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Chapter 15 PROTISTA Domain Eukaria This chapter represents a variety of mostly aquatic autotrophic organisms Protists range from single cells to complex,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 PROTISTA Domain Eukaria This chapter represents a variety of mostly aquatic autotrophic organisms Protists range from single cells to complex,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 15 PROTISTA Domain Eukaria

3 This chapter represents a variety of mostly aquatic autotrophic organisms Protists range from single cells to complex, multicellular organisms a mixture of several evolutionary lineages

4 Learning objectives Know the three major evolutionary lineages and what is included in each lineage Chromalveolates (Alveolates, Stramenopiles) Excavates (Euglena) Plantae (Red algae, Green algae, Charophytes) Ecosystem services provided by each group Human impacts of each group Required life cycle: Ulva (demonstrates sporic life cycle (aka alternation of generations)

5 THE EUKARYOTIC TREE OF LIFE Keeting et al Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12, Pages Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12 you are here Chlorophyll a and c Chlorophyll a and b,

6 Gamete types GAMETE TYPES a. Isogametes: gametes identical, differing only in mating type, usually a single gene b. Anisogametes: Gametes are flagellated and two different sizes. The smaller is traditionally referred to as the male c. Oogametes: One gamete is large and non-motile (egg). The other is small and motile (sperm)

7 IV. ECOLOGY ECOLOGY OF ALGAE

8 Ecology Single celled or few celled algae (Plankton) Primary producers on the food chain Plankton algae produce 50-70% of the O 2 in the atmosphere.

9 Nurseries for fisheries Coral reefs Interactions between sponges, red algae and other organisms form coral reefs. Some corals harbor green or yellow-green algae as endosymbionts Kelp Forests Mangrove Swamps harbor and protect small fish and protect the shores from erosion and storms

10 Algal blooms Caused by temperature, salinity and nutrients

11 Red Tides: Blooms of dinoflagellates, diatoms 1. Common along the gulf coast of Florida and the coast of central California 2. Fluorescent 3. Produce a neurotoxin which kills millions of fish 4.Shellfish are immune to the toxin but people eating the shellfish can die 5.Tends to occur when warm weather follows a storm with runoff A source of drugs and toxins

12 The dinoflagellate Karenia brevis Karenia brevis packs a powerful punch for a tiny organism The culprit behind Florida’s notorious red tides Produces a dozen toxins When coupled with on onshore breeze, the organism’s airborn toxins (brevetoxins) constrict bronchioles and send asthmatics and other people with breathing difficulties scrambling for treatment

13 The dinoflagellate Karenia brevis Strangely, the organism also produces a toxin antidote called brevenal, discovered in 2004 at the Center for Marine Sciences at the University of North Carolina. This compound binds to a novel receptor in the lung and relaxes bronchi It is being evaluated as a possible treatment for Cystic Fibrosis and Ciguatera (see notes) The ocean has long been suggested as a potential source of new drugs – this is one unexpected possibility

14 The dinoflagellate Karenia brevis Karenia brevis was responsible for the death of Florida’s marine mammals. 150 Manatee died in died in There are only 3000 left. The Manatee drown. The toxin paralyzes them so they cannot surface to get air. To save them, they must be supported in a sling so that they can breath and it takes months to recover. The University of North Carolina has received a special “compassionate use” permit to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of brevenal as an antidote to red tide poisoning in Manatee

15 Other algae blooms initiated by phosphate pollution and/or unusually warm water 1. Blooms get very large. 2. When large blooms begin to decay, oxygen is removed from the water by respiring bacteria and organisms die. Other Algal Blooms

16 Consequences of oxygen poor water Other Algal Blooms

17 NASA photo of dead zone off Florida Other Algal Blooms NASA photo of dead zone off New Orleans

18 US DEAD ZONES Other Algal Blooms

19 Algae may be developed as a fuel source Department of Energy announced an investment of $44 million in efforts to commercialize algae- based fuels, and last summer even ExxonMobil Corp. jumped onto the band-pontoon, announcing a partnership with scientist Craig Venter’s Synthetic Genomics Inc. to develop algae as a fuel source. Maximum production is currently possible only with supplementary CO2 and fertilizer which puts this process in the red with respect to energy production.

