Presentation on theme: "Foliar Nutrition of Turfgrass. Traditionally Golf course superintendents have used soil testing as a guide to balancing the basic nutrients on the soil."— Presentation transcript:
Foliar Nutrition of Turfgrass
Traditionally Golf course superintendents have used soil testing as a guide to balancing the basic nutrients on the soil colloids with various types of root absorbed fertilizers thus providing a good environment for plant growth.
However While management of the soil or root zone mix addresses the health of the soil; it does not address what nutrients the plants are actually taking up--nor the ratio present in the plants for needed photosynthesis and other metabolic functions.
New Management Trend A new management trend takes care of the plant as a separate program from the soil. This requires tissue testing to look at both the amount and the ratios of nutrients present in the plant tissue.
Foliar Feeding Foliar feeding provides the tool to balance both the amount and the ratios of nutrients present in the plant by the addition of those nutrients that are needed. This provides optimum plant health.
Agronomic Law of Minimum 13 essential elements besides C, H, O 2 are required-- each one at optimum levels for optimum growth and health Growth and health will be limited by the lowest optimum level present (example) No element may substitute for any other Roots at times and under certain conditions are limited in their uptake of nutrients
Basic Concept “Non-Root” parts of plants will take up nutrients. Some types of fertilizers applied to the leaves of plants can be absorbed quickly and plentifully. Studies on foliar absorption of fertilizer both macro and micro-nutrients have been investigated by many workers for over 40 years.
Foliar applications of micro-nutrients have been very successful over a long period. Foliar absorbed nutrients are immediately available to the plant. Basic Concept
Nutritional Foliar Sprays “ In general, the utilization level of foliar fertilization is about 85%- 90%, whereas the common soil fertilization amounts to 10%-30%, or rarely to 50%.” Gupta and Cutchliffe (1978) (Canadian Plant Science)
What is Foliar Nutrition? Fertigation?---Not really Spoon feeding with dissolved soluble fertilizer?---Not always Fertilizer nutrients must be Fully absorbed to be a true foliar
Why Foliar Feed Turfgrasses? More control with less risk Lower overall nutrient inputs Enhanced Chlorophyll production – which increases carbohydrate production Less nutrient leaching past the root system Less potential for groundwater contamination
Why Foliar Feed Turfgrasses? continued: Better response with a poor root system Better response without optimum soil pH Good results with plants under stress Very best spoon feeding program for turf
Why Foliar Feed Turfgrasses? When are adequate nutrient supplies not available from the roots? Closely mowed turf Unfavorable temperatures for root development. (Hot and Cold) Loss of root system following spring root decline of warm season turfgrasses.
Why Foliar Feed Turfgrasses? When are adequate nutrient supplies not available from the roots During periods of tissue hardening prior to the onset of environmental stress Overseeded cool season turf, which have limited root systems in bermudagrass CEC limited rootzones (Sand)
Spoon Feeding Turfgrass The amounts of material applied are so low that application in the dry form would not be possible. Spoon feeding is more flexible and can be adjusted to meet exactly the needs of the turf area being treated. (Soil and Tissue tests) Application usually every 7 to 14 days.
Mobility Factors Factors that alter the extent of absorption into the plant and translocation throughout the plant Surface active agents are effective in increasing absorption. Drying time on the leaf is directly related to adsorption. Complexing and Chelating agents are effective in promoting both absorption and translocation within the plant.
Forms Of Foliars Inorganic forms -- tie up the fastest since they have no facilitators to help them translocate in the plant. Complexes -- are better than the inorganic forms. Chelates -- will be taken up better, translocate better, and be protected from adsorption and thus precipitating within the plant.
What makes a good foliar? All organic and inorganic compounds vary in their efficacy of foliar absorption. Absorption is only one aspect of a useful foliar fertilizer. In addition, the absorbed nutrient must be translocated throughout the plant. Phytotoxicity can be a concern with some compounds, especially the inorganic compounds.
Summary Humic materials have the capacity of binding substantial amounts of metals and other cations, and they can therefore exert considerable control over the supply and availability of nutrient elements to plants and in soils and water.
Complex When a metal ion combines with an electron donor, the resulting substance is said to be a complex or a coordination compound. (CH 3 )-N-COO-metal
Chelate The main difference between a metal complex and a chelate is that in the chelate, the donor atoms are attached not only to the metal but also to each other.
Amino Acid Chelate Stronger Bond Amino Acid Chelate NH 2 C C
Why Use Strong Chelated Products? Compatibility and stability mixing with other nutrients and products Protects nutrient from falling out (precipitating) and assists in plant uptake and translocation
Synthetic Chelating Agents Synthetic chelates are used extensively in turf products: *EDTA *HEDTA *EGTA They are very popular and effective only when used in the soil. They only chelate the metals. However, they are not biodegradable and may remain as a residue in the plant tissue or soil.
