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CP Kingdom Protista Chapter 19.

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Presentation on theme: "CP Kingdom Protista Chapter 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 CP Kingdom Protista Chapter 19

2 Quiz Self Quiz 1. Have you ever eaten ice cream?
2. Have you ever brushed your teeth ? 3. Have you ever eaten sushi? 4. Have you ever seen red tide? 5. Are you of Irish heritage?

3 Questions you need to know…
1. What are the general characteristics of Protists? 2. What are the 3 types of Protist? (and some examples) 3. What makes Protists weird?!?!

4 Classification

5 What is a Protist? Classified in Kingdom Protista
“Protista” means “very first” Evolved 1.5 billion years ago Are like Plants, Animals and Fungi but aren’t Why is this name fitting? Protists are the simplest Eukaryotes Nucleus and Membrane Bound Organelles Domain Eukarya Evolutionarily – could have been “ancestor” eukaryote organism

6 Protists are Weird!

7 Classification Classified by how they get energy
Animal Like Protists - Heterotrophic Must EAT their food Move around like animals Unicellular UNLIKE Kingdom Animalia Plant Like Protists - Autotrophic MAKE their own food Lack organs/parts UNLIKE Kingdom Plantae 3. Fungal Like Protists – Decomposers/Parasites ABSORB their food externally. Lack chitin and have centrioles UNLIKE Kingdom Fungi

8 Animal-Like Protists Once called Protozoans –“First Animals”
Make up 70 Percent of all Human Parasites Why not animals? Unicellular! 4 Groups based on how they move 1. Zooflagellates use flagella to move 2. Pseudopods move by extension in cytoplasm 3. Ciliates use cilia to move 4. Sporozoans do not move at all

9 Zooflagellates Movement: flagella Eating: Through cell membrane
Ex: Trypanosoma – African Sleeping Sickness

10 2. Pseudopods Movement: Pseudopods
Eating: Endocytosis through pseudopods Structures: Contractile Vacuole – controls water in cell Food vacuole – holds food Ex: Amoeba proteus Ex: Amoeba enteraus

11 Amoeba in Action How does it move? How does it eat?

12 3. Cilliates Ex: Paramecium
Movement: Cilia Eating: Oral groove  gullet Structures: micro and macro nuclei, food vacuole, contractile vacuole Neat fact: Swap micronuclei during conjugation = sexual reproduction

13 Paramecia in Action

14 4. Sporozoans Movement: Can’t move on their own (need a host)
Eating: through membrane Neat facts: Obligate parasites Complex life cycles that involve many hosts Ex: Plasmodium, Causes Malaria

15 Fungus-Like Protists Like Fungi:
Heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from dead or decaying organic matter. Recycle nutrients Unlike fungi: fungus-like protists have centrioles and lack chitin in their cell wall. The fungus-like protists include: 1. Cellular slime molds 2. Acellular (Plasmodial) slime molds 3. Water molds

16 1. Cellular Slime Molds Movement: oozes along the ground like amoeba; spread spores Eating: Absorb food through Facts: Spend their life as an independent individual that feeds, grows, and divides by cell division

17 Cellular Slime Molds in Action

18 Reproduction in Cellular Slime Molds:

19 2. Acellular (Plasmodial) Slime Molds
Eating: absorb food Movement: oozes along ground like an amoeba; can release spores Fact: Cells can fuse to produce plasmodia (a mass of cytoplasm that contains many diploid nuclei but no cell walls or membranes). THE MOVING, FEEDING FORM OF A PLASMODIAL SLIME MOLD IS A MULTINUCLEATE BLOB OF CYTOPLASM – THIS IS THE FEEDING STAGE OF THE LIFE CYCLE

20 Reproduction in Acellular Slime Molds:

21 Acellular Slime Mold Fuligo septica (dog’s vomit slime mold)

22 3. Water Molds Eating: absorbs nutrients Movement: spores
Facts: Phythora infestans – water mold that caused Irish Potato Famine

23 Plant Like Protists Main Characteristic: Chlorophyll
Green Pigment- traps light, carries out photosynthesis Evolved from symbiosis of photosynthetic bacteria and larger, heterotrophic bacteria Commonly called “Algae” Many contain cell wall like plants Lack plant organs/parts Classification Unicellular – unique characteristics – 3 types Multicellular – type of pigments (color) – 3 types

