2 “Let there be light”PlantsAnimalsE = mc2HumansTrees
3 Our common journey*Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, ché la diritta via era smarrita.*Inferno: Canto I, ll:1-3
4 A Universal Voyage “Powered” by Fuel “Green”Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch’intrate’We need energy, fuel, materials to liveWhy? To maintain our quality of life and our civilizationHowever – how do we do this?Petrol
5 In the beginnings – fossil fuels PetroleumNatural GasCoal
6 Source: National Geographic Society, Millennium in Maps, August 1998. 175018001850190019502000205021002150Projections vary due to assumptions on birth rates2725World population (billions)2015105World Population Growth National Geographic ScenariosSource: National Geographic Society, Millennium in Maps, August 1998.. Courtesy of Pamela Terry.
7 Changes in Atmospheric Concentration CO2, CH4, and N2O– A Thousand Year History Atmospheric concentration CH4 (ppb)1750150012501000750108642BillionsDeveloping CountriesIndustrial CountriesMethaneWorld Population GrowthAtmospheric concentration N2O (pbb)310290270250360340320300280260Nitrous OxideCarbon DioxideAtmospheric concentration CO2 (ppm)Source: IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001)
8 US Dependence on Foreign Oil Hanno PetrolioConsuma PetrolioSaudi Arabia 26%Iraq 11%Kuwait %Iran 9%UAE 8%Venezuela 6%Russia %Libya %Mexico 3%China %Nigeria %U.S. 2%U.S. 26%Japan 7%China 6%Germany 4%Canada %Russia 3%Brazil 3%S. Korea 3%France %India 3%Mexico 3%Italia 2%The U.S. uses more than the next 5 highestconsuming nations combined.Updated March Source: International Energy Annual 2001 (EIA), Tables 11.4 and
9 Petroleum as Energy in the USA Energy SourcesPercent sharePetroleum40%Natural Gas25%Coal23%Nuclear, Hydroelectric, Geothermal and other Energy Sources12%Total100%
10 Petroleum FractionsCivilization fuel rubber car society CivilizationFuel gasAlcoholKeroseneHeating oilWaxAsphaltSynthetic rubber
15 Mark A. Paisley, “Biomass Energy”, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2002)
16 Purgatorio – Purge Wean dependence on petroleum Begin ascent to sustainabilityImprove environmental footprint
17 Intimations of Paradise “The U.S. is the Saudi Arabia of carbohydrates.”David Morris, Institute for Local Self Reliance“Moving from an economy based on geology to one based on biology.”USDA“Changes that will have effects comparable to those of the Industrial Revolution… are now beginning.”Phillip Abelson, Science
18 Photosynthesis Biomass 1g fixedabsorbedR = CHO Chlorophyll aR = CH3 Chlorophyll b
19 Biomass A material source typically a result of a metabolic process Biomass can be considered a carbon-based material (biomaterial) that is the principal component of a life form, its byproducts, or end-of-life formBiomass has generally been a food source, shelter, and fuel (burning)
20 Biomass ConsumptionIn 1990: 84.3 quad demand in US - 2% biomass; rest of world – 6.7%In 2000: 98.8 quad demand (15% ); US - 2% biomass; rest of world – 10.5%Sweden: 17.5%Finland: 20.4%Brazil: 23.4%Third world numbers even higher!
22 Global Energy Potential Total biomass energy available now represents 100 times world’s annual energy consumptionWorlds standing terrestrial biomassForests have 80-90% total biomass carbonMarine biomass C next most abundant, but high turnoverCapture efficiency of sunlight generally low; Hawaii sugarcane is one of highest = 2.24% (186W/m2 for 74.9 t/ha-year)**Berguson, W. et al (1990) “Energy from Biomass and Wastes XIII; Donald L. Klass, Ed.
23 Cornell ecologist's study finds that producing ethanol and biodiesel from corn and other crops is not worth the energy"There is just no energy benefit to using plant biomass for liquid fuel," says David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell. "These strategies are not sustainable."
24 Energy Use and GDP China Japan France USA UK S. Korea El Salvador PolandMexicoRussiaBangladeshChinaEnergy Information Administration, Internation Energy Annual 2000 Tables E1, B1, B2; GDP per capita is for 2000 in 1995 dollars. May 2002
25 Biofuels in EuropeEU targets to raise the proportion of sustainable sources to 20% by 2020 and all member states are expected to complyEU legislation promoting biodiesel* may not make a difference for reducing GH gases – want 5.75% of all transport fuels by 2010 (now = 2%)Petroleum diesel – 85% GH gas emitted during burning while for rapeseed oil 2/3 during farming; in fact, NO2 ( x more potent GH gas)*http://www.scenta.co.uk/Nature/ /bad-news-for-biodiesel.htm
26 Dutch consider biofuels criteria Production of biomass cannot contribute to deforestationdeplete reservoirs of carbon captured in the earthcompete with food cropsdegrade soil or water suppliesupset biodiversitydisplace local populations
27 Alternate Energy Stories Marshallton, IA will build $1B to turn switchgrass fuel (reduce coal):
28 = Bioethanol Provisions from Starch Food vs Fuel 3.5 ton grains/year @ 7 L/100 km(20,000 km/year)0.5 ton starch/person/year
29 An impossibility We will need 4.5 billion tons of grain in 2050 Complete soil errosionTransportation needs dictate continued search for energy suppliesWhere will we go to get it???
