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Bioenergy. “Let there be light” Plants Trees Animals Humans E = mc 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Bioenergy. “Let there be light” Plants Trees Animals Humans E = mc 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bioenergy

2 “Let there be light” Plants Trees Animals Humans E = mc 2

3 Our common journey *Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, ché la diritta via era smarrita. *Inferno: Canto I, ll:1-3

4 A Universal Voyage “Powered” by Fuel Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch’intrate’ Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch’intrate’ We need energy, fuel, materials to live We need energy, fuel, materials to live Why? To maintain our quality of life and our civilization Why? To maintain our quality of life and our civilization However – how do we do this? However – how do we do this? Petrol “Green”

5 In the beginnings – fossil fuels Petroleum Petroleum Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal

6 . Courtesy of Pamela Terry. World Population Growth National Geographic Scenarios Source: National Geographic Society, Millennium in Maps, August Projections vary due to assumptions on birth rates World population (billions)

7 Changes in Atmospheric Concentration CO 2, CH 4, and N 2 O– A Thousand Year History Source: IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001) Atmospheric concentration N 2 O (pbb) Atmospheric concentration CO 2 (ppm) Atmospheric concentration CH 4 (ppb) Billions Developing Countries Industrial Countries World Population Growth Carbon Dioxide Nitrous Oxide Methane

8 US Dependence on Foreign Oil Saudi Arabia 26% Iraq 11% Kuwait 10% Iran 9% UAE 8% Venezuela 6% Russia 5% Libya 3% Mexico 3% China 3% Nigeria 2% U.S. 2% U.S.26% Japan 7% China 6% Germany 4% Canada 4% Russia 3% Brazil 3% S. Korea 3% France 3% India 3% Mexico 3% Italia 2% Hanno Petrolio Consuma Petrolio The U.S. uses more than the next 5 highest consuming nations combined. The U.S. uses more than the next 5 highest consuming nations combined. Updated March Source: International Energy Annual 2001 (EIA), Tables 11.4 and

9 Petroleum as Energy in the USA Energy SourcesPercent share Petroleum40% Natural Gas25% Coal23% Nuclear, Hydroelectric, Geothermal and other Energy Sources 12% Total100%

10 Petroleum Fractions Civilization  fuel  rubber  car  society  Civilization Civilization  fuel  rubber  car  society  Civilization Fuel gas Fuel gas Alcohol Alcohol Kerosene Kerosene Heating oil Heating oil Wax Wax Asphalt Asphalt Synthetic rubber Synthetic rubber

11 US Energy Consumption

12 Energy Consumption Quad Quandary 50% increase in worldwide energy consumption in next 20 years! Energy Information Administration, International Outlook 2004, Table A2

13 Hubbert’s Peak C.J. Campbell, “The Imminent Peak of World Oil Production” ACTUAL PREDICTED

14 Future of Global Natural Gas Reserves Baseline consumption: 88.8 EJ/year “Biomass for Renewable Energy and Fuels,” Klass, D.J.; Encyclopedia of Energy, Vol.1 © 2004 Elsevier, Inc. current

15 Mark A. Paisley, “Biomass Energy”, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2002)

16 Purgatorio – Purge Wean dependence on petroleum Wean dependence on petroleum Begin ascent to sustainability Begin ascent to sustainability Improve environmental footprint Improve environmental footprint

17 Intimations of Paradise “The U.S. is the Saudi Arabia of carbohydrates.” David Morris, Institute for Local Self Reliance “Moving from an economy based on geology to one based on biology.” USDA “Changes that will have effects comparable to those of the Industrial Revolution… are now beginning.” Phillip Abelson, Science

18 Photosynthesis  Biomass R = CHO Chlorophyll a R = CH 3 Chlorophyll b 1g fixedabsorbed

19 Biomass A material source typically a result of a metabolic process A material source typically a result of a metabolic process Biomass can be considered a carbon- based material (biomaterial) that is the principal component of a life form, its byproducts, or end-of-life form Biomass can be considered a carbon- based material (biomaterial) that is the principal component of a life form, its byproducts, or end-of-life form Biomass has generally been a food source, shelter, and fuel (burning) Biomass has generally been a food source, shelter, and fuel (burning)

20 Biomass Consumption In 1990: 84.3 quad demand in US - 2% biomass; rest of world – 6.7% In 1990: 84.3 quad demand in US - 2% biomass; rest of world – 6.7% In 2000: 98.8 quad demand (15% ); US - 2% biomass; rest of world – 10.5% In 2000: 98.8 quad demand (15% ); US - 2% biomass; rest of world – 10.5% Sweden: 17.5% Sweden: 17.5% Finland: 20.4% Finland: 20.4% Brazil: 23.4% Brazil: 23.4% Third world numbers even higher! Third world numbers even higher!

