2TraditionallyGolf course superintendents have used soil testing as a guide to balancing the basic nutrients on the soil colloids with various types of root absorbed fertilizers thus providing a good environment for plant growth.
3HoweverWhile management of the soil or root zone mix addresses the health of the soil; it does not address what nutrients the plants are actually taking up--nor the ratio present in the plants for needed photosynthesis and other metabolic functions.
4New Management TrendA new management trend takes care of the plant as a separate program from the soil. This requires tissue testing to look at both the amount and the ratios of nutrients present in the plant tissue.
5Foliar FeedingFoliar feeding provides the tool to balance both the amount and the ratios of nutrients present in the plant by the addition of those nutrients that are needed. This provides optimum plant health.
6Agronomic Law of Minimum 13 essential elements besides C, H, O2 are required-- each one at optimum levels for optimum growth and healthGrowth and health will be limited by the lowest optimum level present (example)No element may substitute for any otherRoots at times and under certain conditions are limited in their uptake of nutrients
7Basic Concept “Non-Root” parts of plants will take up nutrients. Some types of fertilizers applied to the leaves of plants can be absorbed quickly and plentifully.Studies on foliar absorption of fertilizer both macro and micro-nutrients have been investigated by many workers for over 40 years.
8Basic ConceptFoliar applications of micro-nutrients have been very successful over a long period.Foliar absorbed nutrients are immediately available to the plant.
9Nutritional Foliar Sprays “In general, the utilization level of foliar fertilization is about 85%-90%, whereas the common soil fertilization amounts to 10%-30%, or rarely to 50%.”Gupta and Cutchliffe (1978)(Canadian Plant Science)
10What is Foliar Nutrition? Fertigation?---Not reallySpoon feeding with dissolved soluble fertilizer?---Not alwaysFertilizer nutrients must be Fully absorbed to be a true foliar
11Why Foliar Feed Turfgrasses? More control with less riskLower overall nutrient inputsEnhanced Chlorophyll production – which increases carbohydrate productionLess nutrient leaching past the root systemLess potential for groundwater contamination
12Why Foliar Feed Turfgrasses? continued:Better response with a poor root systemBetter response without optimum soil pHGood results with plants under stressVery best spoon feeding program for turf
13Why Foliar Feed Turfgrasses? When are adequate nutrient supplies not available from the roots?Closely mowed turfUnfavorable temperatures for root development. (Hot and Cold)Loss of root system following spring root decline of warm season turfgrasses.
14Why Foliar Feed Turfgrasses? When are adequate nutrient supplies not available from the rootsDuring periods of tissue hardening prior to the onset of environmental stressOverseeded cool season turf, which have limited root systems in bermudagrassCEC limited rootzones (Sand)
15Spoon Feeding Turfgrass The amounts of material applied are so low that application in the dry form would not be possible.Spoon feeding is more flexible and can be adjusted to meet exactly the needs of the turf area being treated. (Soil and Tissue tests)Application usually every 7 to 14 days.
16Mobility FactorsFactors that alter the extent of absorption into the plant and translocation throughout the plantSurface active agents are effective in increasing absorption.Drying time on the leaf is directly related to adsorption.Complexing and Chelating agents are effective in promoting both absorption and translocation within the plant.
17Forms Of FoliarsInorganic forms -- tie up the fastest since they have no facilitators to help them translocate in the plant.Complexes -- are better than the inorganic forms.Chelates -- will be taken up better, translocate better, and be protected from adsorption and thus precipitating within the plant.
18What makes a good foliar? All organic and inorganic compounds vary in their efficacy of foliar absorption.Absorption is only one aspect of a useful foliar fertilizer. In addition, the absorbed nutrient must be translocated throughout the plant.Phytotoxicity can be a concern with some compounds, especially the inorganic compounds.
19SummaryHumic materials have the capacity of binding substantial amounts of metals and other cations, and they can therefore exert considerable control over the supply and availability of nutrient elements to plants and in soils and water.
20ComplexWhen a metal ion combines with an electron donor, the resulting substance is said to be a complex or a coordination compound.(CH3)-N-COO-metal
21ChelateThe main difference between a metal complex and a chelate is that in the chelate, the donor atoms are attached not only to the metal but also to each other.
23Why Use Strong Chelated Products? Compatibility and stability mixing with other nutrients and productsProtects nutrient from falling out (precipitating) and assists in plant uptake and translocation
24Synthetic Chelating Agents Synthetic chelates are used extensively in turf products:*EDTA*HEDTA*EGTAThey are very popular and effective only when used in the soil. They only chelate the metals. However, they are not biodegradable and may remain as a residue in the plant tissue or soil.
25Organic AgentsOrganic products used as complexing and chelating agents:* humic acids* fulvic acids* ligno sulfonates* derivatives from the wood pulp industry* hydrolyzed protein mixes* Citric acid* amino acidsSome generally have low stability constants; mixing with phosphate may result in a phosphate-metal reaction (precipitate)
26Organic Chelating Agents * Advantage over non-organicProducts that contain a high organic concentration and when added to the soil or the plant are degradable in the plant or soil. They may also provide an energy source to the plant and also to the soil micro-organisms, which in turn helps make soil nutrients available to the plant.
