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Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Energy Processing in Plants Lesson 2Lesson 2Plant Responses Lesson 3Lesson 3Plant Reproduction Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Energy Processing in Plants Lesson 2Lesson 2Plant Responses Lesson 3Lesson 3Plant Reproduction Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Energy Processing in Plants Lesson 2Lesson 2Plant Responses Lesson 3Lesson 3Plant Reproduction Chapter Wrap-Up

3 Chapter Introduction What processes enable plants to survive and reproduce?

4 Chapter Introduction What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.

5 Chapter Introduction 1.Plants do not carry on cellular respiration. 2.Plants are the only organisms that carry on photosynthesis. 3.Plants do not produce hormones. Do you agree or disagree?

6 Chapter Introduction 4.Plants can respond to their environments. 5.Seeds contain tiny plant embryos. 6.Flowers are needed for plant reproduction. Do you agree or disagree?

7 Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC How do materials move inside plants? How do plants perform photosynthesis? What is cellular respiration? How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration alike, and how are they different? Energy Processing in Plants

8 Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab photosynthesis cellular respiration Energy Processing in Plants

9 Lesson 1-1 Xylem and phloem—the vascular tissue in most plants—transport materials throughout a plant. Water flows inside xylem to all parts of a plant. Most plants make their own food; a liquid sugar that moves out of food- making cells, enters phloem, and flows to all plant cells. Materials for Plant Processes

10 Lesson 1-1 Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor pass into and out of a plant through tiny openings in leaves. Materials for Plant Processes (cont.) How do materials move through plants?

11 Lesson 1-2 PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food-energy molecule glucose and give off oxygen. Photosynthesis photosynthesis from Greek photo–, means “light”; and synthesis, means “composition”

12 Lesson 1-2 Two types of mesophyll cells inside a leaf contain chloroplasts, the organelles where photosynthesis occurs. Near the top surface of the leaf are palisade mesophyll cells, which are packed together. Spongy mesophyll cells have open spaces between them, and gases needed for photosynthesis flow through the spaces. Photosynthesis (cont.)

13 Lesson 1-2

14 In the first step of photosynthesis, plants capture the energy in light. This occurs in chloroplasts, which contain plant pigments. Chlorophyll, the most common plant pigment, is necessary for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis (cont.)

15 Lesson 1-2

16 Sugars are made in the second step of photosynthesis. In chloroplasts, carbon dioxide and water are broken down and, using energy stored in chlorophyll, form sugar molecules. Photosynthesis (cont.)

17 Lesson 1-2 Photosynthesis (cont.) What are the two steps of photosynthesis?

18 Lesson 1-3 Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food molecules into a usable form of energy called ATP.Cellular respiration Glucose molecules break down during cellular respiration. Plants produce sugar, but without cellular respiration, plants could not grow, reproduce, or repair tissues. Cellular Respiration

19 Lesson 1-3 Cellular Respiration (cont.) What is cellular respiration?

20 Lesson 1-3 Most plants, some protists, and some bacteria carry on photosynthesis. Most organisms carry on cellular respiration. Life on Earth depends on a balance of these two processes. Cellular Respiration (cont.)

21 Lesson 1-3

22 Lesson 1-4

23 Cellular Respiration (cont.) How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration alike, and how are they different?

24 Lesson 1 - VS Materials that a plant requires to survive move through the plant in the vascular tissue, xylem and phloem. Plants can make their own food by using light energy, water, and carbon dioxide.

25 Lesson 1 - VS The products of photosynthesis are the reactants for cellular respiration.

26 Lesson 1 – LR1 A.palisade mesophyll cells B.chlorophyll C.chloroplasts D.spongy mesophyll cells Which term refers to the organelles where photosynthesis occurs?

27 Lesson 1 – LR2 A.cellular respiration B.light energy capture C.first step of photosynthesis D.second step of photosynthesis Which process breaks down glucose molecules?

28 Lesson 1 – LR3 A.spongy mesophyll cells B.palisade mesophyll cells C.chloroplasts D.chlorophyll Which have open spaces between them that gases flow through?

