Evergreen plants psyn. year round. Deciduous plants affected by temp. and light changes; leaves change color - drop. Factors affecting the rate of psyn. Temperature Water availability Intensity of light CO 2 availability
Vocabulary Chloroplast- Chloroplast- plant cell organelle ; uses light energy to make chemical energy thru psyn., has chlorophyll Chlorophyll- Chlorophyll- pigment: captures light energy Stoma- opening under leaves; allows CO 2 and O 2 to diffuse in/out of leaf. (stomata, pl.) Thylakoids- Thylakoids- saclike body in chloroplast; made of photosynthetic membranes Granum- Granum- stack of thylakoids (grana, pl.) Stroma Stroma- fluid region outside thylakoid membranes in chloroplast. NADP + - NADP + - molecule that carries energy and hydrogen - becomes NADPH ATP ATP- chemical compound used to store energy
Chloroplast Psyn. occurs here Inside: chlorophylls Thylakoids = flattened membrane-bound sacks; has chlorophylls. Grana- stacks of thylakoids. Stroma= fluid matrix surrounding stacks.
Photosynthesis: two stages Light Dependent Reaction (LDR) Light Independent Reaction (LIR) or Calvin Cycle (used to be “dark Rx”) Both occur in chloroplast
Photosynthesis: Light Dependent Rx light energy captured by chlorophyll H 2 O split – photolysis O 2 released only takes place in light occurs in thylakoids makes NADPH & some ATP nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase
Light Rx Process (site) ( Light reaction animation) (Not on test) (site) Light reaction animation
ATP Production during Aerobic Respiration involving the ETC and Chemiosmosis (Not on test) Chemiosmosis
Photosynthesis: Light Independent Rx (Calvin Cycle) No light needed occurs in stroma fluid outside thylakoids NADPH & ATP powers cycle. CO 2 is carbon source to make glucose
RESPIRATION: all organisms Converts sugars to other power molecules Stages: 1. Glycolysis THEN: 2a. Aerobic Resp. of Mitochondrion (in eukaryotes) OR: 2b. Anaerobic Resp. (Fermentation) (in pro/eu)
How do cells get energy from glucose? GLYCOLYSIS Splits glucose into 2 pyruvic acids cytosol Takes place in the cytosol Doesn’t need oxygen (anaerobic) Very fast process GLYCOLYSIS Splits glucose into 2 pyruvic acids cytosol Takes place in the cytosol Doesn’t need oxygen (anaerobic) Very fast process
C 6 H 12 O 6 2 Pyruvic acids (3C ea.) 2ATP 4 ADP 2NAD+ 4ATP 2NADH 2ADP CCCCCC CCC
Cellular Respiration Step 1 Glycolysis (in cytosol, anaerobic) Glycolysis Requires 2 ATP to start the process Net gain of 2 ATP and 2 NADH 2 pyruvic acids made
Cellular Respiration Step 2, 3 (in mitochondrion of eukaryotes) Kreb’s Cycle- Kreb’s Cycle- Kreb’s Cycle- In matrix fluid- breaks pyruvic acids into acetyl CoA and CO 2 (2 ATP formed) In matrix fluid- breaks pyruvic acids into acetyl CoA and CO 2 (2 ATP formed) Electron Transport chain- In cristae membrane: ATP synthase converts ADP to ATP (32 ATP formed) In cristae membrane: ATP synthase converts ADP to ATP (32 ATP formed)
Total ATP Yields Glycolysis 2 ATP Krebs Cycle 2 ATP Electron Transport 32 ATP Total ATP from one glucose = 36 molecules. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36ATP This is the balanced equation for resp. This is the balanced equation for resp.
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration form a continuous cycle : the products of one process are the reactants for the other. Photosynthesis light 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 60 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + energy (ATP) What’s the actual difference between the two (besides the order in which things appear)? How Energy Cycles
If NO Oxygen present… Fermentation occurs (in cytosol) Sustains glycolysis Keeps 2 ATPs forming from each glucose Two types: ○ Alcoholic ferm. (in prokaryotes, some eukaryotes) Some bacteria, yeast. Byproducts: Ethyl alcohol and CO 2 ○ Lactic Acid ferm. (in YOU, and other eukaryotes) Muscle tissue Byproduct: Lactic acid