21 World Biomass Distribution

22 Global Energy Potential Total biomass energy available now represents 100 times world’s annual energy consumption Total biomass energy available now represents 100 times world’s annual energy consumption Worlds standing terrestrial biomass Worlds standing terrestrial biomass Forests have 80-90% total biomass carbonForests have 80-90% total biomass carbon Marine biomass C next most abundant, but high turnoverMarine biomass C next most abundant, but high turnover Capture efficiency of sunlight generally low; Hawaii sugarcane is one of highest = 2.24% (186W/m 2 for 74.9 t/ha-year)* Capture efficiency of sunlight generally low; Hawaii sugarcane is one of highest = 2.24% (186W/m 2 for 74.9 t/ha-year)* *Berguson, W. et al (1990) “Energy from Biomass and Wastes XIII; Donald L. Klass, Ed.

23 Cornell ecologist's study finds that producing ethanol and biodiesel from corn and other crops is not worth the energy "There is just no energy benefit to using plant biomass for liquid fuel," says David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell. "These strategies are not sustainable."

24 Energy Use and GDP Bangladesh El Salvador China Mexico Poland Russia S. Korea UK France Japan USA Energy Information Administration, Internation Energy Annual 2000 Tables E1, B1, B2; GDP per capita is for 2000 in 1995 dollars. May 2002

25 Biofuels in Europe EU targets to raise the proportion of sustainable sources to 20% by 2020 and all member states are expected to comply EU targets to raise the proportion of sustainable sources to 20% by 2020 and all member states are expected to comply EU legislation promoting biodiesel* may not make a difference for reducing GH gases – want 5.75% of all transport fuels by 2010 (now = 2%) EU legislation promoting biodiesel* may not make a difference for reducing GH gases – want 5.75% of all transport fuels by 2010 (now = 2%) Petroleum diesel – 85% GH gas emitted during burning while for rapeseed oil 2/3 during farming; in fact, NO 2 ( x more potent GH gas) Petroleum diesel – 85% GH gas emitted during burning while for rapeseed oil 2/3 during farming; in fact, NO 2 ( x more potent GH gas) *http://www.scenta.co.uk/Nature/ /bad-news-for-biodiesel.htm

26 Dutch consider biofuels criteria Production of biomass cannot contribute to deforestation Production of biomass cannot contribute to deforestation deplete reservoirs of carbon captured in the earth deplete reservoirs of carbon captured in the earth compete with food crops compete with food crops degrade soil or water supplies degrade soil or water supplies upset biodiversity upset biodiversity displace local populations displace local populations

27 Alternate Energy Stories Marshallton, IA will build $1B to turn switchgrass  fuel (reduce coal): nt_biomass.html Marshallton, IA will build $1B to turn switchgrass  fuel (reduce coal): nt_biomass.html nt_biomass.html nt_biomass.html

28 Bioethanol Provisions from Starch Food vs Fuel = 0.5 ton starch/person/year 3.5 ton 7 L/100 km (20,000 km/year)

29 An impossibility We will need 4.5 billion tons of grain in 2050 Complete soil errosion Transportation needs dictate continued search for energy supplies Where will we go to get it???

30 Types of Petrochemicals Aliphatic (C1-C4 mainly) AromaticInorganic methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, butadiene, formaldehyde, ethylene glycol, acetone, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, ethylchloride, ethylene dichloride Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, phenol styrene-derived sulfur, ammonia and its derivatives (nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea), carbon black.

