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Plant Nutrients Jason Gehrke 2164A, B, E, F, G.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Nutrients Jason Gehrke 2164A, B, E, F, G."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Nutrients Jason Gehrke 2164A, B, E, F, G

2 Macro/Micro Nutrients
Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Magnesium Calcium Sulfur Micro Boron Copper Chlorine Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Zinc Iron

3 Macro-Nutrients Nitrogen Phosphorus Amino acid synthesis Proteins
Chlorophyll Enzymes Phosphorus Storage and transfer of energy as ATP Proteins Co-enzymes Make phospholipids and nucleic acids

4 Macro-Nutrients Potassium Magnesium
Maintain plant cell structure (turgidity) Plant cell processes Enzyme activation Sugar translocation Magnesium Central atom of the chlorophyll molecule Aids in phosphorus uptake

5 Macro-Nutrients Calcium Sulfur
Maintains Plant cell walls and cell division Sulfur Required for several amino acids Cell respiration Crucial for protein synthesis

6 Deficienies Color Plant Stunting Decrease in flower budding
Yellowing of leaves (chlorosis) Nitrogen Potassium Plant Stunting Decrease in flower budding Decrease in Plant Size

7 MicroNutrients Boron Copper Flowering, fruiting, cell division
Translocation of sugars in plants Copper Chlorophyll synthesis Catalyst for respiration Catalyst for carbohydrate and protein metabolism

8 MicroNutrients Manganese Molybdenum Crucial in chlorophyll synthesis
Phosphorylation Activation of enzymes Carbohydrate metabolism Molybdenum Protein Synthesis Required by some enzymes

9 MicroNutrients Zinc Iron An enzyme activator Chlorophyll production
Enzyme reactions Chlorophyll production

10 Nutrient Uptake Process
Minerals dissolve in water and become small electrically charged particles (ions) Soil surface is negatively charged Positive minerals bind to negative soil surface Water displaces the minerals in the soil Free minerals are absorbed by plant root cells

11 pH Indicates the level of acidity or alkalinity
Acidity pH < 7 (less than) Alkalinity pH > 7 (greater then) Plants prefer soil pH around Many nutrients are abundant in this range pH preference is different for each plant Low pH can kill microorganism Example: nitrogen fixing bacteria

12 pH and Nutrient Availability

13 Nutrient Sources Natural Organisms Crop Residues Animal Wastes
Commercial Fertilizers

14 Nutrient Sources Natural Organisms Nodulation Mycorrhiza

15 Nodulation Symbiotic relationship is Mutualism between legume plants roots and bacteria Rhizobacteria- living soil bacteria convert nitrogen gas N2 to ammonia NH3 Attach to root hairs of plants and plant roots curl around them Bacteria stimulate the root cortex cells to divide Form a nodule program/ub2002/rhiz_host.htm

16 Nodulation Nodule is a modified lateral root with own meristem and vascular tissue. 1/3 of nitrogen for plant comes from fixation 3 different rhizobacteria, each specific to a legume species

17 Mycorrhiza Symbiotic relationship is Mutualism
Fungal hyphae closely associate with active root Fungus uses photosynthates flowing from shoot to root as a source of food Plant receives phosphate taken up by mycorrhiza from the soil

18 Crop Residues Left over crops are chopped up and plowed under soil
Corn stalks Alfalfa Sunflowers

19 Animal Wastes Animal wastes differ with different Animal types
Feeds fed to animals Human handling (dry or wet storage) soilccr_mcropres.htm

20 Commercial Fertilizers
Types Dry granules Liquids Gas Grades (N-P-K) fertilizing_food.htm

21 Examples Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium
Ammonium Nitrate (33-0-0) dry granules Urea (45-0-0) dry granules Ammonium Sulfate (21-0-0) dry granules Phosphorus Super phosphate (0-20-0) contains 24% sulfur Potassium Potassium chloride (0-0-62) dry granules


23 Conversions Nitrogen Phosphorus is in the form P2O5
No conversion needed 100% nitrogen Phosphorus is in the form P2O5 Atomic weight P=31, O=16 2(31) + 5(16) = 142 P = %P/total weight, so 62/142 = 0.44 P= 44% of P2O5 Potassium is in the form K2O Atomic weight K=39.1, O=16 2(39.1) + (16) = 94.2 K = %/K/total weight, so 78.2/94.2 = 0.83 K= 83% of P2O5

24 Example Conversion 10-25-30 In 1500 lbs of Fertilizer
N= 1500 x .10 = 150 lbs P2O5= 1500 x .25 = 375 lbs K2O= 1500 x .30 = 450 lbs

25 Example Conversion 10-25-30 Total amount of N-P-K N= 150 Lbs
In 1500 lbs of Fertilizer N= 1500 x .10 = 150 lbs P2O5= 1500 x .25 = 375 lbs K2O= 1500 x .30 = 450 lbs Total amount of N-P-K N= 150 Lbs P = 375 x .44 = 165 lbs K= 450 x .83 = lbs

26 Nutrient Testing To determine how much fertilizer to apply have soil tested Take soil sample to lab Lab will test for available P & K in soil

27 Environmental Factors
Soil Composition Sandy soils will drain faster, hold less nutrients Clay soils will retain more nutrients, but will drain slower Water/Rain Need some rain so fertilizer will dissolve if it is in dry granule form Heavy rain will cause fertilizer to leach through soil pass plant roots Too Little Water (drought conditions) and fertilizer application is worthless

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