2When do you use energy? List all of the ways you have used energy today.
3Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would not exist.
4Forms of EnergyEnergy comes in many forms:LightHeatElectricity. . . Energy can also be stored in the bonds of chemical compounds.
52 types of energy in living things Autotrophs- organisms that get their energy directly from the sun.Examples:Heterotroph- Organisms that eat food to obtain their energy.ALL energy begins with the sun!How does a heterotroph get energy from the sun?
6Chemical EnergyThe main compound cells use to store and release energy = ATP
7= adenosine triphosphate 1. ATP= adenosine triphosphateATP is a high energy compound2. ADP...adenosine diphosphate(1-less phosphate groupand less stored energy)
9Important Scientists Van Helmont- - Wondered if plants grew by taking mass out of the soil?- Measured the soil, planted a seed and watered the plant until it grew.- After 5 years, plants weighed 75 kg and the soil was unchanged!Concluded- water (hydrate) that made the plant grow!
10Another Scientist Priestley- Light a candle, put a glass jar over it Candle goes out immediately!Second time lit a candle with a sprig of fresh mintCandle burned for much longer than without mint.Why?Mint produces oxygen- necessary to burn!
11Last Scientist Ingenhousz- Added to Priestly’s experiment Concluded that plant must be exposed to light in order for “Priestly” effect to work.No light, no photosynthesis!
12The two cell energy processes we will discuss = PhotosynthesisCellular Respiration
13TO DOIn your notebook write the following equations. 1. Show ATP breaking down to ADP 2. Show ADP capturing energy to make ATP
14TO DO #2Write the following equations in your notebook. (should use a new page) 1. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis 2. Write the photosynthesis equation out in words. 3. Write the photosynthesis equation out in pictures. Be sure to add color!
16Who can do this? …Plants and Algae PhotosynthesisDefinition: The conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compoundsWho can do this? …Plants and Algae
17In other words, remember this: Chemical EquationIn other words, remember this:carbon dioxide + water + light energy = glucose + oxygenAs a chemical reaction it's like so:6CO2 +6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
18Photosynthesis Equation Learn the song! It will help!On a separate sheet of paper(next page of notes)1. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis2. Write the equation for photosynthesis out in words3. Write out the equation for photosynthesis in pictures! Use the colored pencils!
19Where does it happen? Within the CHLOROPLAST of a plant cell Draw & labelin notes!
20Photosynthesis begins with the absorption of light by pigments in the thylakoids Main pigments in plants = chlorophyll. It absorbs all colors of light, and reflects back green.PIGMENTS
21Light and PigmentsIn addition to water and carbon dioxide, photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll.Chlorophyll is found in chloroplast! (green)Plants gather the sun’s light in pigments. (light absorbing molecules)Since light is a form of energy, anything that absorbs light is also absorbing energy!
22Chlorophyll Absorption Complete handout activity on chlorophyll absorption!
23DO NOW: Pigments1. Write the balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis.2. What pigment does the chloroplast contain?3. What does the pigment do in a plant?
24Photosynthesis Lab1. Use your textbook, page 206 for setup instructions.2. Once your lab group has your lab set up please return to your seats. Be sure to leave your lab area clean!3. After we return to your lab answer questions 1-3.
252 Major Groups of Reactions How does it happen????2 Major Groups of ReactionsA. Light DependentB. Calvin Cycle
26Photosynthetic Processes Light Reactions- Trap the energy from sunlight.Calvin Cycle- use energy from light reactions to produce sugars. Carbon Dioxide and Water are needed with light, sugar is produced and oxygen given off! (remember equation)
27Circle on the diagram you drew. A. Light ReactionsReaction occurs in the membrane of the thylakoidChloroplastCircle on the diagram you drew.
28A. Light Reactions-con’t 2. Light excites e- in chlorophyll pigments (e- go from low energy to high energy)3. e- travel to other molecules in membrane, losing energy along the way
29This process is calledTHE ELECTRONTRANSPORTCHAIN (ETC)
30Final Step: 4. e- combine to make… ADP + phosphate + e ATP When the bond in ATP is broken, energy is released!
31Needed: Light energy & H2O Summary ofLight Reactions...Needed: Light energy & H2OMade: ATP, H+Waste: Oxygen
32TO DO: PhotosynthesisWhat is the complete chemical equation for photosynthesis?Where does photosynthesis take placeWhat organelle?What part of the organelle?Light Reactions-Dark Reactions-What is formed when electrons share their energy with other electrons?
33Photosynthesis Animation! B. Calvin Cycle(a.k.a. Dark Reaction)producesglucoseOccurs in stroma of chloroplast (circle on your diagram)Uses ATP and H from light rxn.ATP + H + CO2(from air) = glucose (carb)Photosynthesis Animation!
35The exchange of gases between the leaf and the atmosphere occurs through the STOMATA
36SummaryLight Reaction*Makes ATP from ADPCalvin Cycle*Makes glucose
37Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Water amounts- Shortage of water can slow down or stop the rate of photosynthesis.Temperature- Photosynthesis likes to occur between 0-35˚ Celsius.Intensity of Light- not enough light, no photosynthesis. Every plant needs a different amount of light.