27Buyer BewareMany products are not 100% chelated and although classified by law as a chelate may not be effectiveEven among organics some chelating agents are far superior to others and all are classified as chelating agents by law
28Chelating AgentsThe chelating agents used in Grigg Brothers products are organic acids, amino acids and carbohydrates selected either individually or in combination to chelate each metal nutrient at the highest stability constant. All chelating agents are natural components found in the metabolism of the plant.
29The Bottom LineFoliar Nutrition is an effective method of providing a steady flow of nutrients to the turfgrass.In combination with other traditional types of root-uptake fertilizers, it is another management tool for progressive golf course superintendents who want to achieve better control of nutrition and growth.
32Ultra-Plex Can be a stand alone product @ 3 - 6 oz / 1,000 sq.ft. Is recommended in all Grigg Brothers oz / 1,000 sq.ft.Is a surfactant, a water buffer agent to make sure water is acidified, a growth stimulator product, and has an effective form of iron and minors added.No other additives are need to complete the program
33Ultra-Plex 1/3 Organic Surfactant 1/3 Chelated Iron and Minors Intake1/3 Chelated Iron and MinorsIron Combo Chelate1/3 Plant Growth Stimulator & water buffering agentAminoplex
34Ultra-Plex Can be used like: Roots 1-2-3Emerald Isle’s CPRHowever, contains a water buffer agent and additional minors that neither of the competitive products containAdditionally, the minors are in chelated form for efficiency and compatibilityIs a better product at a competitive price
35Gary’s Green 18-3-4 +Fe, Mg, Zn, S, Cu Is formulated specially for turfintroduced in 1995has become a foliar icon worldwideHighly efficient at low ratesQuick visual response and sustained green up from increase in chlorophyllwithout a surge of growthHighly compatible with other pesticides and growth regulators
36Gary’s Green 18-3-4 +Fe, Mg, Zn, S, Cu 100% foliar and unlike several competitive products, contains no slow release N which is never a foliar & needs microorganisms for releaseCan also be used on landscape plants where more N is neededBasis for most of our programs6oz / 1,000 sq.ft. mixed with 1.5 oz / 1,000 sq.ftevery 1-2 weeks depending on season and growth
37Gary’s Green 18-3-4 +Fe, Mg, Zn, S, Cu May drop rate to oz when used weekly or mixed with other Grigg Brothers products such as Tuff Turf, Sili-Kal B or P-K Plus at equal rates of ozVery effective when mixed with Primo. Primo works by reducing top growth and expanding leaf mass. Thus Primo extends the life of a foliar by reducing the amount of leaf blade removed and extending time and amount in the plant.The combination with Primo gives maximum chlorophyll production and thus carbohydrate production promoting root growth and mass
38Tuff Turf Fe, Mg, Mn, SiHigh level of quickly available PotassiumContains Silicon (beneficial for plant toughness)Contains the Micros needed for Chlorophyll productionExtremely effective with a low (acidic) 3.8 pHMost of the other brands have a high pH and are less effectiveNo other high K source is as compatiblemost others will not mix with P or Ca liquidsmany will not mix with pesticides
39Tuff Turf Fe, Mg, Mn, SiThe most popular mix with Gary’s Green in equal amounts of oz each and this mix gives a 1:1 N:K ratio while covering most minor elements needed for plant health and growthCan be used as a stand alone oz / 1,000 sq.ft. every 1-2 weeksSuperintendents in the north have been successful in applying 6oz / 1,000 sq.ft. twice, 2 weeks apart before plant succession in late fall. Studies are underway to document this treatment.
