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4A2 Structure and Function of subcellular components, with their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.

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Presentation on theme: "4A2 Structure and Function of subcellular components, with their interactions, provide essential cellular processes."— Presentation transcript:

1 4A2 Structure and Function of subcellular components, with their interactions, provide essential cellular processes

2 Table pg. 78 Cell part Structure Description Function Letter and/or Number on Diagram

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5 Ribosomes Small, universal structures comprised of two interacting parts: ◦ ribosomal RNA and protein ◦ In a sequential manner, these cellular components interact to become the site of protein synthesis  the translation of the genetic instructions yields specific polypeptides

6 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Occurs in two forms: smooth and rough. ◦ 1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum functions to compartmentalize the cell, serves as mechanical support, provides site-specific protein synthesis with membrane-bound ribosomes and plays a role in intracellular transport. ◦ 2. In most cases, smooth ER synthesizes lipids

7 Golgi Complex (Body/Apparatus) The Golgi complex is a membrane-bound structure that consists of a series of flattened membrane sacs (cisternae). ◦ 1. Functions of the Golgi include  synthesis and packaging of materials (small molecules) for transport (in vesicles)  production of lysosomes.

8 Fig pg 71

9 Mitochondria Mitochondria specialize in energy capture and transformation. ◦ 1. Mitochondria have a double membrane that allows compartmentalization within the mitochondria and is important to its function. ◦ 2. The outer membrane is smooth, but the inner membrane is highly convoluted, forming folds called cristae. ◦ 3. Cristae contain enzymes important to ATP production; cristae also increase the surface area for ATP production.

10 Fig. 4.16

11 Vocabulary terms Compartmentalization ◦ forming regions within the cell or organelle that performs a specific process Cristae ◦ numerous folded extensions of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion

12 Lysosomes Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed sacs that contain hydrolytic enzymes ◦ important in intracellular digestion ◦ the recycling of a cell’s organic materials ◦ programmed cell death (apoptosis) Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion in a variety of ways.

13 Vacuoles A vacuole is a membrane-bound sac ◦ plays roles in intracellular digestion ◦ release of cellular waste products In plants, a large vacuole serves many functions ◦ storage of pigments or poisonous substances ◦ cell growth A large central vacuole allows for a large surface area to volume ratio.

14 Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in algae and higher plants that capture energy through photosynthesis 1. The structure and function relationship in the chloroplast allows cells to  capture the energy available in sunlight  convert it to chemical bond energy via photosynthesis

15 Chloroplasts 2. Chloroplasts contain chlorophylls Chloroplasts are responsible for ◦ the green color of a plant ◦ are the key light-trapping molecules in photosynthesis. ◦ There are several types of chlorophyll, but the predominant form in plants is chlorophyll a.

16 Chloroplasts 3. Chloroplasts have a double outer membrane that creates a compartmentalized structure, which supports its function ◦ Within the chloroplasts are membrane-bound structures called thylakoids ◦ Energy capturing reactions housed in the thylakoids are organized in stacks, called “grana,” to produce ATP and NADPH 2, which fuel carbon-fixing reactions in the Calvin- Benson cycle Carbon fixation occurs in the stroma, where molecules of CO 2 are converted to carbohydrates.

17 Fig. 4.17

18 Vocabulary

19 Photosynthetic pigments – proteins found in plants, cyanobacteria, and algae which allow energy from the sun to be absorbed for the process of photosynthesis Chlorophyll – greenish pigment used to capture the sun’s energy

20 Chlorophyll a – the molecule which makes photosynthesis possible, by passing its energized electrons on to molecules which will manufacture sugars. All plants, algae, and cyanobacteria which photosynthesize contain chlorophyll "a". Chlorophyll b – occurs only in "green algae" and in plants Chlorophyll c – found only in the photosynthetic members of the Chromista (diatoms, kelp, downy mildew) as well as the dinoflagellates (plant-like or Heterotrophic Protista)

21 Carotenoids – red, orange, or yellow pigments, and include the familiar compound carotene, which gives carrots their color. Carotenoids cannot transfer sunlight energy directly to the photosynthetic pathway, but must pass their absorbed energy to chlorophyll. For this reason, they are called accessory pigments.

22 Thylakoids - in chloroplasts, a complex, organized internal membrane composed of flattened disks, contain the photosystems involved in light- dependent reactions of photosynthesis Grana – a stack of thylakoids Stroma – semi-liquid substance found in chloroplasts that surrounds thylakoids and contain enzymes needed to assemble organic molecules from CO 2


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