24 Plant-Like Protists (Algae)

25 Plant-Like Protists: Unicellular Algae
The 3 Types: 1. Euglenoids 2. Dinoflagellates 3. Diatoms

26 1. Euglenoids Movement: Flagella
Energy: Can eat (using gullet); can photosynthesize (using chloroplast) Structures: Flagella, Eyespot (detects light), chloroplast, pellicle (like a cell wall) Facts: Considered the most “animal like” plant like protist Ex: Euglena gracilalis

27 2. Dinoflagellates Movement: Flagella
Energy: Can be photosynthetic using chloroplasts or can eat Facts: can produce toxins (red tide); are bioluminscent Ex: Karenia brevis (causes red tide)

28 3. Diatoms Movement: Floats Structures: silicon cell wall (glass like)
Facts: cell walls ground and used in toothpaste; bioluminescent, produce lots of O2

29 Bioluminescent Diatoms!

30 Multicellular Plant-Like Protists: Red, Brown, and Green Algae
The 3 phyla of algae that are largely multicellular are commonly known as: 4. red algae 5. brown algae 6. green algae A major difference among these phyla are their photosynthetic pigments.

31 4. Red algae Structures: Chloroplasts, phycobilin pigments Facts:
Live at deep depths phycobilins absorb blue light (reflect red) Carageenan – red algae compound in foods – “gel” Ex: Chondrus crispus (irish moss)

32 Red Algae Chondrus crispus (Irish moss)

33 5. Brown Algae Structures: chlorophyll a and c, as well as a brown accessory pigment, fucoxanthin (foo-co-zan-thin) Facts: live in cool, shallow, coastal marine waters Can grow LARGE Examples: giant kelp

34 Brown Algae Giant kelp

35 6. Green Algae Structures: Chlorophyll a and c Cellulose cell wall
Starch storage vacuoles Facts: Can be uni or multi celled Ancestor of modern plants Some are single cells (ex: Chlamydomonas) Some form colonies (ex: Volvox) Some are multi-cellular (ex: Ulva)

36 Multicellular green algae
Spirogyra Multicellular green algae Chlamhydomonas unicellular green algae Volvox colonial green algae Ulva multicellular green algae

37 Ecology of Plant-Like Protists
Produce 90% of all oxygen on earth! Phytoplankton = bottom of food chain Human foods Ice creams Chocolate Sushi Plastics Waxes Paints Agar Can release toxin & choke environment – algae bloom

38 Summary In a well developed paragraph, answer the question: “Why are Protists weird?” Use the following vocabulary correctly in your response: eukaryotic, heterotrophic, autotrophic, parasitic, decomposers, unicellular, multicellular

39 Pond Water Lab Review 1. Imagine you find an organism that eats food, has a gullet, micronucleus and macronucleus, and moves using cilia. Based on these characteristics… – a. is it animal-like, plant-like or fungi-like? b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae

40 Pond Water Lab Review 2. Imagine you find an organism that eats food and moves uses pseudopods. Based on these characteristics… a. is it animal-like, plant-like or fungi-like? b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae

41 Pond Water Lab Review 3. Imagine you find an organism that can make its own food using chloroplasts as well as eat food using its gullet. It has an eyespot that senses light and a flagellum to move. Based on these characteristics… a. is it animal-like, plant-like, or fungi-like? b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae

42 4. Pond Water Lab 4. Imagine you find an organism that makes its own food using chlorophyll within chloroplasts and is never heterotrophic. It has a cell wall made of cellulose and stores its food as starch. Based on these characteristics… a. it is animal-like, plant-like, or fungi-like? b. circle which of the following it could be: euglena, paramecium, amoeba, green algae


44 What is a fungus? (answer this question in your own words)

45 General Characteristics of Fungi
Ubiquitous Decompose HETEROTROPHIC Some are parasitic, some are mutualistic Have plant & animal characteristics Kind of PLANT-Like = many are anchored in the ground; cell walls (but NOT of cellulose) Kind of ANIMAL-Like = Heterotrophic On the living and on dead Parasites Saprobes

46 Fungi General Characteristics
Mostly multicellular Yeast unicellular They have a nucleus Many have multiple nuclei Much of their lifecycle is haploid! They have a cell wall Made of chitin – a protein/carb complex Digestion is EXTRACELLULAR! They secrete an enzyme that breaks down nutrients THEN they take them in NO PHOTOSYNTHESIS!

