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Biochemical Pathways Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemical Pathways Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemical Pathways Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

2 AUTOTROPHS ○ make their own food. ○ Ex: Phototrophs….Use light energy ○ Ex: Chemotrophs…Use inorganic compounds HETEROTROPHS ○ Must eat org. mol. for energy (carbon source).

3 Light  Form of energy Other forms: Other forms: ○ thermal, electrical, kinetic, sound, chemical  Travels in waves (diff. wavelengths)

4 Wavelength (λ)

5 FM The Electromagnetic Spectrum

6 Photosynthesis (Psyn):  Process: Light energy converts to chemical energy (sugars)  Pigments used to capture light energy

7 Pigments

8 Chlorophyll a  Chlorophyll a C 55 H 72 O 5 N 4 Mg Molecular wt Blue-Green (Not on test)

9 Chlorophyll b  Chlorophyll b C 55 H 70 O 6 N 4 Mg Molecular wt Yellow-Green (Not on test)

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11 Anthocyanin  C 15 H 11 O + pp  Blue, red, pp  fruit, flowers (Not on test)

12 ß Carotene  C 40 H 56  Mol. wt  Orange Red  Orange, Red (Not on test)

13 Xanthophyll  C 40 H 56 O 2  Mol. Wt. 568  Yellow (Not on test)

14 Chromatography  Splitting pigments apart

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16  Evergreen plants psyn. year round.  Deciduous plants affected by temp. and light changes; leaves change color - drop.  Factors affecting the rate of psyn. Temperature Water availability Intensity of light CO 2 availability

17 Vocabulary  Chloroplast-  Chloroplast- plant cell organelle ; uses light energy to make chemical energy thru psyn., has chlorophyll  Chlorophyll-  Chlorophyll- pigment: captures light energy  Stoma- opening under leaves; allows CO 2 and O 2 to diffuse in/out of leaf. (stomata, pl.)  Thylakoids-  Thylakoids- saclike body in chloroplast; made of photosynthetic membranes  Granum-  Granum- stack of thylakoids (grana, pl.)  Stroma  Stroma- fluid region outside thylakoid membranes in chloroplast.  NADP + -  NADP + - molecule that carries energy and hydrogen - becomes NADPH  ATP  ATP- chemical compound used to store energy

18 A closer look at leaves:

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21 See this web page

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24 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Let’s draw this process… 6 CO H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O O 2 light energy Carbon dioxide and water are used to make sugar, with oxygen as a byproduct. Balanced equation

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26 Chloroplast  Psyn. occurs here  Inside: chlorophylls Thylakoids = flattened membrane-bound sacks; has chlorophylls. Grana- stacks of thylakoids. Stroma= fluid matrix surrounding stacks.

27 Photosynthesis: two stages Light Dependent Reaction (LDR) Light Independent Reaction (LIR) or Calvin Cycle (used to be “dark Rx”) Both occur in chloroplast

28 Photosynthesis: Light Dependent Rx  light energy captured by chlorophyll  H 2 O split – photolysis  O 2 released  only takes place in light  occurs in thylakoids  makes NADPH & some ATP  nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase

29 (Not on test)

30 Light Rx Process (site) ( Light reaction animation) (Not on test) (site) Light reaction animation

31 ATP Production during Aerobic Respiration involving the ETC and Chemiosmosis (Not on test) Chemiosmosis

32 Photosynthesis: Light Independent Rx (Calvin Cycle)  No light needed  occurs in stroma fluid outside thylakoids  NADPH & ATP powers cycle.  CO 2 is carbon source to make glucose

33 RESPIRATION: all organisms  Converts sugars to other power molecules  Stages: 1. Glycolysis THEN: 2a. Aerobic Resp. of Mitochondrion (in eukaryotes) OR: 2b. Anaerobic Resp. (Fermentation) (in pro/eu)

34 How do cells get energy from glucose?  GLYCOLYSIS  Splits glucose into 2 pyruvic acids cytosol Takes place in the cytosol Doesn’t need oxygen (anaerobic) Very fast process  GLYCOLYSIS  Splits glucose into 2 pyruvic acids cytosol Takes place in the cytosol Doesn’t need oxygen (anaerobic) Very fast process

35 C 6 H 12 O 6 2 Pyruvic acids (3C ea.) 2ATP 4 ADP 2NAD+ 4ATP 2NADH 2ADP CCCCCC CCC

36 Cellular Respiration Step 1  Glycolysis (in cytosol, anaerobic) Glycolysis  Requires 2 ATP to start the process  Net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH  2 pyruvic acids made

37 Cellular Respiration Step 2, 3 (in mitochondrion of eukaryotes)  Kreb’s Cycle- Kreb’s Cycle- Kreb’s Cycle- In matrix fluid- breaks pyruvic acids into acetyl CoA and CO 2 (2 ATP formed) In matrix fluid- breaks pyruvic acids into acetyl CoA and CO 2 (2 ATP formed)  Electron Transport chain- In cristae membrane: ATP synthase converts ADP to ATP (32 ATP formed) In cristae membrane: ATP synthase converts ADP to ATP (32 ATP formed)

38 CO 2 O2O2 H2OH2O

39 Total ATP Yields  Glycolysis 2 ATP  Krebs Cycle 2 ATP  Electron Transport 32 ATP  Total ATP from one glucose = 36 molecules.  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36ATP This is the balanced equation for resp. This is the balanced equation for resp.

40 Respiration schematic

41  Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration form a continuous cycle : the products of one process are the reactants for the other.  Photosynthesis light 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O CO H 2 O + energy (ATP) What’s the actual difference between the two (besides the order in which things appear)? How Energy Cycles

42 If NO Oxygen present…  Fermentation occurs (in cytosol) Sustains glycolysis Keeps 2 ATPs forming from each glucose Two types: ○ Alcoholic ferm. (in prokaryotes, some eukaryotes) Some bacteria, yeast. Byproducts: Ethyl alcohol and CO 2 ○ Lactic Acid ferm. (in YOU, and other eukaryotes) Muscle tissue Byproduct: Lactic acid

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44  How fermentation sustains glycolysis Keeps NADH cycle going


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