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Photosynthesis The Sun The Ultimate Energy Source For Life on Planet Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis The Sun The Ultimate Energy Source For Life on Planet Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Photosynthesis The Sun The Ultimate Energy Source For Life on Planet Earth

2 Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Photosynthesis is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy Directly or indirectly, photosynthesis nourishes almost the entire living world © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Pyramid of Biomass The Sun Photosynthesis (P/S) Producers Consumers Autotrophs Heterotrophs Trophic Levels

4 Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere, producing organic molecules from CO 2 and other inorganic molecules Almost all plants are photoautotrophs, using the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Autotrophs

5 Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, certain other protists, and some prokaryotes These organisms feed not only themselves but also most of the living world © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. BioFlix: PhotosynthesisBioFlix: Photosynthesis

6 (a) Plants (b)Multicellular alga (c)Unicellular protists (d) Cyanobacteria (e)Purple sulfur bacteria 10  m 1  m 40  m Figure 10.2

7 Heterotrophs obtain their organic material from other organisms Heterotrophs are the consumers of the biosphere Almost all heterotrophs, including humans, depend on photoautotrophs for food and O 2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Heterotrophs

8 The Earth’s supply of fossil fuels was formed from the remains of organisms that died hundreds of millions of years ago In a sense, fossil fuels represent stores of solar energy from the distant past (“Ancient Sunlight”) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Fossil Fuels

9 Concept 10.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food Chloroplasts are structurally similar to and likely evolved from photosynthetic bacteria The structural organization of these cells allows for the chemical reactions of photosynthesis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 Photosynthesis (net consumption of water) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Light Chlorophyll

11 Photosynthesis (tracking atoms)

12 How Does CO 2 Get In The Plant? CO 2 enters the ____________ What is the source of CO 2 ? ______ Air 78.08 %N 2 20.95 %O 2 0.03 %CO 2 argon, helium, hydrogen, ozone, methane

13 How Does Water Get In The Plant? Water enters through the __________ Most water is lost from the plant through the _________ To reduce water loss leaves are covered with a waxy cuticle (plant “chapstick”)

14 Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants Leaves are the major locations of photosynthesis Their green color is from chlorophyll, the green pigment within chloroplasts Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the mesophyll, the interior tissue of the leaf Each mesophyll cell contains 30–40 chloroplasts © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 CO 2 Enters The Leaf is Covered with a Waxy Cuticle: “Plant Chapstick ” H 2 O Exits If water cannot get out of the leaf through the waxy cuticle what cannot get into the leaf for P/S? Mesophyll cell or photosynthetic cell: Note the chloroplasts

16 CO 2 enters and O 2 exits the leaf through microscopic pores called stomata The chlorophyll is in the membranes of thylakoids (connected sacs in the chloroplast); thylakoids may be stacked in columns called grana Chloroplasts also contain stroma, a dense interior fluid © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


18 H 2 O Exits CO 2 Enters Open Stomate Closed Stomate 2 Guard Cells surrounding a pore Transpiration= Evaporation of water from plant stomate

19 Stomata On A Pine Needle

20 Transpiration The evaporative water loss by a plant, primarily through stomata Degree of Stomatal Opening ClosedPartially Fully Open Transpiration Rate

21 Photosynthesis and Transpiration High Rates of P/S are associated with high transpiration rates Degree of Stomatal Opening ClosedPartially Fully Open Rate of P/S

22 Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry Photosynthesis is a complex series of reactions that can be summarized as the following equation: 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + Light energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 The Splitting of Water Chloroplasts split H 2 O into hydrogen and oxygen, incorporating the electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules and releasing oxygen as a by-product © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 Photosynthesis as a Redox Process Photosynthesis reverses the direction of electron flow compared to respiration Photosynthesis is a redox process in which H 2 O is oxidized and CO 2 is reduced Photosynthesis is an endergonic process; the energy boost is provided by light © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Figure 10.UN01 Energy  6 CO 2  6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6  6 O 2 becomes reduced becomes oxidized

26 The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions (the photo part) and Calvin cycle (the synthesis part) The light reactions (in the thylakoids) Split H 2 O Release O 2 Reduce NADP + to NADPH Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 The Calvin cycle (in the stroma) forms sugar from CO 2, using ATP and NADPH The Calvin cycle begins with carbon fixation, incorporating CO 2 into organic molecules © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Concept 10.2: The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH Chloroplasts are solar-powered chemical factories Their thylakoids transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Structure of a Chloroplast

30 Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a green pigment Pigments absorb light energy The color you see is the color that is reflected Whiteversus Black Why is chlorophyll green? Would you expect green light to be an effective color of light for P/S?