31 Commodity Chemicals from Biomass Most petroleum-based materials have their analoguesDuPont already has technology in placeCost points control marketability
32 Biomass Products Biomass Resource Uses Corn Solvents, pharmaceuticals, adhesives, starch, resins, binders, polymers, cleaners, ethanolVegetable OilsSurfactants in soaps and detergents, pharmaceuticals (inactive ingredients), inks, paints, resins, cosmetics, fatty acids, lubricants, biodieselWoodPaper, building materials, cellulose for fibers and polymers, resins, binders, adhesives, coatings, paints, inks, road and roofing pitch
33 Total Production (millions of tons) Products from Hydrocarbons vs. CarbohydratesProductTotal Production (millions of tons)% Derived from PlantsAdhesives5.040Surfactants3.535Acetic Acid2.317.5Plasticizers0.815Detergents12.611Dyes4.56Wall Paints7.8InksPlastics301.8
34 Biomass Chemical Building Blocks 2, 5-Furandicarboxylic Acid3-Hydroxypropionic AcidAspartic AcidGlucaric AcidItaconic Acid3-HydroxybutyrolactoneSuccinic AcidSorbitolGlycerolLevulinic AcidXylitolGlutamic Acid
35 Governmental Involvement US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 – 2.7% O2 in gasolinePending legislation to phase out MTBEs and establish renewables E mandateBBI and Bills such as Title IX of Farm Bill intended to triple use of ethanol from biomass by 2012Funding given to BBI seen in USDA & DOE research & development solicitations
36 Organizations to Contact for Information BERA (Biomass Energy Research Assoc.):US DoE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:
37 The Biorefinery: Materials & Energy THE NEW INDUSTRY.A solution to the problems we discussed. It is the same as the petrochemical/energy economy except it is based on the conversion of biomass as opposed to petroleum
38 We need to combine smart growth with environmental impact Historically, there has been a direct relationship among economic development, energy use, and environmental impactConventional TechnologyEco-efficiency, renewables, and industrial ecologyContamination(e.g., CO2 , toxic chemicals)Eco-efficiency of First generation Technologies (info/bio/nano)Economic Development (e.g., employment, GDP)
40 The Proposed Integrated Biomass-Production Conversion Site (IBPCS) or Biorefinery Concept
41 Cellulose vs. Starch Year 35 30 25 20 Ethanol (Billions of gal/yr) 15 EXISTENTEMERGENTFUTURE30SugarFundamentalCornPlatformAdvances inMills-New EnzymesLignocellulose25-PretreatmentProcessingand fermentation-Fermentation20Ethanol (Billions of gal/yr)15Cellulose105Starch200020052010201520202025Year
42 ALL BIOMASS IS LOCAL Frontera del sistema Reduces opportunities for agenda-driven manipulation of dataStudies are more relevant to the actual situation faced by investors & innovatorsBetter application of agricultural & environmental policy instrumentsImproves selection of crops & cropping systems for local biorefineriesIlluminates opportunities for system integration & “waste” utilization
43 Ethanol, Energy and Environment - Comparison with cellulose - Farrell et al., Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals, Science 506 (2006)Koonin et al, Getting serious about biofuels, Science Jan, 435 (2006)Ragauskas, Path forward for biofuels and biomaterials, Science 484 (2006)
44 Net energy and net greenhouse gases for gasoline, six studies, and three cases A. E. Farrell et al., Science 311, (2006)
45 Alternative metrics for evaluating ethanol Intensity of primary energy inputs (MJ) per MJ of fuel and of net greenhouse gas emissions (kg CO2-equivalent) per MJ of fuelprimary energy inputs (MJ) per MJ of fuelkg CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuelA. E. Farrell et al., Science 311, (2006)
46 Summary & ConclusionsTime is of the essence – years for NG and oil production to peak and dry upNeed local economies & state/federal incentives for energy coops to flourishEnvironmental guidelines, changes in energy consumption paradigm need to be effected nowIncreased governmental funding and policy changes
47 Summary & Conclusions Wood can supply 175% of our transportation needs Bioethanol from wood eliminates soil erosionWood is not a foodWood helps to control green house gas emissionsThere is a 1.6 economic return for bioethanol produced from wood versus starchCellulose is a more promising economic and environmental answerCO2 Emmisions : 1/10 of gasoline and 1/8 of ethanol