Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis. a metabolic pathway that converts light energy into chemical energy. is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protists."— Presentation transcript:
a metabolic pathway that converts light energy into chemical energy. is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protists use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar.
Method of converting sun energy into chemical energy usable by cells Autotrophs: self feeders, organisms capable of making their own food – Photoautotrophs: use sun energy e.g. plants photosynthesis-makes organic compounds (glucose) from light – Chemoautotrophs: use chemical energy e.g. bacteria that use sulfide or methane chemosynthesis-makes organic compounds from chemical energy contained in sulfide or methane
Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place in specialized structures inside plant cells called chloroplasts – Light absorbing pigment molecules e.g. chlorophyll
Chloroplasts containing chlorophyll.
H 2 O + CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 (water) + (carbon dioxide) + (light) (sugar) + (oxygen)
Light-dependent Reactions Overview: light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules-this light energy excites electrons and boosts them to higher energy levels. They are trapped by electron acceptor molecules that are poised at the start of a neighboring transport system. The electrons “fall” to a lower energy state, releasing energy that is harnessed to make ATP
Energy Shuttling Recall ATP: cellular energy-nucleotide based molecule with 3 phosphate groups bonded to it, when removing the third phosphate group, lots of energy liberated= superb molecule for shuttling energy around within cells. Other energy shuttles-coenzymes (nucleotide based molecules): move electrons and protons around within the cell NADP+, NADPH NAD+, NADP FAD, FADH 2
Light-dependent Reactions Photosystem: light capturing unit, contains chlorophyll, the light capturing pigment Electron transport system: sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons, energy released to make ATP Electrons in chlorophyll must be replaced so that cycle may continue-these electrons come from water molecules, Oxygen is liberated from the light reactions Light reactions yield ATP and NADPH used to fuel the reactions of the Calvin cycle (light independent or dark reactions)
Calvin Cycle (light independent or “dark” reactions) ATP and NADPH generated in light reactions used to fuel the reactions which take CO 2 and break it apart, then reassemble the carbons into glucose. Called carbon fixation: taking carbon from an inorganic molecule (atmospheric CO 2 ) and making an organic molecule out of it (glucose) Simplified version of how carbon and energy enter the food chain
Harvesting Chemical Energy So we see how energy enters food chains (via autotrophs) we can look at how organisms use that energy to fuel their bodies. Plants and animals both use products of photosynthesis (glucose) for metabolic fuel Heterotrophs: must take in energy from outside sources, cannot make their own e.g. animals When we take in glucose (or other carbs), proteins, and fats-these foods don’t come to us the way our cells can use them
The process of photosynthesis. Lets watch a short video. Click on the picture above.