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Bioenergy.

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Presentation on theme: "Bioenergy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bioenergy

2 “Let there be light” Plants Animals E = mc2 Humans Trees

3 Our common journey *Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, ché la diritta via era smarrita. *Inferno: Canto I, ll:1-3

4 A Universal Voyage “Powered” by Fuel
“Green” Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch’intrate’ We need energy, fuel, materials to live Why? To maintain our quality of life and our civilization However – how do we do this? Petrol

5 In the beginnings – fossil fuels
Petroleum Natural Gas Coal

6 Source: National Geographic Society, Millennium in Maps, August 1998.
1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 Projections vary due to assumptions on birth rates 27 25 World population (billions) 20 15 10 5 World Population Growth National Geographic Scenarios Source: National Geographic Society, Millennium in Maps, August 1998. . Courtesy of Pamela Terry.

7 Changes in Atmospheric Concentration CO2, CH4, and N2O– A Thousand Year History
Atmospheric concentration CH4 (ppb) 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 10 8 6 4 2 Billions Developing Countries Industrial Countries Methane World Population Growth Atmospheric concentration N2O (pbb) 310 290 270 250 360 340 320 300 280 260 Nitrous Oxide Carbon Dioxide Atmospheric concentration CO2 (ppm) Source: IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001)

8 US Dependence on Foreign Oil
Hanno Petrolio Consuma Petrolio Saudi Arabia 26% Iraq 11% Kuwait % Iran 9% UAE 8% Venezuela 6% Russia % Libya % Mexico 3% China % Nigeria % U.S. 2% U.S. 26% Japan 7% China 6% Germany 4% Canada % Russia 3% Brazil 3% S. Korea 3% France % India 3% Mexico 3% Italia 2% The U.S. uses more than the next 5 highest consuming nations combined. Updated March Source: International Energy Annual 2001 (EIA), Tables 11.4 and

9 Petroleum as Energy in the USA
Energy Sources Percent share Petroleum 40% Natural Gas 25% Coal 23% Nuclear, Hydroelectric, Geothermal and other Energy Sources 12% Total 100%

10 Petroleum Fractions Civilization  fuel  rubber  car  society  Civilization Fuel gas Alcohol Kerosene Heating oil Wax Asphalt Synthetic rubber

11 US Energy Consumption

12 Energy Consumption Quad Quandary
50% increase in worldwide energy consumption in next 20 years! Energy Information Administration, International Outlook 2004, Table A2

13 Hubbert’s Peak ACTUAL PREDICTED
C.J. Campbell, “The Imminent Peak of World Oil Production”

14 Future of Global Natural Gas Reserves
Baseline consumption: 88.8 EJ/year current “Biomass for Renewable Energy and Fuels,” Klass, D.J.; Encyclopedia of Energy, Vol.1 © 2004 Elsevier, Inc.

15 Mark A. Paisley, “Biomass Energy”, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2002)

16 Purgatorio – Purge Wean dependence on petroleum
Begin ascent to sustainability Improve environmental footprint

17 Intimations of Paradise
“The U.S. is the Saudi Arabia of carbohydrates.” David Morris, Institute for Local Self Reliance “Moving from an economy based on geology to one based on biology.” USDA “Changes that will have effects comparable to those of the Industrial Revolution… are now beginning.” Phillip Abelson, Science

18 Photosynthesis  Biomass
1g fixed absorbed R = CHO Chlorophyll a R = CH3 Chlorophyll b

19 Biomass A material source typically a result of a metabolic process
Biomass can be considered a carbon-based material (biomaterial) that is the principal component of a life form, its byproducts, or end-of-life form Biomass has generally been a food source, shelter, and fuel (burning)

20 Biomass Consumption In 1990: 84.3 quad demand in US - 2% biomass; rest of world – 6.7% In 2000: 98.8 quad demand (15% ); US - 2% biomass; rest of world – 10.5% Sweden: 17.5% Finland: 20.4% Brazil: 23.4% Third world numbers even higher!

21 World Biomass Distribution

22 Global Energy Potential
Total biomass energy available now represents 100 times world’s annual energy consumption Worlds standing terrestrial biomass Forests have 80-90% total biomass carbon Marine biomass C next most abundant, but high turnover Capture efficiency of sunlight generally low; Hawaii sugarcane is one of highest = 2.24% (186W/m2 for 74.9 t/ha-year)* *Berguson, W. et al (1990) “Energy from Biomass and Wastes XIII; Donald L. Klass, Ed.

23 Cornell ecologist's study finds that producing ethanol and biodiesel from corn and other crops is not worth the energy "There is just no energy benefit to using plant biomass for liquid fuel," says David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell. "These strategies are not sustainable."

24 Energy Use and GDP China Japan France USA UK S. Korea El Salvador
Poland Mexico Russia Bangladesh China Energy Information Administration, Internation Energy Annual 2000 Tables E1, B1, B2; GDP per capita is for 2000 in 1995 dollars. May 2002

25 Biofuels in Europe EU targets to raise the proportion of sustainable sources to 20% by 2020 and all member states are expected to comply EU legislation promoting biodiesel* may not make a difference for reducing GH gases – want 5.75% of all transport fuels by 2010 (now = 2%) Petroleum diesel – 85% GH gas emitted during burning while for rapeseed oil 2/3 during farming; in fact, NO2 ( x more potent GH gas) *http://www.scenta.co.uk/Nature/ /bad-news-for-biodiesel.htm

26 Dutch consider biofuels criteria
Production of biomass cannot contribute to deforestation deplete reservoirs of carbon captured in the earth compete with food crops degrade soil or water supplies upset biodiversity displace local populations

27 Alternate Energy Stories
Marshallton, IA will build $1B to turn switchgrass  fuel (reduce coal):

28 = Bioethanol Provisions from Starch Food vs Fuel 3.5 ton grains/year
@ 7 L/100 km (20,000 km/year) 0.5 ton starch/person/year

29 An impossibility We will need 4.5 billion tons of grain in 2050
Complete soil errosion Transportation needs dictate continued search for energy supplies Where will we go to get it???