29 Lesson 1 - Now 1.Plants do not carry on cellular respiration. 2.Plants are the only organisms that carry on photosynthesis. Do you agree or disagree?

30 Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC How do plants respond to environmental stimuli? How do plants respond to chemical stimuli? Plant Responses

31 Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab stimulus tropism photoperiodism plant hormone Plant Responses

32 Lesson 2-1 Stimuli are any changes in an organism’s environment that cause a response.Stimuli A plant responds to light by growing toward it. Stimuli and Plant Responses

33 Lesson 2-2 A tropism is a response that results in plant growth toward or away from a stimulus.tropism When the growth is toward a stimulus, the tropism is called positive. Growth away from a stimulus is considered negative. Environmental Stimuli

34 Lesson 2-2 The growth of a plant toward or away from light is a tropism called phototropism

35 Lesson 2-2 Environmental Stimuli (cont.) tropism from Greek tropos, means “turn” or “turning”

36 Lesson 2-2 The response of a plant to touch is called a thigmotropism. Special structures that respond to touch, called tendrils, can wrap around or cling to objects. Environmental Stimuli (cont.)

37 Lesson 2-2 The response of a plant to gravity is called gravitropism. Stems grow away from gravity, while roots grow toward gravity. Environmental Stimuli (cont.)

38 Lesson 2-2 Environmental Stimuli (cont.) What types of environmental stimuli do plants respond to? Give three examples.

39 Lesson 2-2 Photoperiodism is a plant’s response to the number of hours of darkness in its environment.Photoperiodism Plants that flower when exposed to less than hours of darkness are called long-day plants. Environmental Stimuli (cont.)

40 Lesson 2-2 Short-day plants require 12 or more hours of darkness for flowering to begin. Day-neutral plants flower when they reach maturity and the environmental conditions are right. Environmental Stimuli (cont.)

41 Lesson 2-2 The number of hours of darkness controls flowering in many plants.

42 Lesson 2-3 Plant hormones are substances that act as chemical messengers within plants.Plant hormones Auxins are hormones responsible for phototropism. They cause the cells on the dark side of the plant’s stem to grow longer. Chemical Stimuli

43 Lesson 2-3 The plant hormone ethylene helps stimulate the ripening of fruit. Ethylene is a gas that can be produced by fruits, seeds, flowers, and leaves. Chemical Stimuli (cont.) How do plants respond to the chemical stimuli, or hormones, auxin and ethylene?

44 Lesson 2-3 Rapidly growing areas of a plant, such as roots and stems, produce gibberellins, which increase the rate of cell division and cell elongation. Root tips produce cytokinins, a hormone that increases the rate of cell division and, in some plants, slows the aging process of flowers and fruits. Chemical Stimuli (cont.)

45 Lesson 2-4 Humans make plants more productive by using plant hormones. Some crops now are easier to grow because humans understand how plants respond to hormones. Humans and Plant Responses

46 Lesson 2 - VS Plants respond to stimuli in their environments in many ways.

47 Lesson 2 - VS Photoperiodism occurs in long-day plants and short-day plants. Day- neutral plants are not affected by the number of hours of darkness.

48 Lesson 2 - VS Plant hormones are internal chemical stimuli that produce different responses in plants.

49 Lesson 2 – LR1 A.phototropism B.photoperiodism C.gravitropism D.thigmotropism Which term refers to the growth of a plant toward or away from light?

50 Lesson 2 – LR2 A.auxins B.cytokinins C.ethylene D.none of these Which of the following helps stimulate the ripening of fruit?

51 Lesson 2 – LR3 A.roots B.stems C.leaves D.tendrils Which refers to special plant structures that respond to touch?

52 Lesson 2 - Now 3.Plants do not produce hormones. 4.Plants can respond to their environments. Do you agree or disagree?

