12How Does CO2 Get In The Plant? CO2 enters the ____________What is the source of CO2? ______Air78.08 %N220.95 %O20.03 %CO2argon, helium, hydrogen, ozone, methane
13How Does Water Get In The Plant? Water enters through the __________Most water is lost from the plant through the _________To reduce water loss leaves are covered with a waxy cuticle (plant “chapstick”)
15The Leaf is Covered with a Waxy Cuticle: “Plant Chapstick” If water cannot get out ofthe leaf through the waxycuticle what cannot getinto the leaf for P/S?CO2 EntersH2O ExitsMesophyll cell or photosynthetic cell: Note the chloroplasts
30Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a green pigment Pigments absorb light energyThe color you see is the color that is reflectedWhite versus BlackWhy is chlorophyll green?Would you expect green light to be an effective color of light for P/S?
38Photosynthesis is a Two Step Process 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2The Light Reactions: Light DependantPhotochemicalConvert light energy into chemical energyThe Light IndependentTemperature DependantUse the chemical energy created in the light reactions to convert CO2 to glucose
40Locations of Reactions The Light Dependent Reactions occur on the granaThe Light Independent Reactions take place in the stroma
41High Potential Energy Molecules NADP e- (2H) NADPH H+e-e-P PNADPH H+ NADP e-Is this an example of oxidation or reduction?(oxidation = loss of e-, reduction = gain of e-)Does the formation of NADPH require or release energy?
42High Potential Energy Molecules NADP e- (2H) NADPH H+Reduction (endergonic)NADPH H+ NADP e-Oxidation (exergonic)Does the formation of NADPH require or release energy?
43High Potential Energy Molecules Adenosine TriphosphateAdenosine Diphosphate + P + EnergyHigh P.E.Low P.E.Low P.E.High P.E.
44The Light ReactionsPhotochemical: Light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of two high potential energy molecules.
45The Light ReactionsThe Two High Potential Energy Molecules Produced are:__________The Electron Source is?__________When water gives up electrons what waste product is produced?
49THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) Figure 10.13aPhotosystemSTROMAPhotonLight- harvesting complexesReaction- center complexPrimary electron acceptoreThylakoid membraneFigure The structure and function of a photosystem.Transfer of energySpecial pair of chlorophyll a moleculesPigment moleculesTHYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID)(a) How a photosystem harvests light49
68Figure 10.19 The Calvin cycle. Input3(Entering one at a time)CO2Phase 1: Carbon fixationRubisco3PPShort-lived intermediate3PP6PRibulose bisphosphate (RuBP)3-Phosphoglycerate6ATP6 ADPCalvin Cycle6PP1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate6 NADPH6 NADP6 P iFigure The Calvin cycle.6PGlyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)Phase 2: Reduction1PG3P (a sugar)Glucose and other organic compoundsOutput68
83Electron transport chain Figure 10.17MitochondrionChloroplastMITOCHONDRION STRUCTURECHLOROPLAST STRUCTUREHDiffusionIntermembrane spaceThylakoid spaceElectron transport chainInner membraneThylakoid membraneFigure Comparison of chemiosmosis in mitochondria and chloroplasts.ATP synthaseMatrixStromaADP P iATPKeyHigher [H ]HLower [H ]83