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Catabolism : Energy Release and Conservation

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1 Catabolism : Energy Release and Conservation
Chapter 10 Catabolism : Energy Release and Conservation CHAPTER GLOSSARY Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Anoxygenic photosynthesis ATP synthase Bacteriochlorophyll Bacteriorhodopsin紫紅質 Chemiosmotic hypothesis Chemolithotroph營 Chlorophyll葉綠素 Cyclic photophosphorylation Dark reactions Embden-Meyerhof pathway Entner-Doudoroff pathway Fermentation Glycolysis Light reactions Noncyclic photophosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Oxygenic photosynthesis Pentose phosphate pathway Photophosphorylation Photosynthesis Proton motive force (PMF) Substrate-level phosphorylation Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

2 Chemoorganotrophic fueling processes
also called chemoheterotrophs processes aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration fermentation

3 Chemoorganic fueling processes-respiration
most respiration involves use of an electron transport chain as electrons pass through the electron transport chain to the final electron acceptor, a proton motive force (PMF) is generated and used to synthesize ATP aerobic respiration final electron acceptor is oxygen anaerobic respiration final electron acceptor is different exogenous acceptor such as NO3-, SO42-, CO2, Fe3+, or SeO42- organic acceptors may also be used ATP made primarily by oxidative phosphorylation

4 Chemoorganic fueling processes - fermentation
uses an endogenous electron acceptor usually an intermediate of the pathway used to oxidize the organic energy source e.g., pyruvate does not involve the use of an electron transport chain nor the generation of a proton motive force ATP synthesized only by substrate-level phosphorylation

5 Energy Sources many different energy sources are funneled into common degradative pathways most pathways generate glucose or intermediates of the pathways used in glucose metabolism few pathways greatly increase metabolic efficiency

6 Catabolic Pathways Amphibolic Pathways
enzyme catalyzed reactions whereby the product of one reaction serves as the substrate for the next pathways also provide materials for biosynthesis amphibolic有二義的pathways Amphibolic Pathways function both as catabolic and anabolic pathways important ones Embden-Meyerhof pathway pentose phosphate pathway tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

7 Aerobic Respiration process that can completely catabolize an organic energy source to CO2 using glycolytic pathways (glycolysis) TCA cycle electron transport chain with oxygen as the final electron acceptor produces ATP, and high energy electron carriers

8 The Breakdown of Glucose to Pyruvate
Three common routes Embden-Meyerhof pathway Entner-Doudoroff pathway pentose phosphate pathway The Embden-Meyerhof Pathway occurs in cytoplasmic matrix of most microorganisms, plants, and animals the most common pathway for glucose degradation to pyruvate in stage two of aerobic respiration function in presence or absence of O2 two phases glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ 2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+

9 The Embden-Meyerhof Pathway
addition of phosphates “primes the pump” oxidation step – generates NADH high-energy molecules – used to synthesize ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation

10 The Entner-Doudoroff Pathway
used by soil bacteria and a few gram-negative bacteria replaces the first phase of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway yield per glucose molecule: 1 ATP 1 NADPH 1 NADH reactions of Entner-Doudoroff Pathway reactions of Embden-Meyerhof Pathway

11 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
also called hexose monophosphate pathway can operate at same time as glycolytic pathway or Entner-Doudoroff pathway can operate aerobically or anaerobically an amphibolic pathway Summary of pentose phosphate pathway glucose-6-P + 12NADP+ + 7H2O 6CO2 + 12NADPH + 12H+ Pi

12 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Produce NADPH, which is needed for biosynthesis sugar trans- formation reactions Oxidation steps produce sugars needed for biosynthesis sugars can also be further degraded

13 The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
also called citric acid cycle and Kreb’s cycle common in aerobic bacteria, free-living protozoa, most algae, and fungi major role is as a source of carbon skeletons for use in biosynthesis for each acetyl-CoA molecule oxidized, TCA cycle generates: 2 molecules of CO2 3 molecules of NADH one FADH2 one GTP

14 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
only 4 ATP molecules synthesized directly from oxidation of glucose to CO2 most ATP made when NADH and FADH2 (formed as glucose degraded) are oxidized in electron transport chain (ETC) Electron Transport Chains the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is composed of a series of electron carriers that operate together to transfer electrons from NADH and FADH2 to a terminal electron acceptor, O2 electrons flow from carriers with more negative reduction potentials (E0) to carriers with more positive E0

15 The Electron Transport Chain
each carrier is reduced and then reoxidized carriers are constantly recycled the difference in reduction potentials electron carriers, NADH and O2 is large, resulting in release of great deal of energy large difference in E0 of NADH and E0 of O2 large amount of energy released

16 Mitochondrial ETC in eukaryotes the electron transport chain carriers are within the inner mitochondrial membrane and connected by coenzyme Q and cytochrome c electron transfer accompanied by proton movement across inner mitochondrial membrane Proton release into the intermembrane space occurs when electrons are transferred from carriers (e.g., FMN and A) that carry both electrons and protons to components (e.g., FES proteins and Cyt) that transport only electrons.

