Presentation on theme: "2.5.5-.7 Productivity. PRODUCTIVITY is production per unit time. energy per unit area per unit time (J m -2 yr -1 ) Or biomass added per unit area per."— Presentation transcript:
PRODUCTIVITY is production per unit time. energy per unit area per unit time (J m -2 yr -1 ) Or biomass added per unit area per unit time (g m -2 yr -1 ) PRODUCTION is the incorporation of energy and materials into the bodies of organisms (biomass). BIOMASS is the mass of organic material in organisms of ecosystems. Usually expressed per unit area. Standing crop = ecosystem biomass.
is the total gain in energy or biomass per unit time. Could be through photosynthesis or absorption in consumers.
is the gain in energy or biomass per unit time remaining after allowing for respiratory loss. Organisms use some of the energy they capture to keep themselves growing and alive (metabolism). The energy used by organisms for essential tasks is called RESPIRATORY ENERGY, and eventually it is released to the environment as heat.
When energy is released from ATP it is lost as heat. (2 nd Law of Thermodynamics)
GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY (GPP) is the quantity of matter produced, or solar energy fixed, by photosynthesis in green plants measured per unit area per unit time. [Chemosynthesis and non-green plant autotrophs too]
Energy enters an ecosystem through sunlight. Only 2% of the light energy falling on a tree is captured and turned into chemical energy (glucose) by photosynthesis. The rest is reflected, or just warms up the tree as it is absorbed.
The quantity of biomass potentially available to consumers in an ecosystem. It is measured in unit of mass or energy per unit area per unit time. Plants have to use some of the energy they capture to keep themselves growing and alive (metabolism). NPP = GPP - respiration
biomass gained by heterotrophic organisms through feeding and absorption. Not all food eaten is absorbed (assimilated) into an animals body. Unassimilated food = feces or droppings SP = food eaten – fecal loss
In a food web you can usually assume that: The energy input into an organism = GP. The energy output to the next trophic level = NP. The difference between GP and NP = R and/or loss to decomposers.
1. Harvest method - measure biomass and express as biomass per unit area per unit time. 2. CO 2 assimilation - measure CO 2 uptake in photosynthesis and release by respiration. 3. O 2 production - Measure O 2 production and consumption.
4. Radioisotope method - use C 14 tracer in photosynthesis. 5. Chlorophyll measurement - assumes a correlation between amount of chlorophyll and rate of photosynthesis.
1. Solar radiation 2. Temperature 3. CO 2 4. H 2 O 5. Nutrients 6. Herbivory
The least productive ecosystems are those with limited heat and light energy, limited water and limited nutrients. The most productive ecosystems are those with high temperatures, lots of water, light and nutrients.
Estuaries Swamps and marshes Tropical rain forest Temperate forest Northern coniferous forest (taiga) Savanna Agricultural land Woodland and shrubland Temperate grassland Lakes and streams Continental shelf Open ocean Tundra (arctic and alpine) Desert scrub Extreme desert 8001,6002,4003,2004,0004,8005,6006,4007,2008,0008,8009,600 Average net primary productivity (kcal/m 2 /yr)
Three years of satellite data on the earth’s GP. LAND: high = dark green low = yellow OCEAN: high = red low = blue
73% Not used by humans 8% Lost or degraded land 16% Altered by human activity 3% Used directly Human use of biomass produced by photosynthesis (NPP).