20 THE CHROMALVEOLATES [Alveolates/Stramenopiles] Chlorophyll a and c

21 THE EUKARYOTIC TREE OF LIFE Keeting et al Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12, Pages Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12 Chlorophyll a and c

22 alveolates PHYLUM DINOPHYTA dinoflagellates

23 photosynthetic eukaryotes Green algae Fossil history Diatom fossils Photosynthetic prokaryotes

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25 Pigments: chlorophylls a and c peridinin and other carotenoids Photosynthetic reserve (storage of photosynthetic product)=starch Cell Wall composition: armored plates of cellulose Move by: flagella (2 tinsel) but some have no flagella Habitat: Marine, freshwater and can be airborne

26 PFIESTERIA A fresh-water dinoflagelate

27 Pfiesteria piscicida A tiny killer that shoots a paralyzing toxin into its victim, attaches a trumpet-like tongue and sucks holes in its victim’s flesh

28 Pyrrhophyta – dinoflagellates - Pfiesteria

29 Pfiesteria produces an airborn neurotoxin People exposed to the toxin loose ability to carry out simple thought processes, (e.g., dialing a phone) and experience a sense of disorientation

30 Lives in fresh water and blooms are caused by runoff from farms containing nutrients and animal wastes Pyrrhophyta – dinoflagellates - Pfiesteria

31 Mergers and acquisitions: malaria and the great chloroplast heist The malaria parasite is descended from algae. It carries the remnants of a chloroplast. Closest living relative is the dinoflagelate, Chromera, which is a coral symbiont Chromera

32 ChromalveolatesStramenopiles Aka heterokonts

33 THE EUKARYOTIC TREE OF LIFE Keeting et al Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12, Pages Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12 Chlorophyll a and c

34 Stramenopiles (Heterokonts) 100,000 known species, most of them diatomsdiatoms Chloroplasts surrounded by four membranes. Chloroplasts were obtained from the reduction of a symbiotic red algal eukaryote. Oomycetes are related to these algae, rather than fungi as previously thought but lack chloroplastsOomycetes

35 Anterior Posterior Tinsel Flagellum Whiplash Flagellum Many Straminopile gametes have two kinds of flagella (heterokonts): One flagellum has tubular hairs on the flagella (tinsil). This motile reproductive structure is common to many of this group but some members of the Straminopiles seem to have lost flagella).

36 Diatoms Stramenopiles PHYLUM BACILLARIOPHYTA DIATOMS

37 THE EUKARYOTIC TREE OF LIFE Keeting et al Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12, Pages Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12

38 The various forms of diatoms

39 Pigments: chlorophylls a and c fucoxanthin and carotenoids Photosynthetic reserve (storage of photosynthetic product)= Chrysolaminarin Cell Wall composition: cellulose wall or silica shell Move by: variable Habitat: Marine, freshwater and can be airborne

40 Chrysophyta - Diatoms Each half is always the larger part of the daughter cell, the new frustule fits within it →Sexual reproduction

41 Diatoms can also reproduce sexually, undergoing meiosis and producing a flagellated sperm which fertilizes and egg nucleus

42 DiatomAlgal blooms Domoic acid is a naturally occurring toxin produced by microscopic algae, specifically the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. For the first time, scientists have identified all links in the food chain that tie toxic algal blooms to the deaths of marine mammals. In so doing, they determined the California sea lions were poisoned with domoic acid, a neuro-toxin generated by various marine algae that also affect birds, sea otters and even humans. Toxic algae can bloom in many conditions and affect many levels of the marine food chain. The California sea lions ate large quantities of anchovies and sardines that had fed on the algae. Neurological symptoms can last for years.

43 Diatomaceous earth is harvested and used - a. As a polishing agent in metal polish, toothpaste b. For reflective highway signs c. For clarifying bear or wine (silica shells absorb materials including foods) d. For swimming pool filters e. Much of the fossil oil comes from diatom deposits and diatoms are a useful indicator of oil deposits in cores Diatomaceous earth is formed from diatoms

44 Diatomaceous earth

45 StramenopilesPHYLUMCRYPTOPHYTA

46 THE EUKARYOTIC TREE OF LIFE Keeting et al Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12, Pages Trends in Ecology & Evolution Volume 20, Issue 12

47 The cryptomonads are single celled, have flagella and are very tiny (from kryptos = hidden) They are an important part of the food chain because they are a good source of fatty acids. Some are photosynthetic - some are heterotrophs that eat other plankton.

48 This group offers the best evidence that photosynthetic organisms can be engulfed and enslaved. The chloroplast of the cryptomonads came from a red algae and remnants of the nucleus of the red algae can be found microscopically

49 END


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