31 Commodity Chemicals from Biomass Most petroleum- based materials have their analogues Most petroleum- based materials have their analogues DuPont already has technology in place DuPont already has technology in place Cost points control marketability Cost points control marketability

32 Biomass Products Biomass Resource Uses Corn Solvents, pharmaceuticals, adhesives, starch, resins, binders, polymers, cleaners, ethanol Vegetable Oils Surfactants in soaps and detergents, pharmaceuticals (inactive ingredients), inks, paints, resins, cosmetics, fatty acids, lubricants, biodiesel Wood Paper, building materials, cellulose for fibers and polymers, resins, binders, adhesives, coatings, paints, inks, road and roofing pitch

33 Products from Hydrocarbons vs. Carbohydrates Product Total Production (millions of tons) % Derived from Plants Adhesives5.040 Surfactants3.535 Acetic Acid Plasticizers0.815 Detergents Dyes4.56 Wall Paints Inks Plastics301.8

34 Biomass Chemical Building Blocks Succinic Acid 2, 5-Furandicarboxylic Acid Itaconic Acid XylitolGlycerolLevulinic Acid 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid Aspartic AcidGlucaric Acid Glutamic Acid Sorbitol 3-Hydroxybutyrolactone

35 Governmental Involvement US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 – 2.7% O 2 in gasoline US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 – 2.7% O 2 in gasoline Pending legislation to phase out MTBEs and establish renewables E mandate Pending legislation to phase out MTBEs and establish renewables E mandate BBI and Bills such as Title IX of Farm Bill intended to triple use of ethanol from biomass by 2012 BBI and Bills such as Title IX of Farm Bill intended to triple use of ethanol from biomass by 2012 Funding given to BBI seen in USDA & DOE research & development solicitations Funding given to BBI seen in USDA & DOE research & development solicitations

36 Organizations to Contact for Information BERA (Biomass Energy Research Assoc.): BERA (Biomass Energy Research Assoc.): US DoE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: US DoE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:

37 The Biorefinery: Materials & Energy THE NEW INDUSTRY. A solution to the problems we discussed. It is the same as the petrochemical/energy economy except it is based on the conversion of biomass as opposed to petroleum

38 We need to combine smart growth with environmental impact We need to combine smart growth with environmental impact Contamination (e.g., CO 2, toxic chemicals) Economic Development (e.g., employment, GDP) Conventional Technology Eco-efficiency of First generation Technologies (info/bio/nano) Historically, there has been a direct relationship among economic development, energy use, and environmental impact Eco-efficiency, renewables, and industrial ecology

39 Biorefinery Cycle

40 The Proposed Integrated Biomass-Production Conversion Site (IBPCS) or Biorefinery Concept

41 Cellulose vs. Starch Starch Cellulose Year Ethanol (Billions of gal/yr) EXISTENT Corn Mills EMERGENT Sugar Platform -New Enzymes -Pretreatment -Fermentation FUTURE Fundamental Advances in Lignocellulose Processing and fermentation

42 ALL BIOMASS IS LOCAL Frontera del sistema

43 Ethanol, Energy and Environment - Comparison with cellulose - Farrell et al., Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals, Science 506 (2006) Koonin et al, Getting serious about biofuels, Science Jan, 435 (2006) Ragauskas, Path forward for biofuels and biomaterials, Science 484 (2006)

44 Net energy and net greenhouse gases for gasoline, six studies, and three cases A. E. Farrell et al., Science 311, (2006)

45 Alternative metrics for evaluating ethanol Intensity of primary energy inputs (MJ) per MJ of fuel and of net greenhouse gas emissions (kg CO2-equivalent) per MJ of fuel A. E. Farrell et al., Science 311, (2006) primary energy inputs (MJ) per MJ of fuel kg CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel

46 Summary & Conclusions Time is of the essence – years for NG and oil production to peak and dry up Time is of the essence – years for NG and oil production to peak and dry up Need local economies & state/federal incentives for energy coops to flourish Need local economies & state/federal incentives for energy coops to flourish Environmental guidelines, changes in energy consumption paradigm need to be effected now Environmental guidelines, changes in energy consumption paradigm need to be effected now Increased governmental funding and policy changes Increased governmental funding and policy changes

47 Summary & Conclusions Wood can supply 175% of our transportation needs Wood can supply 175% of our transportation needs Bioethanol from wood eliminates soil erosion Bioethanol from wood eliminates soil erosion Wood is not a food Wood is not a food Wood helps to control green house gas emissions Wood helps to control green house gas emissions There is a 1.6 economic return for bioethanol produced from wood versus starch There is a 1.6 economic return for bioethanol produced from wood versus starch Cellulose is a more promising economic and environmental answer Cellulose is a more promising economic and environmental answer CO2 Emmisions : 1/10 of gasoline and 1/8 of ethanol CO2 Emmisions : 1/10 of gasoline and 1/8 of ethanol


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