Organic Agents Organic products used as complexing and chelating agents: * humic acids * fulvic acids * ligno sulfonates * derivatives from the wood pulp industry * hydrolyzed protein mixes * Citric acid * amino acids Some generally have low stability constants; mixing with phosphate may result in a phosphate-metal reaction (precipitate)
Organic Chelating Agents Products that contain a high organic concentration and when added to the soil or the plant are degradable in the plant or soil. They may also provide an energy source to the plant and also to the soil micro-organisms, which in turn helps make soil nutrients available to the plant. * Advantage over non-organic
Buyer Beware Many products are not 100% chelated and although classified by law as a chelate may not be effective Even among organics some chelating agents are far superior to others and all are classified as chelating agents by law
Chelating Agents The chelating agents used in Grigg Brothers products are organic acids, amino acids and carbohydrates selected either individually or in combination to chelate each metal nutrient at the highest stability constant. All chelating agents are natural components found in the metabolism of the plant.
The Bottom Line Foliar Nutrition is an effective method of providing a steady flow of nutrients to the turfgrass. In combination with other traditional types of root-uptake fertilizers, it is another management tool for progressive golf course superintendents who want to achieve better control of nutrition and growth.
Superior Foliar Fertilizer
Safe Effective Quality & Predictable Results Low risk of tissue burn Highly compatible with chemicals Fast turf response Long lasting Good Science Why Foliar Feed with Grigg Brothers Products?
Ultra-Plex Can be a stand alone oz / 1,000 sq.ft. Is recommended in all Grigg Brothers oz / 1,000 sq.ft. Is a surfactant, a water buffer agent to make sure water is acidified, a growth stimulator product, and has an effective form of iron and minors added. –No other additives are need to complete the program
Ultra-Plex 1/3 Organic Surfactant –Intake 1/3 Chelated Iron and Minors –Iron Combo Chelate 1/3 Plant Growth Stimulator & water buffering agent –Aminoplex
Ultra-Plex Can be used like: –Roots –Emerald Isle’s CPR However, contains a water buffer agent and additional minors that neither of the competitive products contain Additionally, the minors are in chelated form for efficiency and compatibility Is a better product at a competitive price
Gary’s Green Fe, Mg, Zn, S, Cu Is formulated specially for turf –introduced in 1995 –has become a foliar icon worldwide Highly efficient at low rates Quick visual response and sustained green up from increase in chlorophyll –without a surge of growth Highly compatible with other pesticides and growth regulators
Gary’s Green Fe, Mg, Zn, S, Cu 100% foliar and unlike several competitive products, contains no slow release N which is never a foliar & needs microorganisms for release Can also be used on landscape plants where more N is needed Basis for most of our programs 6oz / 1,000 sq.ft. mixed with 1.5 oz / 1,000 sq.ft –every 1-2 weeks depending on season and growth
Gary’s Green Fe, Mg, Zn, S, Cu May drop rate to oz when used weekly or mixed with other Grigg Brothers products such as Tuff Turf, Sili-Kal B or P-K Plus at equal rates of oz Very effective when mixed with Primo. Primo works by reducing top growth and expanding leaf mass. Thus Primo extends the life of a foliar by reducing the amount of leaf blade removed and extending time and amount in the plant. –The combination with Primo gives maximum chlorophyll production and thus carbohydrate production promoting root growth and mass
Tuff Turf Fe, Mg, Mn, Si High level of quickly available Potassium Contains Silicon (beneficial for plant toughness) Contains the Micros needed for Chlorophyll production Extremely effective with a low (acidic) 3.8 pH –Most of the other brands have a high pH and are less effective No other high K source is as compatible –most others will not mix with P or Ca liquids –many will not mix with pesticides
Tuff Turf Fe, Mg, Mn, Si The most popular mix with Gary’s Green in equal amounts of oz each and this mix gives a 1:1 N:K ratio while covering most minor elements needed for plant health and growth Can be used as a stand alone oz / 1,000 sq.ft. every 1-2 weeks –Superintendents in the north have been successful in applying 6oz / 1,000 sq.ft. twice, 2 weeks apart before plant succession in late fall. Studies are underway to document this treatment.
