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 Photosynthesis is an anabolic process that combines carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light with the aid of chlorophyll and transforms the.

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Presentation on theme: " Photosynthesis is an anabolic process that combines carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light with the aid of chlorophyll and transforms the."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Photosynthesis is an anabolic process that combines carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light with the aid of chlorophyll and transforms the energy from the sun to biochemical energy in the bonds between the atoms in a sugar molecule; oxygen is a by- product.

3 C-source Global warming

4  Photosynthesis is an anabolic process that combines carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light with the aid of chlorophyll and transforms the energy from the sun to biochemical energy in the bonds between the atoms in a sugar molecule; oxygen is a by- product. Isotope Sole source of O 2

5  Photosynthesis is an anabolic process that combines carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light with the aid of chlorophyll and transforms the energy from the sun to biochemical energy in the bonds between the atoms in a sugar molecule; oxygen is a by- product. P680 P700

6  Photosynthesis is an anabolic process that combines carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light with the aid of chlorophyll and transforms the energy from the sun to biochemical energy in the bonds between the atoms in a sugar molecule; oxygen is a by- product.

7  … transforms the energy from the sun to biochemical energy in the bonds between the atoms in a sugar molecule; oxygen is a by-product. ADP NADP ATP NADPH Electron flow (Z scheme) H2OH2O O2O2 Calvin cycle CO 2 RuBP Light-dependent reaction Light-independent reaction Carbon-fixing and reducing reaction

8  Water molecules are split, releasing e -, H +, and O 2  e - passing along electron transport system  H + is involved in NADP to form NADPH  ATP molecules are produced ADP NADP ATP NADPH Z scheme H2OH2O O2O2 Light-dependent reaction

9  Water molecules are split, releasing e -, H +, and O 2 Light-dependent reaction

10  Water molecules are split, releasing e -, H +, and O 2  Electron flow: e - passing along electron transport system Light-dependent reaction Z scheme

11  Water molecules are split, releasing e -, H +, and O 2  e - passing along electron transport system  H + is involved in NADP to form NADPH Light-dependent reaction

12  Water molecules are split, releasing e -, H +, and O 2  e - passing along electron transport system  H + is involved in NADP to form NADPH  ATP molecules are produced Light-dependent reaction Photophosphorylation

13  … transforms the energy from the sun to biochemical energy in the bonds between the atoms in a sugar molecule; oxygen is a by-product. ADP NADP ATP NADPH Electron flow (Z scheme) H2OH2O O2O2 Calvin cycle CO 2 RuBP Light-dependent reaction Light-independent reaction Carbon-fixing and reducing reaction

14  Water Light-independent reaction Calvin cycle

15  Carboxylation Light-independent reaction Calvin cycle 6 CO RuBP Rubisco (RuBP carboylase/oxygenase) 12 3PGA

16  Carboxylation  Reduction Light-independent reaction Calvin cycle 6 CO RuBP Rubisco (RuBP carboylase/oxygenase) 12 3PGA 12 GA3P

17  Carboxylation  Reduction  Regeneration Light-independent reaction Calvin cycle 6 CO RuBP Rubisco (RuBP carboylase/oxygenase) 12 3PGA 10 GA3P 6 RuBP 2 GA3P +

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19  Stomata are closed under hot and dry climates, which leads to a decreased CO 2 :O 2 ratio and hence promote photorespiration

20  How to inhibit photorespiration and hence promote fixation of CO 2 ADP NADP ATP NADPH Electron flow (Z scheme) H2OH2O O2O2 Calvin cycle CO 2 RuBP Photo- respiration

21  How to inhibit photorespiration and hence promote fixation of CO 2 Calvin cycle CO 2 RuBP Photo- respiration Increasing CO 2 :O 2 ratio

22  CO 2 are combined with PEP (a 3-carbon compound), producing OAA (a 4-carbon compound) in mesophyll cells  The 4-carbon compounds are transported to the bundle sheath cells where CO 2 are released, concentrated and enter the Calvin cycle.

23  Mesophyll cells: CO 2 + PEP → OAA  Bundle sheath cells: 4-C → CO 2 → Calvin cycle. Kranz anatomy leave

24  How to inhibit – C4 photosynthesis ADP NADP ATP NADPH Electron flow (Z scheme) H2OH2O O2O2 Calvin cycle CO 2 RuBP Photo- respiration Mesophyll cell - OAA BSC – concentrated CO 2

25  Night: CO 2 + PEP → OAA → malic acid accumulating organic acids in vacuole  Day: 4-C → CO 2 → Calvin cycle releasing CO 2 in mesophyll cell

26 ADP NADP ATP NADPH Electron flow (Z scheme) H2OH2O O2O2 Calvin cycle CO 2 RuBP Photo- respiration Mesophyll cell - OAA BSC – concentrated CO 2 Night – accumulating organic acids in vacuole Day – concentrated CO 2 in mesophyll cell C 3 plant C 4 plant CAM plant


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