47 FUNGI STRUCTURE Basic Unit = hyphae (fuzzy)
Hyphae can grow as individual cells or may fuse together there are different types of hyphae some for reproduction, some for growth, some for stability (sturdy) Hyphae that form a web and work together = Mycelium

48 More about their structure….
The visible part of a fungus is only a very small part of the mycelium…. ….most is underground or in the food source it is on/in

49 FUNGI REPRODUCTION Some reproduce asexually, some sexually – most both
Asexual reproduction Fragmentation/budding, Spores (clones) Spores can be thick walled & resist water loss (ie, the fungus won't dry out) Sexual reproduction haploid +/- hyphae fusion  diploid gametangium meiosis  haploid spores  haploid organism

50 Reproduction in Fungi

51 --All have different hyphae types & reproductive structures
Classification 4 Groups 1. Zygomycota 2. Ascomycota 3. Basidiomycota 4. Deuteromycota* --All have different hyphae types & reproductive structures -- Classified based on how they reproduce!

52 1. Phylum Zygomycota “Zygote fungi” Reproduce sexually & asexually
Formed from 2 different gametangium that fuse Gametangium zygospore Ex. Bread Mold, Athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis)

53 Zygomycota Hyphae a) Rhizoid b) Stolon c) Sporangia
Anchor the fungus in its food source b) Stolon Run along the surface of the food source Give rise to 2 mating forms (“+” and “-”) Sexual reproduction & growth c) Sporangia Also called “fruiting bodies” Swell at the tips of sporangiophores Contain the spores used for asexual reproduction

54 Phylum Ascomycota Sac fungi Reproduce sexually & asexually
Spores (called ascospores) are made in a sac is called an ascus Important fermenters Convert sugar to CO2 & alcohol Ex. Yeasts (with no hyphae), powdery mildews, food molds Yeast = only unicellular fungus! Infectious: candidiasis, ringworm

55 Phylum Basidiomycota Club fungi Reproduce sexually & asexually
Forms a club shaped structure = Basidia; this is where spores are made = Basidiospore Cap = where reproduction takes place Ex. Mushrooms, puffballs, smuts

56 Basidiomycota Reproduction

57 What is this mushroom cloud?
Spores! Releasing millions! Only 1-2/million spores may develop into mature fungus

58 Fairy Rings & My Dad

59 World’s Largest Organism
Just Kidding…..

60 World’s Largest Organism
Honey Mushroom (Armillaria ostoyae) Blue Mountains of Oregon Mycelium = 1,665 football field area Mass is over 2,000 tons Why can we only see so little?!?!

61 Phylum Deuteromycota “Imperfect Fungi” Reproduce asexually only
Typical Molds Uses: Cheeses Candy Antibiotics (penicillin) Illnesses

62 Penicillin 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming observed that colonies of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus could be destroyed by the mold Penicillium notatum

63 Aspergillus Can cause severe lung infection Can form endospores
2-4,000 year old endospore of Aspergillus niger may have caused the death of initial archeology team members excavating tombs

64 MUTUALISTIC FUNGI 2 types a) Lichens b) Mycorrhizae

65 a) Lichens SYMBIOSIS of a fungus (usually an ascomycetes) with an algae OR a cyanobacteria The fungal partner benefits by getting sugars, its only nutrients, from the algae which photosynthesize. The algal partner gets protection and nutrients broken down by the fungal partner.

66 b) Mycorrhizae Fungus & Plant Hyphae grow on roots of plant How does each benefit?


68 Now for some corny biology jokes….
What do mushroom spores do for fun?

69 I’ve taken a real Lichen to you! Hee hee hee hee!



72 QUIZ TIME Answer Questions - True or False…if false CORRECT it!
1. Fungi are autotrophs (use photosynthesis). 2. Fungi spend much of their lives in a haploid state. 3. There are 3 Phyla of Fungi. 4. Fungi have cell walls made of cellulose. 5. Fungi are made up of special cells called hyphae.

73 QUIZ TIME – Answers! 1. Fungi are autotrophs (use photosynthesis). F
2. Fungi spend much of their lives in a haploid state. T 3. There are 3 Phyla of Fungi. F 4. Fungi have cell walls made of cellulose. F 5. Fungi are made up of special cells called hyphae. T

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