Sili-Kal-B Ca, Si, B Very high in foliar Ca – 10% Contains Silicon (si) Promotes strong cell walls pH 5.5 (compare) Use at times of limited root growth Especially for greens grown on sand based rootzones Can be used as a stand alone Ca supplement
Tournament Program Mixed with Gary’s Green and Tuff oz / 1,000 sq.ft. each and Ultra 1.5 oz / 1,000 sq.ft. is our best protocol or tournament program This protocol contains everything needed for growth and health of the turf at proper ratios of each nutrient
Tournament Program Granular fertilizers need only be added to this protocol a few times per season during aerification or as desired Gary’s Green may be reduced or eliminated in the protocol just prior to tournament play for reduced growth
Nutra Green Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, S, B 26% Plant based Amino Acids and complex polysaccharide sugars A complete fertilizer containing all the nutrients in balanced proportions Highly efficient P for growth and stress No other product on the market contains as many nutrients with high levels of phosphorus Speeds grow-in of annuals –mix 1:200 and drench
Nutra Green Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, S, B Increases blooming of trees and shrubs –mix 1:100 and inject Can be continuously injected or run through drip tubes at 1:1000 Is the result of 25 years research Best product on cool season turf early in the spring coming out of dormancy when soil temperatures are still below that needed for uptake of nutrients – especially minors
Nutra Green Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, S, B During heat of summer for stress relief when soil temperatures shut down root growth For growing of new turf, or overseeded warm season turf, to feed needed P and all minors to young seedlings
P.K. Plus Fe, Mn, Zn, B 17% phosphorus acid P % phosphoric acid P 2 O 5 Very quickly absorbed Popular on the new “ultra dwarf” bermudagrass cultivars –Independent University studies show it very effective on annual bluegrass greens pH 6.4 (compare) Can be mixed with Sili-Kal-B
P.K. Plus Fe, Mn, Zn, B To often P is overlooked by turfgrass managers –P is a key ingredient in the photosynthetic process and a building block of amino acids Contains chelated micronutrients in a high phosphorus product When mixed equal with Gary’s Green it gives a NPK ratio of 1:1:1 –Add Ultra-Plex and it becomes a great program: popular on Ultra Dwarf bermudagrasses and annual bluegrass greens
P.K. Plus Fe, Mn, Zn, B Derived from Potassium Phosphite (a substance used for many years in agriculture) Phosphites are known to have toxic effects to species of phythium and damping off as well as anthracnose Our product is NOT labeled as a fungicide and regardless of what Aventis and Chipco would like you to believe, it is proven effective as a P foliar nutrient for plants
Suprema Fe, Mn, Zn, B An economical 1:1 ratio of N to K 20% plant based amino acids K from potassium organic acids Quickly absorbed Good minor package aimed at photosynthesis Very compatible
Suprema Fe, Mn, Zn, B pH 6.5 (compare) Use alone or mixed with Ultra Plex Can be mixed with all other Grigg Brothers Products Becoming popular on fairways When 2.5 gal / acre with 1 gal has become a popular weekly treatment on high quality sports turf
AminoPlex Plant Growth Stimulator Enhances utilization and translocation of nutrients in foliar fertilizers Contains naturally selected biological stimulants including –natural plant metabolites –organic acids –carbohydrates –protein & enzyme precursors Buffers poor quality water
Intake A non-ionic all organic surfactant –wetting agent and performance enhancer for foliar fertilizers Is especially designed to work with Grigg Brothers products Improves the efficacy of any systemic product including Round Up
A-O-K Amino Acids + Organic Acids + Organic Potassium 25% chelated K – no other elements May be added to any program to boost K in the mixture where needed Can be used as a stand alone K source The 25% K and the 10% Ca in Sili-Kal B will mix together without problems –unlike the competition
Fairway Foliar “Fertile-Sprays” Amino N — Fe Amino P — Amino K — Amino Iron — Fe 5%, Mn, Zn, Amino Acid Available in Bulk –55 gal –275 gal
Chelates, Complexes, Combos, & More Individual Straight Minors Combination Minor Products Organic Surfactant Plant Growth Agents Bio-Amendments
Bio Amendments Bio Blend Ca 5% Carbo-Plex Fe, Mn, Zn
A unique turf food like no other –Helpful for microorganism growth & sugar level in the leaf 35% simple sugars plus other organic acids and amino acids blended together with nutrients for soil microorganisms and plant health
Carbo-Plex Fe, Mn, Zn Root feed by injecting or watering into the root zone of all landscape plants Also sprayed as a foliar form of sugar and nutrition Excellent product to build mycorrhizal fungi in the soil
Bio-Blend Ca 5% Soil & Root Stimulator A formula of 15 plant-based proprietary –amino acids –organic acids –liquid fermentation products –natural plant hormones –enzymes & complex polysaccharides All unutilized as a microbial metabolite –88% active organic + 10% N + 5% Calcium Mix with Carbo-Plex or combine with any liquid fertilizers or use alone
Bio-Blend Ca 5% Soil & Root Stimulator Four products in 1: –It is a liquid Compost for microorganisms –Aids in improving soil structure –Fertilizer, fortified with N and Ca –Alleviates Calcium deficiencies
Bio-Blend & Carbo-Plex Designed to be applied to the rootzone –3 gal Carbo-Plex + 1 gal Bio Blend / acre: watered in lightly –The only Grigg Brothers products which are recommended to be watered in However, both may be used as a 3 oz / 1,000 sq.ft.
Summary Grigg Brothers products contain a high organic concentration. When added to the soil or the plant the nutrients are readily available to the plant and the chelating agents are degradable in the plant or soil. This provides an energy source to the plant and also to the soil micro-organisms, which in turn helps make soil nutrients available to the plant.