATP AC = phospholipids AD = light (energy)

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102 Photosynthesis Activities Chromatography of a spinach leaf Light intensity and color simulation: 09expl.htm 09expl.htm Rate of photosynthesis LAB: sis.html sis.html Elodiea observation: rtual_lab.html

103 Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is a reactant in the Calvin cycle? A. O 2 B. CO 2 C. H 2 O D. C 6 H 12 O 6 Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

104 Multiple Choice, continued 1. Which of the following is a reactant in the Calvin cycle? A. O 2 B. CO 2 C. H 2 O D. C 6 H 12 O 6 Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

105 Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following statements is correct about the carotenoid pigments? F. Accessory pigments are not involved in photosynthesis. G. Accessory pigments add color to plants but do not absorb light energy. H. Accessory pigments absorb colors of light that chlorophyll a cannot absorb. J. Accessory pigments receive electrons from the electron transport chain of photosystem I. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

106 Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following statements is correct about the carotenoid pigments? F. Accessory pigments are not involved in photosynthesis. G. Accessory pigments add color to plants but do not absorb light energy. H. Accessory pigments absorb colors of light that chlorophyll a cannot absorb. J. Accessory pigments receive electrons from the electron transport chain of photosystem I. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

107 Multiple Choice, continued 3. Oxygen is produced at what point during photosynthesis? A. when CO 2 is fixed B. when water is split C. when ATP is converted into ADP D. when 3-PGA is converted into G3P Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

108 Multiple Choice, continued 3. Oxygen is produced at what point during photosynthesis? A. when CO 2 is fixed B. when water is split C. when ATP is converted into ADP D. when 3-PGA is converted into G3P Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

109 Multiple Choice, continued 4. Which of the following correctly identifies the structure marked X and the activities that take place there? F. stroma—Calvin cycle G. stroma—light reactions H. thylakoid—Calvin cycle J. thylakoid—light reactions Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep The diagram below shows a portion of a chloroplast. Use the diagram to answer the question that follows.

110 Multiple Choice, continued 4. Which of the following correctly identifies the structure marked X and the activities that take place there? F. stroma—Calvin cycle G. stroma—light reactions H. thylakoid—Calvin cycle J. thylakoid—light reactions Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep The diagram below shows a portion of a chloroplast. Use the diagram to answer the question that follows.

111 Multiple Choice, continued 5. light reactions : ATP :: Calvin cycle : A. H + B. O 2 C. G3P D. H 2 O Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

112 Multiple Choice, continued 5. light reactions : ATP :: Calvin cycle : A. H + B. O 2 C. G3P D. H 2 O Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

113 Multiple Choice, continued 6. What is the substance identified as Y in the image? F. H + G. NAD + H. NADPH J. ADP synthase Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep The diagram below shows a step in the process of chemiosmosis. Use the diagram to answer the question that follows.

114 Multiple Choice, continued 6. What is the substance identified as Y in the image? F. H + G. NAD + H. NADPH J. ADP synthase Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep The diagram below shows a step in the process of chemiosmosis. Use the diagram to answer the question that follows.

115 Short Response Chloroplasts are organelles with areas that conduct different specialized activities. Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions and the Calvin cycle occur? Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

116 Short Response, continued Chloroplasts are organelles with areas that conduct different specialized activities. Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions and the Calvin cycle occur? Answer: The light reactions of photosynthesis occur along the thylakoid membrane. The Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma, surrounding the thylakoids. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

117 Extended Response The reactions of photosynthesis make up a biochemical pathway. Part A What are the reactants and products for both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle? Part B Explain how the biochemical pathway of photosynthesis recycles many of its own reactants, and identify the recycled reactants. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

118 Extended Response, continued Answer: Part A The reactants for the light reactions of photosynthesis are sunlight, water, NADP +, and ADP. The products are oxygen, ATP, and NADPH. The reactants for the Calvin cycle are ATP, NADPH, CO 2, and RuBP. The products are NADP +, ADP, and organic compounds. Part B ADP/ATP, NADP + /NADPH, and electrons are recycled during photosynthesis. RuBP, which reacts with CO 2 in the Calvin cycle, is regenerated at each turn of the cycle. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Prep

119 1 Review of ETC of Photosynthesis e e sun Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a

120 1 2 ETC of Photosynthesis Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a O HH H H Inhale, baby! e e e e e-e- e-e- H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ ATP thylakoid chloroplast H+H+ +H+H O O Plants SPLIT water! fill the e – vacancy

121 1 2 H+H+ H+H+ 3 4 H+H+ ADP + P i H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ e e e e ATP to Calvin Cycle energy to build carbohydrates H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ ATP thylakoid chloroplast Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a ETC of Photosynthesis ATP

122 e e e e sun 5 Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll b e e ETC of Photosynthesis e e fill the e – vacancy

123 6 electron carrier e e e e 5 sun NADPH to Calvin Cycle Photosystem II P680 chlorophyll a Photosystem I P700 chlorophyll b $$ in the bank… reducing power! ETC of Photosynthesis


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