53 Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC What is the alternation of generations in plants? How do seedless plants reproduce? How do seed plants reproduce? Plant Reproduction

54 Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab alternation of generationsalternation of generations spore pollen grain pollination ovule Plant Reproduction embryo seed stamen pistil ovary fruit

55 Lesson 3-1 Asexual reproduction occurs when a portion of a plant develops into a separate new plant that is genetically identical to the original, or parent, plant. Sexual reproduction occurs when a plant’s sperm combines with a plant’s egg. The resulting zygote can grow into a plant that is a genetic combination of its parents. Asexual Reproduction Versus Sexual Reproduction

56 Lesson 3-2 Humans live their entire lives as diploid organisms. Some organisms have haploid and diploid stages called generations.

57 Lesson 3-2 Alternation of generationsAlternation of generations is when the life cycle of an organism alternates between diploid and haploid generations. Alternation of Generations generation Science Use haploid and diploid stages in the life cycle of a plant Common Use the average span of time between the birth of parents and their offspring

58 Lesson 3-2 Alternation of Generations (cont.) What is alternation of generations in plants?

59 Lesson 3-2 Meiosis occurs in certain cells in the reproductive structures of a diploid plant. The daughter cells produced from haploid structures are called spores.spores Alternation of Generations (cont.) spore from Greek spora, means “seed, a sowing”

60 Lesson 3-2 Spores grow by mitosis and cell division and form the haploid generation of a plant. Certain reproductive cells of the haploid generation produce haploid sperm or eggs by mitosis and cell division. Fertilization takes place when a sperm and an egg fuse and form a diploid zygote. Alternation of Generations (cont.)

61 Lesson 3-3 Seedless plants grow from haploid spores, not from seeds. Mosses grow by mitosis and cell division from haploid spores produced by the diploid generation. Reproduction in Seedless Plants

62 Lesson 3-3 Ferns produce haploid spores that grow into tiny plants which produce eggs and sperm that can unite and form the diploid generation. Reproduction in Seedless Plants

63 Lesson 3-3 Reproduction in Seedless Plants (cont.) How do seedless plants such as mosses and ferns reproduce?

64 Lesson 3-4 Unlike seedless plants, the haploid generation of a seed plant is within diploid tissue. Separate diploid male and diploid female reproductive structures produce haploid sperm and haploid eggs that join during fertilization. How do seed plants reproduce?

65 Lesson 3-4 A pollen grain forms in a male reproductive structure of a seed plant.pollen grain Pollen grains produce sperm cells which can be carried to female reproductive structures by wind, animals, gravity, or water currents. The female reproductive structure of a seed plant where the haploid egg develops is called the ovule.ovule How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.)

66 Lesson 3-4 PollinationPollination occurs when pollen grains land on a female reproductive structure of a plant that is the same species as the pollen grains.

67 Lesson 3-4 Following pollination, sperm enter the ovule and fertilization occurs. A zygote forms and develops into an embryo, an immature diploid plant. embryo How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.)

68 Lesson 3-4 An embryo, its food supply, and a protective covering make up a seed.seed How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.)

69 Lesson 3-4 How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.) How do seed plants reproduce?

70 Lesson 3-4 Flowerless seed plants are known as gymnosperms. The most common gymnosperms are conifers, such as pines, firs, cypresses, redwoods, and yews. Cones are the male and female reproductive structures of conifers. How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.)

71 Lesson 3-4 Reproduction in Flowerless Seed Plants

72 Lesson 3-4 Flowering seed plants are called angiosperms. Reproduction of an angiosperm begins in a flower, most of which have male and female reproductive structures. How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.)

73 Lesson 3-4 The male reproductive organ of a flower is the stamen.stamen Pollen grains form at the tip of the stamen in the anther. How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.)

74 Lesson 3-4 How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.) The female reproductive organ of a flower is the pistil.pistil Pollen can land at the tip of the pistil, or stigma. The ovary is at the base of the style. It contains one or more ovules.ovary

75 Lesson 3-4 The ovary, and sometimes other parts of the flower, will develop into a fruit that contains one or more seeds.fruit The seeds can grow into new, genetically related plants that produce flowers, and the cycle repeats. How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.)

