3 A color additive is any dye, pigment or substance which when added or applied to a food, drug or cosmetic, or to the human body, is capable (alone or through reactions with other substances) of imparting color.
4 REASONS Used to : Improve a food’s keeping properties Improve a food’s keeping properties Maintain or improve nutritional value Maintain or improve nutritional value Maintain and improve a product’s sensory properties, such as texture, consistency, taste, aroma and colour. Maintain and improve a product’s sensory properties, such as texture, consistency, taste, aroma and colour. Maintain palatability and wholesomeness Maintain palatability and wholesomeness Offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions Offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions Correct natural variations in color; Correct natural variations in color; Enhance colors that occur naturally; Enhance colors that occur naturally; Provide color to colorless and “fun” foods Provide color to colorless and “fun” foods
6 ARTIFICIAL COLOURS VS NATURAL COLOURS Artificial colours Obtained by chemical reactions high stability to light, oxygen and pH colour uniformity low microbiological contamination low production cost Health concerns – allergens Cancer risks?? Consumer acceptability – questionable? Natural colours : Obtained from natural – processed by physical means less stable less bright not uniform Expensive Benefits to health Consumer acceptability – good
7 Adding colour - Do we need it? Which one would you buy? And which do you think would taste better? Some people react badly to tartrazine. Some manufacturers have started to replace it with turmeric oleoresin.
8 Food dyes are simply used for “the look.” The main purpose for color additives is to seem more inviting and appealing, especially to children. Stated by the Executive Director, of the Centre for Science in the Public Interest, Michael Jacobson, "It masks the absence of real food.” (“Secret Shame” par. 2) Let’s face it, how often do children choose a piece of toast over a pop tart, not very often. The color and sprinkles on a pop tart look “more tasty.” Society often has the need for aesthetic, often choosing what they eat by whether it “looks” good or not, not whether it is good for your health. When foods are processed, they often loose their color, and food dyes can make the food look “attractive.”
10 A. CHLOROPHYLLS Green pigments involved in the photosynthesis of higher plants. Source & Location: in plants located within chloroplast. Chlorophill molecules are imbedded in the lamellae and are closely associated with lipids, proteins, and lipoproteins.
12 Physical & Chemical properties Soluble in alcohols, ether, benzene, acetone. Insoluble in water Chlorophylls maybe altered in many ways but in food processing the most common is pheophytinization Pheophytinization is replacement of the central magnesium of chlorophyll structure by hidrogen and the consequent formation of the dull olive- brown Chlorophyllides may be formed by removal of the phytol chain. Its have essentially the same spectral properties as the chlorophylls but more water soluble.
13 Effect Of Food Handling, Processing, and Storage Dehidrated product that photooxidation and loss of desirable color. It has also been observed that the converssion of chlorophyll to pheophytin. Gamma irradiation also convert chlorophyll to pheophytin Fermentation can also cause color changes. Pheophytin and pheophorbides were formed, and development of acetic brines. Heat processed effect on degradation of chlorophyll. Rapidly turn from a bright green to a dull olive-brown caused convertion chlorophyll to pheophytin.
14 During heating & storage occur production acid (acetic & pyrrolidone- carboxilic acid) that convert chlorophyll to pheophytin.
15 Preservation of the green color Convert chlorophyll to chlorophyllides by esterase, chlorophyllase because chlorophyllades more stable than chlorophyll Using alkalizing agent to produce higher pH minimize pheophyitin formation. example: Ca(OH) 2, Mg(OH) 2 High temperature short time (HTST) to stabilize chlorophyll during processing Storage at controlled atmosphere increase chlorophyll retention, particularly as the concentration of CO 2 was increased.
16 B. MYOGLOBIN & HEMOGLOBIN Myoglobinstore O 2 in muscle Hemeglobintransport O 2 in blood Serve to complex with the oxygen required for metabolic activity of the animal. Structure: mioglobinhemoglobin
17 Chemical Properties Reaction with oxygen to form complex oxymyoglobin and oxidation of myoglabin will form that known as metmyoglobin. forming the covalent complexes of myoglobin with molecular oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide (oxymyoglobin, nitrosomyoglobin, carboxymyoglobin)
19 C. KAROTENOID Carotenoidsgroup mainly lipid soluble compounds responsible of the yellow and red colors. Color yellow – red are formed by double bond conjugated. Double bond >>>>>> red color 2 groups of carotenoid : carotenes : class hidrocarbon xanthophylls : their oxigenated derivatives Carotenids consist of 8 isoprenoids unit in the center of the mlecule.
21 CHEMICAL REACTION β-Carotene is a precursor of vitamin A, a well known nutrient in the human diet. β-Carotene yields two molecules of vitamin A by cleavage at the center of the molecule. Carotenoids may autooxidatin by reaction with atmospheric oxygen at rate depend on light, heat, and presence of pro and antioxidant Carotenoids can act as antioxidant or prooxidant depent on system
22 Application as food color Fat based: margarine, butter, oils, etc Water based: beverages, soups, dairy product, syrup, etc. Need to prepare water-dispersible by colloidal suspension or by emulsification.
