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1 Photosynthesis Energy & Life. 2 Autotrophs Autotrophs include organisms that make their own foodAutotrophs include organisms that make their own food.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Photosynthesis Energy & Life. 2 Autotrophs Autotrophs include organisms that make their own foodAutotrophs include organisms that make their own food."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Photosynthesis Energy & Life

2 2 Autotrophs Autotrophs include organisms that make their own foodAutotrophs include organisms that make their own food Autotrophs can use the sun’s energy directlyAutotrophs can use the sun’s energy directly Euglena

3 3 Heterotrophs Heterotrophs are organisms that can NOT make their own food Heterotrophs can NOT directly use the sun’s energy

4 4 ATP – Cellular Energy Adenosine Triphosphate Contains two, high-energy phosphate bonds Also contains the nitrogen base adenine & a ribose sugar

5 5 ADP Adenosine DiphosphateAdenosine Diphosphate ATP releases energy, a free phosphate, & ADP when cells take energy from ATPATP releases energy, a free phosphate, & ADP when cells take energy from ATP One phosphate bond has been removed

6 6 Sugar in ADP & ATP Called ribose Pentose sugar Also found in RNA

7 7 Importance of ATP Principal Compound Used To Store Energy In Living Organisms

8 8 Releasing Energy From ATP ATP is constantly being used and remade by cellsATP is constantly being used and remade by cells ATP provides all of the energy for cell activitiesATP provides all of the energy for cell activities The high energy phosphate bonds can be BROKEN to release energyThe high energy phosphate bonds can be BROKEN to release energy The process of releasing ATP’s energy & reforming the molecule is called phosphorylationThe process of releasing ATP’s energy & reforming the molecule is called phosphorylation

9 9 Releasing Energy From ATP Adding A Phosphate Group To ADP stores Energy in ATPAdding A Phosphate Group To ADP stores Energy in ATP Removing A Phosphate Group From ATP Releases Energy & forms ADPRemoving A Phosphate Group From ATP Releases Energy & forms ADP Loose Gain

10 10 Cells Using Biochemical Energy Cells Use ATP For: Active transport Movement Photosynthesis Protein Synthesis Cellular respiration All other cellular reactions

11 11 More on ATP Cells Have Enough ATP To Last For A Few SecondsCells Have Enough ATP To Last For A Few Seconds ATP must constantly be madeATP must constantly be made ATP Transfers Energy Very WellATP Transfers Energy Very Well ATP Is NOT Good At Energy StorageATP Is NOT Good At Energy Storage

12 12 Glucose Glucose is a monosaccharideGlucose is a monosaccharide C 6 H 12 O 6C 6 H 12 O 6 One Molecule of glucose Stores 90 Times More Chemical Energy Than One Molecule of ATPOne Molecule of glucose Stores 90 Times More Chemical Energy Than One Molecule of ATP

13 13 Photosynthesis Involves the Use Of light Energy to convert Water (H 2 0) and Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) into Oxygen (O 2 ) and High Energy Carbohydrates (sugars, e.g. Glucose) & StarchesInvolves the Use Of light Energy to convert Water (H 2 0) and Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) into Oxygen (O 2 ) and High Energy Carbohydrates (sugars, e.g. Glucose) & Starches

14 14 The Photosynthesis Equation

15 15 Pigments In addition to water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, photosynthesis requires Pigments Chlorophyll is the primary light-absorbing pigment in autotrophs Chlorophyll is found inside chloroplasts

16 16 Light and Pigments Energy From The Sun Enters Earth’s Biosphere As Photons Photon = Light Energy Unit Light Contains A Mixture Of Wavelengths Different Wavelengths Have Different Colors

17 17 Light & Pigments Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of lightDifferent pigments absorb different wavelengths of light Photons of light “excite” electrons in the plant’s pigmentsPhotons of light “excite” electrons in the plant’s pigments Excited electrons carry the absorbed energyExcited electrons carry the absorbed energy Excited electrons move to HIGHER energy levels Excited electrons move to HIGHER energy levels

18 18 Chlorophyll There are 2 main types of chlorophyll molecules: Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Magnesium atom at the center of chlorophyll

19 19 Chlorophyll a Found in all plants, algae, & cyanobacteriaFound in all plants, algae, & cyanobacteria Makes photosynthesis possibleMakes photosynthesis possible Participates directly in the Light ReactionsParticipates directly in the Light Reactions Can accept energy from chlorophyll bCan accept energy from chlorophyll b