76 Lesson 3-4

77 In most cases, seeds of flowering plants are inside fruits. Fruits help protect seeds and help scatter or disperse them. How do seed plants reproduce? (cont.)

78 Lesson 3 - VS The life cycle of a plant includes an alternation of generations.

79 Lesson 3 - VS Seedless plants, such as ferns and mosses, grow from haploid spores. In seed plants, pollination occurs when pollen grains land on the female reproductive structure of a plant of the same species.

80 Lesson 3 – LR1 A.cell division B.meiosis C.pollination D.sexual reproduction In order for this to occur, pollen grains must land on a female reproductive structure of a plant.

81 Lesson 3 – LR2 A.embryo B.pistil C.seed D.stamen Which term refers to the female reproductive organ of a flower?

82 Lesson 3 – LR3 A.pollination B.meiosis C.asexual reproduction D.alternation of generations What term refers to the life cycle of an organism alternating between diploid and haploid generations?

83 Lesson 3 - Now 5.Seeds contain tiny plant embryos. 6.Flowers are needed for plant reproduction. Do you agree or disagree?

84 Chapter Review Menu Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice

85 The BIG Idea Plants transform light energy into chemical energy, respond to stimuli and maintain homeostasis, and reproduce with and without seeds.

86 Key Concepts 1 The vascular tissues in most plants, xylem and phloem, move materials throughout plants. In photosynthesis, plants convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food-energy molecule glucose through a series of chemical reactions. The process gives off oxygen. Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food molecules into a usable form of energy called ATP. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration can be considered opposite processes of each other. Lesson 1: Energy Processing in Plants

87 Key Concepts 2 Lesson 2: Plant Responses Although plants cannot move from one place to another, they do respond to stimuli, or changes in their environments. Plants respond to stimuli in different ways. Tropisms are growth responses toward or away from stimuli such as light, touch, and gravity. Photoperiodism is a plant’s response to the number of hours of darkness in its environment. Plants respond to chemical stimuli, or plant hormones, such as auxins, ethylene, gibberellins, and cytokinins. Different hormones have different effects on plants.

88 Key Concepts 2 Lesson 3: Plant Reproduction Alternation of generations is when the life cycle of an organism alternates between diploid and haploid generations. Seedless plants, such as ferns, reproduce when a haploid sperm fertilizes a haploid egg, forming a diploid zygote. Seed plants reproduce when pollen grains, which contain haploid sperm, land on the tip of the female reproductive organ. At the base of this organ is the ovary, which usually contains one or more ovules. Each ovule eventually will contain a haploid egg. If the sperm fertilizes the egg, an embryo will form within a seed.

89 Chapter Review – MC1 A.leaves B.phloem C.roots D.xylem Carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor pass into and out of a plant through which part of a plant?

90 Chapter Review – MC2 A.xylem B.phloem C.chloroplasts D.chlorophyll Water flows to all parts of a plant in which of these?

91 Chapter Review – MC3 A.photoperiodism B.photosynthesis C.stimuli D.tropism Which term refers to a response that results in plant growth toward or away from a stimulus?

92 Chapter Review – MC4 A.negative B.photoperiodism C.photosynthesis D.positive When the growth is toward a stimulus, what is the tropism referred to as?

93 Chapter Review – MC5 A.ovary B.pistil C.stamen D.zygote Which term refers to a male reproductive organ of a flower?

94 Chapter Review – STP1 A.cellular respiration B.photosynthesis C.xylem D.phloem Which term refers to a series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food-energy molecule glucose?

95 Chapter Review – STP2 A.xylem B.phloem C.mesophyll cells D.chloroplasts Where does the first step of photosynthesis occur?

96 Chapter Review – STP3 A.tropism B.gravitropism C.phototropism D.stimuli Which term describes any changes in an organism’s environment that cause a response?

97 Chapter Review – STP4 A.12 or more B.10 to 12 C.8 to 10 D.less than 8 Short-day plants require how many hours of darkness for flowering to begin?

98 Chapter Review – STP5 A.pollen grains B.seeds C.spores D.zygotes Which term refers to the daughter cells produced from haploid structures?


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