30 Types of Petrochemicals
Aliphatic (C1-C4 mainly) Aromatic Inorganic methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, butadiene, formaldehyde, ethylene glycol, acetone, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, ethylchloride, ethylene dichloride Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, phenol styrene-derived sulfur, ammonia and its derivatives (nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea), carbon black.

31 Commodity Chemicals from Biomass
Most petroleum-based materials have their analogues DuPont already has technology in place Cost points control marketability

32 Biomass Products Biomass Resource Uses Corn
Solvents, pharmaceuticals, adhesives, starch, resins, binders, polymers, cleaners, ethanol Vegetable Oils Surfactants in soaps and detergents, pharmaceuticals (inactive ingredients), inks, paints, resins, cosmetics, fatty acids, lubricants, biodiesel Wood Paper, building materials, cellulose for fibers and polymers, resins, binders, adhesives, coatings, paints, inks, road and roofing pitch

33 Total Production (millions of tons)
Products from Hydrocarbons vs. Carbohydrates Product Total Production (millions of tons) % Derived from Plants Adhesives 5.0 40 Surfactants 3.5 35 Acetic Acid 2.3 17.5 Plasticizers 0.8 15 Detergents 12.6 11 Dyes 4.5 6 Wall Paints 7.8 Inks Plastics 30 1.8

34 Biomass Chemical Building Blocks
2, 5-Furandicarboxylic Acid 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid Aspartic Acid Glucaric Acid Itaconic Acid 3-Hydroxybutyrolactone Succinic Acid Sorbitol Glycerol Levulinic Acid Xylitol Glutamic Acid

35 Governmental Involvement
US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 – 2.7% O2 in gasoline Pending legislation to phase out MTBEs and establish renewables E mandate BBI and Bills such as Title IX of Farm Bill intended to triple use of ethanol from biomass by 2012 Funding given to BBI seen in USDA & DOE research & development solicitations

36 Organizations to Contact for Information
BERA (Biomass Energy Research Assoc.): US DoE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:

37 The Biorefinery: Materials & Energy
THE NEW INDUSTRY. A solution to the problems we discussed. It is the same as the petrochemical/energy economy except it is based on the conversion of biomass as opposed to petroleum

38 We need to combine smart growth with environmental impact
Historically, there has been a direct relationship among economic development, energy use, and environmental impact Conventional Technology Eco-efficiency, renewables, and industrial ecology Contamination (e.g., CO2 , toxic chemicals) Eco-efficiency of First generation Technologies (info/bio/nano) Economic Development (e.g., employment, GDP)

39 Biorefinery Cycle

40 The Proposed Integrated Biomass-Production Conversion Site (IBPCS) or Biorefinery Concept

41 Cellulose vs. Starch Year 35 30 25 20 Ethanol (Billions of gal/yr) 15
EXISTENT EMERGENT FUTURE 30 Sugar Fundamental Corn Platform Advances in Mills -New Enzymes Lignocellulose 25 -Pretreatment Processing and fermentation -Fermentation 20 Ethanol (Billions of gal/yr) 15 Cellulose 10 5 Starch 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 Year

42 ALL BIOMASS IS LOCAL Frontera del sistema
Reduces opportunities for agenda-driven manipulation of data Studies are more relevant to the actual situation faced by investors & innovators Better application of agricultural & environmental policy instruments Improves selection of crops & cropping systems for local biorefineries Illuminates opportunities for system integration & “waste” utilization

43 Ethanol, Energy and Environment - Comparison with cellulose -
Farrell et al., Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals, Science 506 (2006) Koonin et al, Getting serious about biofuels, Science Jan, 435 (2006) Ragauskas, Path forward for biofuels and biomaterials, Science 484 (2006)

44 Net energy and net greenhouse gases for gasoline, six studies, and three cases
A. E. Farrell et al., Science 311, (2006)

45 Alternative metrics for evaluating ethanol
Intensity of primary energy inputs (MJ) per MJ of fuel and of net greenhouse gas emissions (kg CO2-equivalent) per MJ of fuel primary energy inputs (MJ) per MJ of fuel kg CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel A. E. Farrell et al., Science 311, (2006)

46 Summary & Conclusions Time is of the essence – years for NG and oil production to peak and dry up Need local economies & state/federal incentives for energy coops to flourish Environmental guidelines, changes in energy consumption paradigm need to be effected now Increased governmental funding and policy changes

47 Summary & Conclusions Wood can supply 175% of our transportation needs
Bioethanol from wood eliminates soil erosion Wood is not a food Wood helps to control green house gas emissions There is a 1.6 economic return for bioethanol produced from wood versus starch Cellulose is a more promising economic and environmental answer CO2 Emmisions : 1/10 of gasoline and 1/8 of ethanol


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