5What is a Protist? Classified in Kingdom Protista “Protista” means “very first”Evolved 1.5 billion years agoAre like Plants, Animals and Fungi but aren’tWhy is this name fitting?Protists are the simplest EukaryotesNucleus and Membrane Bound OrganellesDomain EukaryaEvolutionarily – could have been “ancestor” eukaryote organism
7Classification Classified by how they get energy Animal Like Protists - HeterotrophicMust EAT their foodMove around like animalsUnicellular UNLIKE Kingdom AnimaliaPlant Like Protists - AutotrophicMAKE their own foodLack organs/parts UNLIKE Kingdom Plantae3. Fungal Like Protists – Decomposers/ParasitesABSORB their food externally.Lack chitin and have centrioles UNLIKE Kingdom Fungi
8Animal-Like Protists Once called Protozoans –“First Animals” Make up 70 Percent of all Human ParasitesWhy not animals? Unicellular!4 Groups based on how they move1. Zooflagellates use flagella to move2. Pseudopods move by extension in cytoplasm3. Ciliates use cilia to move4. Sporozoans do not move at all
144. Sporozoans Movement: Can’t move on their own (need a host) Eating: through membraneNeat facts:Obligate parasitesComplex life cycles that involve many hostsEx: Plasmodium, Causes Malaria
15Fungus-Like Protists Like Fungi: Heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organic matter.Recycle nutrientsUnlike fungi: fungus-like protists have centrioles and lack chitin in their cell wall.The fungus-like protists include:1. Cellular slime molds2. Acellular (Plasmodial) slime molds3. Water molds
161. Cellular Slime MoldsMovement: oozes along the ground like amoeba; spread sporesEating: Absorb food throughFacts:Spend their life as an independent individual that feeds, grows, and divides by cell division
192. Acellular (Plasmodial) Slime Molds Eating: absorb foodMovement: oozes along ground like an amoeba; can release sporesFact:Cells can fuse to produce plasmodia (a mass of cytoplasm that contains many diploid nuclei but no cell walls or membranes).THE MOVING, FEEDING FORM OF A PLASMODIAL SLIME MOLD IS A MULTINUCLEATE BLOB OF CYTOPLASM – THIS IS THE FEEDING STAGE OF THE LIFE CYCLE
223. Water Molds Eating: absorbs nutrients Movement: spores Facts: Phythora infestans – water mold that caused Irish Potato Famine
23Plant Like Protists Main Characteristic: Chlorophyll Green Pigment- traps light, carries out photosynthesisEvolved from symbiosis of photosynthetic bacteria and larger, heterotrophic bacteriaCommonly called “Algae”Many contain cell wall like plantsLack plant organs/partsClassificationUnicellular – unique characteristics – 3 typesMulticellular – type of pigments (color) – 3 types
30Multicellular Plant-Like Protists: Red, Brown, and Green Algae The 3 phyla of algae that are largely multicellular are commonly known as:4. red algae5. brown algae6. green algaeA major difference among these phyla are their photosynthetic pigments.
314. Red algae Structures: Chloroplasts, phycobilin pigments Facts: Live at deep depthsphycobilins absorb blue light (reflect red)Carageenan – red algae compound in foods – “gel”Ex: Chondrus crispus (irish moss)
356. Green Algae Structures: Chlorophyll a and c Cellulose cell wall Starch storage vacuolesFacts:Can be uni or multi celledAncestor of modern plantsSome are single cells (ex: Chlamydomonas)Some form colonies (ex: Volvox)Some are multi-cellular (ex: Ulva)
36Multicellular green algae SpirogyraMulticellular green algaeChlamhydomonasunicellulargreen algaeVolvoxcolonialgreen algaeUlvamulticellulargreen algae
37Ecology of Plant-Like Protists Produce 90% of all oxygen on earth!Phytoplankton = bottom of food chainHuman foodsIce creamsChocolateSushiPlasticsWaxesPaintsAgarCan release toxin & choke environment – algae bloom
38SummaryIn a well developed paragraph, answer the question: “Why are Protists weird?”Use the following vocabulary correctly in your response:eukaryotic, heterotrophic, autotrophic, parasitic, decomposers, unicellular, multicellular
39Pond Water Lab Review1. Imagine you find an organism that eats food, has a gullet, micronucleus and macronucleus, and moves using cilia. Based on these characteristics… –a. is it animal-like, plant-like or fungi-like?b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae
40Pond Water Lab Review2. Imagine you find an organism that eats food and moves uses pseudopods. Based on these characteristics…a. is it animal-like, plant-like or fungi-like?b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae
41Pond Water Lab Review3. Imagine you find an organism that can make its own food using chloroplasts as well as eat food using its gullet. It has an eyespot that senses light and a flagellum to move. Based on these characteristics…a. is it animal-like, plant-like, or fungi-like?b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae
424. Pond Water Lab4. Imagine you find an organism that makes its own food using chlorophyll within chloroplasts and is never heterotrophic. It has a cell wall made of cellulose and stores its food as starch. Based on these characteristics…a. it is animal-like, plant-like, or fungi-like?b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae
43Ch 19 “NO, THEY ARE NOT PLANTS” CP KINGDOM FUNGICh 19“NO, THEY ARE NOT PLANTS”
44What is a fungus? (answer this question in your own words)
45General Characteristics of Fungi UbiquitousDecomposeHETEROTROPHICSome are parasitic, some are mutualisticHave plant & animal characteristicsKind of PLANT-Like = many are anchored in the ground; cell walls (but NOT of cellulose)Kind of ANIMAL-Like = HeterotrophicOn the living and on deadParasitesSaprobes
46Fungi General Characteristics Mostly multicellularYeast unicellularThey have a nucleusMany have multiple nucleiMuch of their lifecycle is haploid!They have a cell wallMade of chitin – a protein/carb complexDigestion is EXTRACELLULAR!They secrete an enzyme that breaks down nutrients THEN they take them inNO PHOTOSYNTHESIS!
47FUNGI STRUCTURE Basic Unit = hyphae (fuzzy) Hyphae can grow as individual cells or may fuse togetherthere are different types of hyphaesome for reproduction, some for growth, some for stability (sturdy)Hyphae that form a web and work together = Mycelium
48More about their structure…. The visible part of a fungus is only a very small part of the mycelium….….most is underground or in the food source it is on/in
49FUNGI REPRODUCTION Some reproduce asexually, some sexually – most both Asexual reproductionFragmentation/budding,Spores (clones)Spores can be thick walled & resist water loss(ie, the fungus won't dry out)Sexual reproductionhaploid +/- hyphae fusion diploid gametangiummeiosis haploid spores haploid organism
51--All have different hyphae types & reproductive structures Classification4 Groups1. Zygomycota2. Ascomycota3. Basidiomycota4. Deuteromycota*--All have different hyphae types & reproductive structures-- Classified based on how they reproduce!
521. Phylum Zygomycota “Zygote fungi” Reproduce sexually & asexually Formed from 2 different gametangium that fuseGametangium zygosporeEx. Bread Mold, Athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis)
53Zygomycota Hyphae a) Rhizoid b) Stolon c) Sporangia Anchor the fungus in its food sourceb) StolonRun along the surface of the food sourceGive rise to 2 mating forms (“+” and “-”)Sexual reproduction & growthc) SporangiaAlso called “fruiting bodies”Swell at the tips of sporangiophoresContain the spores used forasexual reproduction
54Phylum Ascomycota Sac fungi Reproduce sexually & asexually Spores (called ascospores) are made in a sac is called an ascusImportant fermentersConvert sugar to CO2 & alcoholEx. Yeasts (with no hyphae), powdery mildews, food moldsYeast = only unicellular fungus!Infectious: candidiasis, ringworm
55Phylum Basidiomycota Club fungi Reproduce sexually & asexually Forms a club shaped structure = Basidia; this is where spores are made = BasidiosporeCap = where reproduction takes placeEx. Mushrooms, puffballs, smuts
65a) LichensSYMBIOSIS of a fungus (usually an ascomycetes) with an algae OR a cyanobacteriaThe fungal partner benefits by getting sugars, its only nutrients, from the algae which photosynthesize.The algal partner gets protection and nutrients broken down by the fungal partner.
66b) MycorrhizaeFungus & PlantHyphae grow onroots of plantHow does each benefit?
72QUIZ TIME Answer Questions - True or False…if false CORRECT it! 1. Fungi are autotrophs (use photosynthesis).2. Fungi spend much of their lives in a haploid state.3. There are 3 Phyla of Fungi.4. Fungi have cell walls made of cellulose.5. Fungi are made up of special cells called hyphae.
73QUIZ TIME – Answers! 1. Fungi are autotrophs (use photosynthesis). F 2. Fungi spend much of their lives in a haploid state. T3. There are 3 Phyla of Fungi. F4. Fungi have cell walls made of cellulose. F5. Fungi are made up of special cells called hyphae. T