20 20 Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll b is an accessory pigmentChlorophyll b is an accessory pigment Chlorophyll b acts indirectly in photosynthesis by transferring the light it absorbs to chlorophyll aChlorophyll b acts indirectly in photosynthesis by transferring the light it absorbs to chlorophyll a Like chlorophyll a, it absorbs red & blue light and REFLECTS GREENLike chlorophyll a, it absorbs red & blue light and REFLECTS GREEN

21 21 Inside A Chloroplast

22 22 Structure of the Chloroplast Double membrane organelleDouble membrane organelle Outer membrane smoothOuter membrane smooth Inner membrane forms stacks of connected sacs called thylakoidsInner membrane forms stacks of connected sacs called thylakoids Thylakoid stack is called the granun (grana-plural)Thylakoid stack is called the granun (grana-plural) Gel-like material around grana called stromaGel-like material around grana called stroma

23 23 Function of the Stroma Light Independent reactions occur hereLight Independent reactions occur here ATP used to make carbohydrates like glucoseATP used to make carbohydrates like glucose Location of the Calvin CycleLocation of the Calvin Cycle

24 24

25 25 Thylakoid membranes Light Dependent reactions occur hereLight Dependent reactions occur here Photosystems are made up of clusters of chlorophyll moleculesPhotosystems are made up of clusters of chlorophyll molecules Photosystems are embedded in the thylakoid membranesPhotosystems are embedded in the thylakoid membranes The two photosystems are:The two photosystems are: Photosytem I Photosytem I Photosystem II Photosystem II

26 26 Photosynthesis Overview

27 27 Energy Carriers Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP + )Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP + ) NADP + = Reduced FormNADP + = Reduced Form Picks Up 2 high-energy electrons and H + from the Light Reaction to form NADPHPicks Up 2 high-energy electrons and H + from the Light Reaction to form NADPH NADPH carries energy to be passed on to another moleculeNADPH carries energy to be passed on to another molecule

28 28 Occurs across the thylakoid membranesOccurs across the thylakoid membranes Uses light energyUses light energy Produce Oxygen from waterProduce Oxygen from water Convert ADP to ATPConvert ADP to ATP Also convert NADP + into the energy carrier NADPHAlso convert NADP + into the energy carrier NADPH Light Dependent Reactions

29 29 Light Dependent Reaction

30 30 Light Dependent Reaction

31 31 Photosystem I Discovered FirstDiscovered First Active in the final stage of the Light Dependent ReactionActive in the final stage of the Light Dependent Reaction Made of 300 molecules of ChlorophyllMade of 300 molecules of Chlorophyll Almost completely chlorophyll aAlmost completely chlorophyll a

32 32 Photosystem II Discovered SecondDiscovered Second Active in the beginning stage Of the Light Dependent ReactionActive in the beginning stage Of the Light Dependent Reaction Contains about equal amounts of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll bContains about equal amounts of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b

33 33 Photosynthesis Begins Photosystem II absorbs light energy Electrons are energized and passed to the Electron Transport Chain Lost electrons are replaced from the splitting of water into 2H +, free electrons, and Oxygen 2H + pumped across thylakoid membrane

34 34 Photosystem I High-energy electrons are moved to Photosystem I through the Electron Transport Chain Energy is used to transport H + from stroma to inner thylakoid membrane NADP+ converted to NADPH when it picks up 2 electrons & H+

35 35 Phosphorylation Enzyme in thylakoid membrane called ATP Synthase As H+ ions passed through thylakoid membrane, enzyme binds them to ADP Forms ATP for cellular

36 36

37 37 Light Reaction Summary Reactants: H 2 OH 2 O Light EnergyLight Energy Energy Products: ATPATP NADPHNADPH

38 38 Light Independent Reaction ATP & NADPH from light reactions used as energyATP & NADPH from light reactions used as energy Atmospheric C0 2 is used to make sugars like glucose and fructoseAtmospheric C0 2 is used to make sugars like glucose and fructose Six-carbon Sugars made during the Calvin CycleSix-carbon Sugars made during the Calvin Cycle Occurs in the stromaOccurs in the stroma

39 39 The Calvin Cycle

40 40 The Calvin Cycle Two turns of the Calvin Cycle are required to make one molecule of glucoseTwo turns of the Calvin Cycle are required to make one molecule of glucose 3-CO 2 molecules enter the cycle to form several intermediate compounds (PGA)3-CO 2 molecules enter the cycle to form several intermediate compounds (PGA) A 3-carbon molecule called Ribulose Biphosphate (RuBP) is used to regenerate the Calvin cycleA 3-carbon molecule called Ribulose Biphosphate (RuBP) is used to regenerate the Calvin cycle

41 41

42 42 Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis Amount of available waterAmount of available water TemperatureTemperature Amount of available light energyAmount of available light energy


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