17 Bacterial and Archaeal ETCs
located in plasma membrane some resemble mitochondrial ETC, but many are different different electron carriers may be branched may be shorter may have lower P/O ratio Paracoccus denitrificans facultative, soil bacterium extremely versatile metabolically under oxic conditions, uses aerobic respiration similar electron carriers and transport mechanism as mitochondria protons transported to periplasmic space rather than inner mitochondrial membrane can use one carbon molecules instead of glucose

18 Electron Transport Chain of E. coli
Different array of cytochromes used than in mitochondrial branched pathway upper branch – stationary phase and low aeration lower branch – log phase and high aeration通風

19 Oxidative Phosphorylation
Process by which ATP is synthesized as the result of electron transport driven by the oxidation of a chemical energy source Chemiosmotic hypothesis the most widely accepted hypothesis to explain oxidative phosphorylation electron transport chain organized so protons move outward from the mitochondrial matrix as electrons are transported down the chain proton expulsion during electron transport results in the formation of a concentration gradient of protons and a charge gradient the combined chemical and electrical potential difference make up the proton motive force (PMF)

20 The Q Cycle

21 PMF drives ATP synthesis
diffusion of protons back across membrane (down gradient) drives formation of ATP ATP synthase enzyme that uses PMF down gradient to catalyze ATP synthesis functions like rotary engine with conformational changes Importance of PMF

22 ATP synthase structure and function
The major structural features of ATP synthase deduced from X-ray crystallography and other studies. F1 is a spherical structure composed largely of alternating  and  subunits; the three active sites are on the  subunits. The  subunit extends upward through the center of the sphere and can rotate. The stalk ( and  subunits) connects the sphere to F0, the membrane embedded complex that serves as a proton channel. F0 contains one a subunit, two b subunits, and 9-12 c subunits. The stator arm is composed of subunit a, two b subunits, and the  subunit; it is embedded in the membrane and attached to F1. A ring of c subunits in F0 is connected to the stalk and may act as a rotor and move past the a subunit of the stator. As the c subunit ring turns, it rotates the shaft ( subunits).

23 ATP Yield During Aerobic Respiration
maximum ATP yield can be calculated includes P/O ratios of NADH and FADH2 ATP produced by substrate level phosphorylation the theoretical maximum total yield of ATP during aerobic respiration is 38 the actual number closer to 30 than 38

24 Theoretical vs. Actual Yield of ATP
amount of ATP produced during aerobic respiration varies depending on growth conditions and nature of ETC under anaerobic conditions, glycolysis only yields 2 ATP molecules Factors Affecting ATP Yield bacterial ETCs are shorter and have lower P/O ratios ATP production may vary with environmental conditions PMF in bacteria and archaea is used for other purposes than ATP production (flagella rotation) precursor metabolite may be used for biosynthesis

25 Anaerobic Respiration
uses electron carriers other than O2 generally yields less energy because E0 of electron acceptor is less positive than E0 of O2

26 An Example… dissimilatory異化 nitrate reduction
use of nitrate as terminal electron acceptor the anaerobic reduction of nitrate makes it unavailable to cell for assimilation (同化, 吸收) or uptake denitrification reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas in soil, causes loss of soil fertility ETC of Paracoccus denitrificans - anaerobic

27 Fermentation oxidation of NADH produced by glycolysis
pyruvate or derivative used as endogenous electron acceptor substrate only partially oxidized oxygen not needed oxidative phosphorylation does not occur ATP formed by substrate-level phosphorylation

28 homolactic fermenters alcoholic fermentation heterolactic fermenters alcoholic beverages, bread, etc. food spoilage yogurt, sauerkraut德國泡菜, pickles泡菜, etc.


30 Catabolism of Other Carbohydrates
many different carbohydrates can serve as energy source carbohydrates can be supplied externally or internally (from internal reserves) monosaccharides converted to other sugars that enter glycolytic pathway disaccharides and polysaccharides cleaved by hydrolases or phosphorylases

31 (glucose)n + Pi  (glucose)n-1 + glucose-1-P
Reserve Polymers used as energy sources in absence of external nutrients e.g., glycogen and starch cleaved by phosphorylases (glucose)n + Pi  (glucose)n-1 + glucose-1-P glucose-1-P enters glycolytic pathway e.g., Poly-b-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) the soil bacterium Azotobacter PHB    acetyl-CoA acetyl-CoA enters TCA cycle

32 Lipid Catabolism triglycerides common energy sources
hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids by lipases glycerol degraded via glycolytic pathway fatty acids often oxidized via β-oxidation pathway

33 β-oxidation pathway

34 Protein and Amino Acid Catabolism
protease hydrolyzes protein to amino acids deamination removal of amino group from amino acid resulting organic acids converted to pyruvate, acetyl-CoA, or TCA cycle intermediate can be oxidized via TCA cycle can be used for biosynthesis can occur through transamination transfer of amino group from one amino acid to α-keto acid

35 Chemolithotrophy carried out by chemolithotrophs由氧化無機物得到能源的自養有機體
electrons released from energy source which is an inorganic molecule transferred to terminal electron acceptor (usually O2 ) by ETC ATP synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation

36 Energy Sources bacterial and archaeal species have specific electron donor and acceptor preferences much less energy is available from oxidation of inorganic molecules than glucose oxidation due to more positive redox potentials

37 Three Major Groups of Chemolithotrophs
have ecological importance several bacteria and archaea oxidize hydrogen sulfur-oxidizing microbes hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur (S0), thiosulfate (S2O32-) nitrifying bacteria oxidize ammonia to nitrate

38 Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria
ATP can be synthesized by both oxidative phosphorylation and substrate-level phosphorylation

39 Nitrifying Bacteria Example
requires 2 different genera oxidize ammonia to nitrate NH4+  NO2-  NO3- Top: Sulfite is oxidized directly to provide electrons for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Middle: Oxidation of sulfite resulting in its conversion to APS; this reaction produces electrons for ETC and oxidative phosphorylation; in addition, APS can drive ATP synthesis by substrate-level phosphorylation. Bottom: structure of APS (adenosine 5‘ phosphosulfate)

40 Reverse Electron Flow by Chemolithotrophs
Calvin cycle requires NAD(P)H as electron source for fixing CO2 many energy sources used by chemolithotrophs have E0 more positive than NAD+(P)/NAD(P)H use reverse electron flow to generate NAD(P)H Metabolic Flexibility of Chemolithotrophs many switch from chemolithotrophic metabolism to chemoorganotrophic metabolism many switch from autotrophic metabolism (via Calvin cycle) to heterotrophic metabolism

41 Phototrophy photosynthesis
energy from light trapped and converted to chemical energy a two part process light reactions in which light energy is trapped and converted to chemical energy dark reactions in which the energy produced in the light reactions is used to reduce CO2 and synthesize cell constituents oxygenic photosynthesis – eucaryotes and cyanobacteria anoxygenic photosynthesis – all other bacteria

42 Phototrophic fueling reactions

43 The Light Reaction in Oxygenic Photosynthesis
photosynthetic eukaryotes and cyanobacteria oxygen is generated and released into the environment most important pigments are chlorophylls

44 The Light Reaction in Oxygenic Photosynthesis
chlorophylls葉綠素 major light-absorbing pigments accessory pigments transfer light energy to chlorophylls e.g., carotenoids類胡蘿蔔素and phycobiliproteins藻膽蛋白 Chlorophyll structure Different chlorophylls have different absorption peaks

45 Accessory pigments absorb different wavelengths of light than chlorophylls
Beta-carotene is a carotenoid found in algae and higher plants. Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid accessory pigment in several division s of algae (the dot in the structure represents a carbon atom). Phycocyanobilin is an example of a linear tetrapyrrole that is attached to a protein to form a phycobiliprotein.

46 Organization of pigments
antennas highly organized arrays of chlorophylls and accessory pigments captured light transferred to special reaction-center chlorophyll directly involved in photosynthetic electron transport photosystems antenna and its associated reaction-center chlorophyll electron flow  PMF  ATP

47 Oxygenic Photosynthesis
noncyclic electron flow – ATP + NADPH made (noncyclic photophos- phorylation) cyclic electron flow – ATP made (cyclic photophos- phorylation) Fd=ferredoxin; PQ=plastoquinone; PC=plastocyanin; Pheo. a=pheophytin a; PS I=photosystem I; PS II=photosystem II; OEC=oxygen evolving complex, extracts electrons from water and contains manganese ions and the substance Z, which transfers electrons to the PS II reaction center.

48 The Mechanism of Photosynthesis
electron flow  PMF  ATP Illustration of chloroplast thylakoid membrane showing photosynthetic electron transport chain function and noncyclic photophosphorylation. The chain is composed of 3 complexes: PS I, the cytochrome bf complex, and PS II. Two diffusible electron carriers connect the 3 complexes. Plastoquinone (PQ) connects PS I with the cytochrome bf complex, and plastocyanin (PC) connects the cytochrome bf complex with PS II.

49 Purple nonsulfur bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides
The Light Reaction in Anoxygenic Photosynthesis H2O not used as an electron source; therefore O2 is not produced only one photosystem involved uses different pigments and mechanisms to generate reducing power carried out by phototrophic green bacteria, phototrophic purple bacteria and heliobacteria Purple nonsulfur bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides electron source for generation of NADH by reverse electron flow Photosynthetic electron transport system of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. This scheme is incomplete and tentative. Ubiquinone (Q) is very similar to coenzyme Q. BPh=bacteriophytin. (similar to PSII)

50 Green sulfur bacteria Photosynthetic electron transport system of Chlorobium limicola. MK is the quinone menaquinone. (similar to PSI) Photosynthetic electron transport system of Chlorobium limicola. MK is the quinone menaquinone.

51 Bacteriorhodopsin-Based Phototrophy
Some archaea use a type of phototrophy that involves bacteriorhodopsin, a membrane protein which functions as a light-driven proton pump a proton motive force is generated an electron transport chain is not involved

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