40Sili-Kal-B 8-0-4 +Ca, Si, B Very high in foliar Ca – 10% Contains Silicon (si)Promotes strong cell wallspH 5.5 (compare)Use at times of limited root growthEspecially for greens grown on sand based rootzonesCan be used as a stand alone Ca supplement
41Tournament ProgramMixed with Gary’s Green and Tuff Turf @ oz / 1,000 sq.ft. each and Ultra 1.5 oz / 1,000 sq.ft. is our best protocol or tournament programThis protocol contains everything needed for growth and health of the turf at proper ratios of each nutrient
42Tournament ProgramGranular fertilizers need only be added to this protocol a few times per season during aerification or as desiredGary’s Green may be reduced or eliminated in the protocol just prior to tournament play for reduced growth
43Nutra Green 5-10-5 +Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, S, B 26% Plant based Amino Acids and complex polysaccharide sugarsA complete fertilizer containing all the nutrients in balanced proportionsHighly efficient P for growth and stressNo other product on the market contains as many nutrients with high levels of phosphorusSpeeds grow-in of annualsmix 1:200 and drench
44Nutra Green 5-10-5 +Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, S, B Increases blooming of trees and shrubsmix 1:100 and injectCan be continuously injected or run through drip tubes at 1:1000Is the result of 25 years researchBest product on cool season turf early in the spring coming out of dormancy when soil temperatures are still below that needed for uptake of nutrients – especially minors
45Nutra Green 5-10-5 +Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, S, B During heat of summer for stress relief when soil temperatures shut down root growthFor growing of new turf, or overseeded warm season turf, to feed needed P and all minors to young seedlings
46P.K. Plus 3-21-18 +Fe, Mn, Zn, B 17% phosphorus acid P303 4% phosphoric acid P2O5Very quickly absorbedPopular on the new “ultra dwarf” bermudagrass cultivarsIndependent University studies show it very effective on annual bluegrass greenspH 6.4 (compare)Can be mixed with Sili-Kal-B
47P.K. Plus Fe, Mn, Zn, BTo often P is overlooked by turfgrass managersP is a key ingredient in the photosynthetic process and a building block of amino acidsContains chelated micronutrients in a high phosphorus productWhen mixed equal with Gary’s Green it gives a NPK ratio of 1:1:1Add Ultra-Plex and it becomes a great program: popular on Ultra Dwarf bermudagrasses and annual bluegrass greens
48P.K. Plus Fe, Mn, Zn, BDerived from Potassium Phosphite (a substance used for many years in agriculture)Phosphites are known to have toxic effects to species of phythium and damping off as well as anthracnoseOur product is NOT labeled as a fungicide and regardless of what Aventis and Chipco would like you to believe, it is proven effective as a P foliar nutrient for plants
49Suprema 12-0-12 +Fe, Mn, Zn, B An economical 1:1 ratio of N to K 20% plant based amino acidsK from potassium organic acidsQuickly absorbedGood minor package aimed at photosynthesisVery compatible
50Suprema 12-0-12 +Fe, Mn, Zn, B pH 6.5 (compare) Use alone or mixed with Ultra PlexCan be mixed with all other Grigg Brothers ProductsBecoming popular on fairwaysWhen 2.5 gal / acre with 1 gal has become a popular weekly treatment on high quality sports turf
51AminoPlex 3-0-0 Plant Growth Stimulator Enhances utilization and translocation of nutrients in foliar fertilizersContains naturally selected biological stimulants includingnatural plant metabolitesorganic acidscarbohydratesprotein & enzyme precursorsBuffers poor quality water
52Intake A non-ionic all organic surfactant wetting agent and performance enhancer for foliar fertilizersIs especially designed to work with Grigg Brothers productsImproves the efficacy of any systemic product including Round Up
53A-O-K 1-0-25 Amino Acids + Organic Acids + Organic Potassium 25% chelated K – no other elementsMay be added to any program to boost K in the mixture where neededCan be used as a stand alone K sourceThe 25% K and the 10% Ca in Sili-Kal B will mix together without problemsunlike the competition
54Fairway Foliar “Fertile-Sprays” Amino N — FeAmino P —Amino K —Amino Iron — Fe 5%, Mn, Zn, Amino AcidAvailable in Bulk55 gal275 gal
55Chelates, Complexes, Combos, & More Individual Straight MinorsCombination Minor ProductsOrganic SurfactantPlant Growth AgentsBio-Amendments
56Bio AmendmentsBio Blend Ca 5%Carbo-Plex Fe, Mn, Zn
57Carbo-Plex 6-4-4 +Fe, Mn, Zn A unique turf food like no other Helpful for microorganism growth & sugar level in the leaf35% simple sugars plus other organic acids and amino acids blended together with nutrients for soil microorganisms and plant health
58Carbo-Plex Fe, Mn, ZnRoot feed by injecting or watering into the root zone of all landscape plantsAlso sprayed as a foliar form of sugar and nutritionExcellent product to build mycorrhizal fungi in the soil
59Bio-Blend 10-0-0 +Ca 5% Soil & Root Stimulator A formula of 15 plant-based proprietaryamino acidsorganic acidsliquid fermentation productsnatural plant hormonesenzymes & complex polysaccharidesAll unutilized as a microbial metabolite88% active organic + 10% N + 5% CalciumMix with Carbo-Plex or combine with any liquid fertilizers or use alone
60Bio-Blend 10-0-0 +Ca 5% Soil & Root Stimulator Four products in 1:It is a liquid Compost for microorganismsAids in improving soil structureFertilizer, fortified with N and CaAlleviates Calcium deficiencies
61Bio-Blend & Carbo-Plex Designed to be applied to the rootzone3 gal Carbo-Plex + 1 gal Bio Blend / acre: watered in lightlyThe only Grigg Brothers products which are recommended to be watered inHowever, both may be used as a 3 oz / 1,000 sq.ft.
62SummaryGrigg Brothers products contain a high organic concentration. When added to the soil or the plant the nutrients are readily available to the plant and the chelating agents are degradable in the plant or soil. This provides an energy source to the plant and also to the soil micro-organisms, which in turn helps make soil nutrients available to the plant.