Presentation on theme: "CP Kingdom Protista Chapter 19. Quiz Self Quiz 1. Have you ever eaten ice cream? 2. Have you ever brushed your teeth ? 3. Have you ever eaten sushi? 4."— Presentation transcript:
What is a Protist? Classified in Kingdom Protista “Protista” means “very first” Evolved 1.5 billion years ago Are like Plants, Animals and Fungi but aren’t Why is this name fitting? Protists are the simplest Eukaryotes Nucleus and Membrane Bound Organelles Domain Eukarya Evolutionarily – could have been “ancestor” eukaryote organism
Classification Classified by how they get energy 1. Animal Like Protists - Heterotrophic Must EAT their food Move around like animals Unicellular UNLIKE Kingdom Animalia 2. Plant Like Protists - Autotrophic MAKE their own food Lack organs/parts UNLIKE Kingdom Plantae 3. Fungal Like Protists – Decomposers/Parasites ABSORB their food externally. Lack chitin and have centrioles UNLIKE Kingdom Fungi
Animal-Like Protists Once called Protozoans –“First Animals” Make up 70 Percent of all Human Parasites Why not animals? Unicellular! 4 Groups based on how they move 1. Zooflagellates use flagella to move 2. Pseudopods move by extension in cytoplasm 3. Ciliates use cilia to move 4. Sporozoans do not move at all
4. Sporozoans Movement: Can’t move on their own (need a host) Eating: through membrane Neat facts: Obligate parasites Complex life cycles that involve many hosts Ex: Plasmodium, Causes Malaria
Fungus-Like Protists Like Fungi: Heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organic matter. Recycle nutrients Unlike fungi: fungus-like protists have centrioles and lack chitin in their cell wall. The fungus-like protists include: 1. Cellular slime molds 2. Acellular (Plasmodial) slime molds 3. Water molds
1. Cellular Slime Molds Movement: oozes along the ground like amoeba; spread spores Eating: Absorb food through Facts: Spend their life as an independent individual that feeds, grows, and divides by cell division
Cellular Slime Molds in Action http://www.princeton.edu/main/news/a rchive/S26/40/20I71/index.xml?sectio n=mm-featured
2. Acellular (Plasmodial) Slime Molds Eating: absorb food Movement: oozes along ground like an amoeba; can release spores Fact: Cells can fuse to produce plasmodia (a mass of cytoplasm that contains many diploid nuclei but no cell walls or membranes). THE MOVING, FEEDING FORM OF A PLASMODIAL SLIME MOLD IS A MULTINUCLEATE BLOB OF CYTOPLASM – THIS IS THE FEEDING STAGE OF THE LIFE CYCLE
3. Water Molds Eating: absorbs nutrients Movement: spores Facts: Phythora infestans – water mold that caused Irish Potato Famine
Plant Like Protists Main Characteristic: Chlorophyll Green Pigment- traps light, carries out photosynthesis Evolved from symbiosis of photosynthetic bacteria and larger, heterotrophic bacteria Commonly called “Algae” Many contain cell wall like plants Lack plant organs/parts Classification Unicellular – unique characteristics – 3 types Multicellular – type of pigments (color) – 3 types
Multicellular Plant-Like Protists: Red, Brown, and Green Algae The 3 phyla of algae that are largely multicellular are commonly known as: 4. red algae 5. brown algae 6. green algae A major difference among these phyla are their photosynthetic pigments.
4. Red algae Structures: Chloroplasts, phycobilin pigments Facts: Live at deep depths phycobilins absorb blue light (reflect red) Carageenan – red algae compound in foods – “gel” Ex: Chondrus crispus (irish moss)
5. Brown Algae Structures: chlorophyll a and c, as well as a brown accessory pigment, fucoxanthin (foo-co-zan-thin) Facts: live in cool, shallow, coastal marine waters Can grow LARGE Examples: giant kelp
6. Green Algae Structures: Chlorophyll a and c Cellulose cell wall Starch storage vacuoles Facts: Can be uni or multi celled Ancestor of modern plants Some are single cells (ex: Chlamydomonas) Some form colonies (ex: Volvox) Some are multi-cellular (ex: Ulva)
Green Algae Chlamhydomonas unicellular green algae Volvox colonial green algae Ulva multicellular green algae Spirogyra Multicellular green algae
Ecology of Plant-Like Protists Produce 90% of all oxygen on earth! Phytoplankton = bottom of food chain Human foods Ice creams Chocolate Sushi Plastics Waxes Paints Agar Can release toxin & choke environment – algae bloom
Summary In a well developed paragraph, answer the question: “Why are Protists weird?” Use the following vocabulary correctly in your response: eukaryotic, heterotrophic, autotrophic, parasitic, decomposers, unicellular, multicellular
Pond Water Lab Review 1. Imagine you find an organism that eats food, has a gullet, micronucleus and macronucleus, and moves using cilia. Based on these characteristics… – a. is it animal-like, plant-like or fungi-like? b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae
Pond Water Lab Review 2. Imagine you find an organism that eats food and moves uses pseudopods. Based on these characteristics… a. is it animal-like, plant-like or fungi- like? b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae
Pond Water Lab Review 3. Imagine you find an organism that can make its own food using chloroplasts as well as eat food using its gullet. It has an eyespot that senses light and a flagellum to move. Based on these characteristics… a. is it animal-like, plant-like, or fungi-like? b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae
4. Pond Water Lab 4. Imagine you find an organism that makes its own food using chlorophyll within chloroplasts and is never heterotrophic. It has a cell wall made of cellulose and stores its food as starch. Based on these characteristics… a. it is animal-like, plant-like, or fungi-like? b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae
CP KINGDOM FUNGI Ch 19 “NO, THEY ARE NOT PLANTS”
What is a fungus? (answer this question in your own words)
General Characteristics of Fungi Ubiquitous Decompose HETEROTROPHIC Some are parasitic, some are mutualistic Have plant & animal characteristics Kind of PLANT-Like = many are anchored in the ground; cell walls (but NOT of cellulose) Kind of ANIMAL- Like = Heterotrophic On the living and on dead Parasites Saprobes
Fungi General Characteristics Mostly multicellular Yeast unicellular They have a nucleus Many have multiple nuclei Much of their lifecycle is haploid! They have a cell wall Made of chitin – a protein/carb complex Digestion is EXTRACELLULAR! They secrete an enzyme that breaks down nutrients THEN they take them in NO PHOTOSYNTHESIS!
FUNGI STRUCTURE Basic Unit = hyphae (fuzzy) Hyphae can grow as individual cells or may fuse together there are different types of hyphae some for reproduction, some for growth, some for stability (sturdy) Hyphae that form a web and work together = Mycelium
More about their structure…. The visible part of a fungus is only a very small part of the mycelium…. ….most is underground or in the food source it is on/in
FUNGI REPRODUCTION Some reproduce asexually, some sexually – most both Asexual reproduction Fragmentation/budding, Spores (clones) Spores can be thick walled & resist water loss (ie, the fungus won't dry out) Sexual reproduction haploid +/- hyphae fusion diploid gametangium meiosis haploid spores haploid organism
Classification 4 Groups 1. Zygomycota 2. Ascomycota 3. Basidiomycota 4. Deuteromycota* --All have different hyphae types & reproductive structures -- Classified based on how they reproduce!
1. Phylum Zygomycota “Zygote fungi” Reproduce sexually & asexually Formed from 2 different gametangium that fuse Gametangium zygospore Ex. Bread Mold, Athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis)
Zygomycota Hyphae a) Rhizoid Anchor the fungus in its food source b) Stolon Run along the surface of the food source Give rise to 2 mating forms (“+” and “-”) Sexual reproduction & growth c) Sporangia Also called “fruiting bodies” Swell at the tips of sporangiophores Contain the spores used for asexual reproduction
Phylum Ascomycota Sac fungi Reproduce sexually & asexually Spores (called ascospores) are made in a sac is called an ascus Important fermenters Convert sugar to CO 2 & alcohol Ex. Yeasts (with no hyphae), powdery mildews, food molds Yeast = only unicellular fungus! Infectious: candidiasis, ringworm
Phylum Basidiomycota Club fungi Reproduce sexually & asexually Forms a club shaped structure = Basidia; this is where spores are made = Basidiospore Cap = where reproduction takes place Ex. Mushrooms, puffballs, smuts
Penicillin 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming observed that colonies of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus could be destroyed by the mold Penicillium notatum
Aspergillus Can cause severe lung infection Can form endospores 2-4,000 year old endospore of Aspergillus niger may have caused the death of initial archeology team members excavating tombs
MUTUALISTIC FUNGI 2 types a) Lichens b) Mycorrhizae
a) Lichens SYMBIOSIS of a fungus (usually an ascomycetes) with an algae OR a cyanobacteria The fungal partner benefits by getting sugars, its only nutrients, from the algae which photosynthesize. The algal partner gets protection and nutrients broken down by the fungal partner.
b) Mycorrhizae Fungus & Plant Hyphae grow on roots of plant How does each benefit?
QUIZ TIME Answer Questions - True or False…if false CORRECT it! 1. Fungi are autotrophs (use photosynthesis). 2. Fungi spend much of their lives in a haploid state. 3. There are 3 Phyla of Fungi. 4. Fungi have cell walls made of cellulose. 5. Fungi are made up of special cells called hyphae.
QUIZ TIME – Answers! 1. Fungi are autotrophs (use photosynthesis). F 2. Fungi spend much of their lives in a haploid state. T 3. There are 3 Phyla of Fungi. F 4. Fungi have cell walls made of cellulose. F 5. Fungi are made up of special cells called hyphae. T