23 D. ANTOSIANIN & FLAVONOID Anthocyanin pigment is composed of aglicone (an anthocyanidin) esterifid to one or more sugar form as glicosidic and the color is red, blue, and vilet Source: many fruits, vegetable, and flowers Stucture:
24 Anthocyanins can be extracted by maceration with 1% hydrochloric acid in metanol, filtration, and concentration of filtrat. Stability of anthocyanins depend on pH, temperature, and enzyme(phenolase). The reaction usually involve decolorization. Anthocyanins more stable at lower pH & lower temperature.
25 SYNTHETIC FOOD COLORANS NameUsageFacts you need to know Allura Red ACFood coloring in snacks, sauces, preserves, soups, wine, cider, etc. Avoid - asthma, rhinitis (including hayfever), or urticaria (hives). AmaranthFood coloring in wine, spirits, fish roe. Banned in the U.S. Avoid - asthma, rhinitis, urticaria or other allergies. Brilliant Black BNIn drinks, sauces, snacks, wines, cheese, etc. Avoid - asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, or other allergies ErythrosineConfectionaryPromotes thyroid tumours
26 NameUsageFacts you need to know Ponceau 4R, Conchineal Red A Food colouringPeople with asthma, rhinitis or urticaria - symptoms worsen Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S Food ColouringAnimal studies indicate growth retardation and severe weight loss. People with asthma, rhinitis, or urticaria should avoid this product. TartrazineYellow food coloringAllergic reactions and asthmatic attacks. Implicated in bouts of hyperactivity disorder in children. Asthma, rhinitis and urticaria - symptoms worsen
28 THE REASON COLORANT APPLICATIONS 1) Correcting for natural variations in food or ingredient colors 2) Correcting for color changes during storage, processing, packaging,or distribution 3) Emphasizing associated flavors or preserving unique identifying characteristics 4) Protecting flavor and vitamins from photodegradation
29 the key decisions to be made in determining the optimal colorant for a specific application: a) What is the target shade? b) What are the physical/chemical attributes of the food? c) Are there any nontechnical marketing requirements that must be met? d) In what countries will the finished product be marketed? e) What processing will the food undergo? f) What type of packaging will be used? g) What will the storage conditions be for the finished food?
30 FSA’S Recommendation Proposals for new legislation on food additives ‘.’ ‘consumption may have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children.’ The agency will work closely with manufacturers and retailers.
31 February 2009: Maryland – first state to considers ban on Food Additives Linked to ADHD http://www.foodnavigator.com/Publications/Food-Beverage- Nutrition/FoodProductionDaily/Quality-Safety/Maryland-eyes-artificial-food- color-ban Warning: The color additives in this food may cause hyperactivity and behavior problems in some children.
32 ADI Concept The ADI has been defined as the amount of a substance that can be consumed everyday throughout the lifetime of an individual without any appreciable adverse health effects. (JECFA,1996).
33 Colour Name Acceptable Daily Intake (mg/kg bw) Red colour Ponceau 4R 4.0 Red colour Carmoisine 4.0 Red colour Erythrosine 0.1 Yellow colour Tartrazine 7.5 Yellow colour Sunset yellow FCF 2.5 Blue colour Indigo carmine 5.0 Blue colour Brilliant blue FCF 12.5 Green Fast green FCF 25.0 PERMITTED FOOD COLOURS – SAFETY ASSESSMENT
34 toxicological testing food colours 1. One subchronic feeding study, of 90 days duration, in a nonrodent species, usually the dog 2. Acute toxicity studies in rats 3. Chronic feeding studies in at least two animal species (one with in utero exposure), lasting at least 24–30 months 4. One teratology study 5. One multigeneration reproduction study using mice 6. One mutagenicity test
36 Sudan I: the bungles that put poisons on our plates European Union food safety summit Imported Chilli powder contaminated with Sudan 1.
37 All KFC outlets in China have stopped selling New Orleans roast chicken wings and chicken hamburgers Wednesday after the cancer-causing food coloring, Sudan I, was found in the sauce Tuesday KFC pulls food after contamination scare By Wu Chong and Shao Xiaoyi (China Daily) 2005-03-17
38 Chilli pickles join the growing list of products on UK supermarket shelves contaminated by the harmful, and illegal, red food dye, Sudan I. http://www.foodnavigator.com/Legislation/Indian-pickle-joins- sudan-scarehttp://www.foodnavigator.com/Legislation/Indian-pickle-joins- sudan-scare 25-Jan-2005 INDIAN PICKLE JOINS SUDAN SCARE
39 Sausages could contain cancer-causing dyes say Eurochiefs Cancer scare over food colour added to sausages and burgers 10 July 2007
40 China is a major transgressor as carcinogenic chemicals are regularly used as food colouring agents or as preservatives, experts say. "In China, food safety is not a concern and all sorts of things like Sudan red, Malachite green are added in food, so food contamination is widespread," said Peter Yu, professor of biology and chemical technology at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/11/03/2408563.htm http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/11/03/2408563.htm Posted Mon Nov 3, 2008 12:29pm AEDT Melamine scare highlights food chain risks
41 You may think twice before consuming processed foods for fear of synthetic food colours, which makes them attractive. The need of the hour is to ensure strict enforcement of Prevention of Food Adulteration Act and consumer education programme to prevent excessive intake of permitted as well as non-permitted coloured food items http://news.indiainfo.com/2005/07/31/3107coloured-foods.html http://news.indiainfo.com/2005/07/31/3107coloured-foods.html July 31 2005 COLOURED FOODS CAN CAUSE SERIOUS HEALTH HAZARDS