2AutotrophsPlants are autotrophs (meaning “self-feeders” in Greek) in that they make their own food and thus sustain themselves without eating other organisms or even organic molecules.Chloroplasts of plant cells capture light energy that has traveled 150 million kilometers from the sun and convert it to chemical energy that is stored in sugar and other organic molecules.
3ProducersPlants, algae, some prokaryotes make their own organic molecules and are the ultimate source of organic molecules for almost all other organisms.Often referred to as the producers of the biosphere because they produce its food supplyAll organisms that produce organic molecules from inorganic molecules using the energy of light are called photoautotrophs.
4ChloroplastsAll green parts of a plant have chloroplasts in their cells and can carry out photosynthesis.In most plants, leaves have the most chloroplasts and are the major sites of photosynthesis.Chloroplasts are concentrated in the cells of the mesophyll, the green tissue in the interior of the leaf.Each mesophyll has numerous chloroplastsCarbon dioxide enters the leaf and oxygen exits via tiny pores called stomata.Water absorbed by the roots is delivered to the leaves in veins.
5ChloroplastsMembranes in the chloroplast form the framework where many of the reactions of photosynthesis occur, just as mitochondrial membranes do for cell respiration.Similar to mitochondria, chloroplast has an outer membrane and an inner membrane, with an intermembrane space between them.Inner membrane is filled with a thick fluid called stromaStroma is where sugars are made from carbon dioxide and waterWithin stroma is a system of interconnected membranous sacs called thylakoidsEnclose a third compartment called the thylakoid spaceBuilt into thylakoid membranes are the chlorophyll molecules that capture light energy.Membranes also house much of the machinery that converts light energy to chemical energy.In some places, thylakoids are concentrated in stacks called grana.
7Photosynthesis is a redox 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2When water molecules are split apart, yielding O2, they are actually oxidized; that is, they lose electrons along with hydrogen ionsMeanwhile, CO2 is reduced to sugar as electrons and hydrogen ions are added to it.Overall, cell respiration harvest energy stored in a glucose molecule by:oxidizing the sugar and reducing O2 to H2O, involving a number of energy-releasing redox reactions,with electrons losing potential energy as they travel down an energy hill from sugar to O2.Along the way, the mitochondria uses some of the energy to synthesize ATP.In contrast, photosynthesis redox reactions involve an uphill climb.As water is oxidized and CO2 is reduced, electrons gain energy by being boosted up an energy hill.Light energy captured by chlorophyll molecules in the chloroplast provides the boost for the electrons.Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy and stores it in sugar molecules.
8Photosynthesis: Overview Photo, from the Greek word for light, refers to the first stage.Synthesis, meaning “putting together” refers to the sugar construction in the second stage
9Photosynthesis Overview Occurs in two stages:Light reactionsInclude the steps that convert light energy to chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH and produce O2 gas as a waste product.Occur in thylakoid membranesLight energy absorbed by chlorophyll is used to make ATP from ADP and phophate.Also used to drive a transfer of electrons from water to NADP+, an electron carrier similar to NAD+ that carries electrons in cellular respiration.NADP+ gets reduced to NADPH via enzymes by adding a pair of light-excited electrons along with an H+Reaction temporarily stores energized electrons which originally came form water that is split and O2 is released.
10Photosynthesis Overview Dark reactions, or Calvin CycleOccurs in the stromaDoes not require light directlyCyclic series of reactions that assembles sugar molecules using CO2 and the energy-containing products (NADPH and ATP) of the light reactions.Incorporation of carbon from CO2 into organic compounds is called carbon fixation.After carbon fixation, enzymes of the cycle make sugars by further reducing the carbon compounds.
11Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Electromagnetic energytype of energy that is sunlightTravels in space as rhythmic waves analagous to those made by a pebble dropped in a puddle of waterDistance between the crests of two adjacent waves is called a wavelength.In the electromagnetic spectrum, shorter wavelengths have more energy than longer ones.Visible light- the radiation your eyes can see as different colors, consists of wavelengths from about 380 nm to 750 nm
12Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Figure 7.6B shows what happens to visible light in the chloroplast.Light absorbing molecules called pigments, built into the thylakoid membranes, absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect or transmit other wavelengths.We do not see the absorbed wavelengths; their energy has been absorbed by pigment moleculesWe see green wavelengths when we look at plants that the pigments transmit and reflect.
13Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Pigments of chloroplast:Chlorophyll aAbsorbs mainly blue-violet and red lightParticipates directly in the light reactionsLooks grass-green because it reflects mainly green lightChlorophyll bAbsorbs mainly blue and orange light and reflects (appears) yellow-green.Broadens the range of light that a plant can use by conveying absorbed energy to chlorophyll a, which then puts the energy to work in the light reactionsCarotenoidsAbsorb mainly blue-green light and reflects yellow-orangeSome may pass energy to chlorophyll a, as chlorophyll b doesHave a protective function: absorb and dissipate excessive light energy that would other-wise damange chlorophyll
14Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy The theory of light as waves explains most of light’s properties.However, light also behaves as discrete packets of energy called photons:A fixed quantity of light energy, and the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy.Each type of pigment absorbs certain wavelengths of light because it is able to absorb the specific amounts of energy in those photons.
15Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy PhotosystemsClusters of chlorophyll molecules along with other pigments and proteins in the thylakoid membraneConsists of a number of light-harvesting complexes surrounding a reaction center.Have chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid pigments that function collectively as a light-gathering antenna.Pigments absorb photons and pass the energy from molecule to molecule until it reaches the reaction center.
16Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Photosystems:Reaction centerA protein complex that contains a chlorophyll a molecule and a molecule called the primary electron acceptor:Captures a light-excited electron from the reaction-center chlorophyll molecule and passes it to an electron transport chain
17Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Photosystems:Two types: Photosystem I and Photosytem II:Photosystem I:Occurs second in light reactionsReaction center is called P700 because the wavelength of light it absorbs best is 700 nmPhotosystem II:Occurs first in light reactionsChlorophyll a molecule in reaction center is called P680 because the light it absorbs best is red light with a wavelength of 680nm
18Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy
19Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Light energy is transformed into the chemical energy of ATP and NADPHIn this process, electrons removed from water molecules pass from photosystem II to photosystem I to NADP+Between the two photosystems, the electrons move down an electron transport chain and provide energy for ATP production.
20Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Flow of electrons in light reactions (Figure 7.8A):A pigment molecule in a light-harvesting complex absorbs a photon of light. The energy is passed to other pigment molecules and finally to the reaction center of Photosystem II, where it excites an electron of chlorophyll P680 to a higher energy level.The electron is captured by the primary electron acceptor.Water is split, and its electrons are supplied one by one to P680, replacign those lost to the primary electron acceptor. The oxygen atom compbines with an oxygen from another split water molecule to form a molecule of O2.
21Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Flow of electrons in light reactions (Figure 7.8A):4. each photoexcited electron passes from photosystem II to photosystem I via an electron transport chain. The exergonic “fall” of electrons provides energy for the synthesis of ATP.5. Meanwhile, light energy excites an electron of chlorophyll P700 in the reaction center of photosystem I. The primary electron acceptor captures the excited electron and an electron from the bottom of the electron transport chain replaces the lost electron in P700.6. The excited electrons of photosystem I is passed through a short electron transport chain to NADP+, reducing it to NADPH
22Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy ChemiosmosisDrives ATP synthesis using the potential energy of a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions across a membraneGradient is created when an electron transport chain pumps hydrogen ions across a membrane as it passes electrons down the chain.
23Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Chemiosmosis (ctd)Relationship between chloroplast structure and function in light reactions:The two photosystems and e.t.c. are all located in the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast.As photoexcited electrons are passed down the e.t.c. connecting the two photosystems, H+ are pumped across the membrane from the stroma into the thylakoid space. This generates a concentration gradient across the membrane.
24Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Chemiosmosis (ctd)Similar ATP synthase complex in mitochondriaEnergy of concentration gradient drives H+ back across the membrane through ATP synthaseATP synthase couples the flow of H+ to the phosphorylation of ADP: called photophosphorylation
25Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy Chemiosmosis (ctd)In photosynthesis, light energy is used to drive electrons to the top of the transport chain (whereas, cell respiration, high-energy electrons pass down the e.t.c. coming from oxidation of food molecules)Chloroplasts transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP (whereas, mitochondria transfer chemical energy from food to ATP)In photosynthesis, the final electron acceptor is NADP+ (whereas, in cell respiration, O2 is)In photosynthesis, electrons are stored in at a high state of potential energy in NADPH (whereas, in cell respiration, they are at a low energy level in H20)
26Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy
27Dark Reaction (Calvin Cycle) Converting CO2 to sugars Figure 7.10A: Overview of Calvin CycleCO2 (from air), energy from ATP and high energy electrons from NADPH (both generated by light reactions) , the Calvin Cycle constructs an energy-rich, three-carbon sugar, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P).A plant cell uses G3P to make glucose and other organic molecules as needed.
28Dark Reaction (Calvin Cycle) Converting CO2 to sugars Figure 7.10B: Details of the Calvin CycleCarbon fixation: the enzyme rubisco attaches CO2 to RuBP (5-C). The unstable 6-C product splits into two molecules called 3-PGA.For three CO2, six 3-PGA resultReduction: NADPH reduces the organic acid six 3-PGA to six molecules G3P with the assistance of ATP
29Dark Reaction (Calvin Cycle) Converting CO2 to sugars 3. Release of one molecule of G3P:Five G3Ps remain in the cycle, and one G3P will leave. Plant cells use two G3P molecules to make one molecule of glucose.4. Regeneration of RuBPenergy from ATP drives a series of chemical reactions to rearrange the atoms in the five G3P molecules to form three RuBP molecules. These can start another turn of the cycle.
30Dark Reaction (Calvin Cycle) Converting CO2 to sugars
31Absorption spectrumAs light meets matter, it may be reflected, transmitted, or absorbed.PigmentsSubstances that absorb visible lightDifferent pigments absorb light of different wavelengthsChlorophylls absorb red and blue-violet light and appear greenCarotenoids absorb blue-violet and appear orange, yellow, or redMeasured with a spectrophotometer.
32Absorption spectrum Absorption spectrum Light absorption vs. the wavelengthAbsorption spectrum of different photosynthetic pigments provides clues to their role in photosynthesis, since light can only perform work if it is absorbed.Accessory pigments (chlorophyll b and carotenoids) absorb wavelengths of light that chlorophyll a cannot, pass the energy to chlorophyll a, broadening the spectrum that can effectively drive photosynthesis.
33Absorption Spectrum Action spectrum Profiles the effectiveness of different wavelength light in fueling photosynthesis.It is obtained by plotting wavelength against some measure of photosynthetic rate.
35Abiotic factors impact on photosynthetic rate Photosynthetic rate is depended on environmental factors:Amount of light availableLevel of carbon dioxidetemperature
36Light intensityUp to a certain intensity, photosynthesis increases as more light is available to the chlorophyll.When all the chlorophyll molecules are activated (saturated) by the light, more light has no further effect.
38TemperatureIncreased temperature increases photosynthetic rate until an optimal temperature is reached.Above the optimal temperature, enzymes cannot function properly and photosynthesis will decrease.