31 The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of electromagnetic energy, or radiation Visible light consists of wavelengths (including those that drive photosynthesis) that produce colors we can see Light also behaves as though it consists of discrete particles, called photons © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Light: Energy is Inversely Proportional to Wavelength

33 Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors Pigments are substances that absorb visible light Different pigments absorb different wavelengths Wavelengths that are not absorbed are reflected or transmitted Leaves appear green because chlorophyll reflects and transmits green light © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 Chlorophyll Reflects and Transmits Green Light Chlorophyll absorbs blue and red light Accessory pigments such as carotenoids absorb green light and pass the energy to chlorophyll

35 A spectrophotometer measures a pigment’s ability to absorb various wavelengths This machine sends light through pigments and measures the fraction of light transmitted at each wavelength © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Absorption Spectra An absorption spectrum is a graph plotting a pigment’s light absorption versus wavelength

37 The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a suggests that violet-blue and red light work best for photosynthesis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 Photosynthesis is a Two Step Process 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 The Light Reactions: Light Dependant Photochemical Convert light energy into chemical energy The Light Independent Temperature Dependant Use the chemical energy created in the light reactions to convert CO 2 to glucose

39 Photosynthesis Overview (2 step process)

40 Locations of Reactions The Light Dependent Reactions occur on the grana The Light Independent Reactions take place in the stroma

41 High Potential Energy Molecules Is this an example of oxidation or reduction? (oxidation = loss of e-, reduction = gain of e-) Does the formation of NADPH require or release energy? NADP + + 2e - (2H)NADPH + H + P e-e- e-e- NADPH + H + NADP + +2e -

42 High Potential Energy Molecules Does the formation of NADPH require or release energy? NADP + + 2e - (2H)NADPH + H + NADPH + H + NADP + +2e - Reduction (endergonic) Oxidation (exergonic)

43 High Potential Energy Molecules Adenosine Triphosphate Adenosine Diphosphate + P + Energy High P.E.Low P.E. High P.E.

44 The Light Reactions Photochemical: Light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of two high potential energy molecules.

45 The Light Reactions The Two High Potential Energy Molecules Produced are: __________ The Electron Source is?__________ When water gives up electrons what waste product is produced?

46 Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light When a pigment absorbs light, it goes from a ground state to an excited state, which is unstable When excited electrons fall back to the ground state, photons are given off, an afterglow called fluorescence If illuminated, an isolated solution of chlorophyll will fluoresce, giving off light and heat © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Figure 10.12 Excited state Heat ee Photon (fluorescence) Ground state Photon Chlorophyll molecule Energy of electron (a) Excitation of isolated chlorophyll molecule (b) Fluorescence

48 A Photosystem: A Reaction- Center Complex Associated with Light-Harvesting Complexes A photosystem consists of a reaction- center complex (a type of protein complex) surrounded by light-harvesting complexes The light-harvesting complexes (pigment molecules bound to proteins) transfer the energy of photons to the reaction center © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 Figure 10.13a (a) How a photosystem harvests light Thylakoid membrane Photon Photosystem STROMA Light- harvesting complexes Reaction- center complex Primary electron acceptor Transfer of energy Special pair of chlorophyll a molecules Pigment molecules THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) ee

50 A primary electron acceptor in the reaction center accepts excited electrons and is reduced as a result Solar-powered transfer of an electron from a chlorophyll a molecule to the primary electron acceptor is the first step of the light reactions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 There are two types of photosystems in the thylakoid membrane Photosystem II (PS II) functions first (the numbers reflect order of discovery) and is best at absorbing a wavelength of 680 nm The reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS II is called P680 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 Photosystem I (PS I) is best at absorbing a wavelength of 700 nm The reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS I is called P700 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 Noncyclic (Linear) Electron Flow During the light reactions, there are two possible routes for electron flow: cyclic and linear Noncyclic (linear) electron flow, the primary pathway, involves both photosystems and produces ATP and NADPH using light energy © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

54 The Model For The Light Reactions Noncyclic Electron Flow

55 A photon hits a pigment and its energy is passed among pigment molecules until it excites P680 An excited electron from P680 is transferred to the primary electron acceptor (we now call it P680 + ) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 Each electron “falls” down an electron transport chain from the primary electron acceptor of PS II to PS I Energy released by the fall drives the creation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane Diffusion of H + (protons) across the membrane drives ATP synthesis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 In PS I (like PS II), transferred light energy excites P700, which loses an electron to an electron acceptor P700 + (P700 that is missing an electron) accepts an electron passed down from PS II via the electron transport chain © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 Each electron “falls” down an electron transport chain from the primary electron acceptor of PS I to the protein ferredoxin (Fd) The electrons are then transferred to NADP + and reduce it to NADPH The electrons of NADPH are available for the reactions of the Calvin cycle This process also removes an H + from the stroma © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


60 The Model For The Light Reactions Cyclic Electron Flow

61 Cyclic Electron Flow Cyclic electron flow uses only photosystem I and produces ATP, but not NADPH No oxygen is released Cyclic electron flow generates surplus ATP, satisfying the higher demand in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

62 The Light Reactions are Light Dependent Light Intensity Rate of P/S Light Saturation Low Med High Can you think of a habitat or ecosystem where P/S might be limited?

63 The Light Independent Reactions What is the “fuel” that drives the light independent reactions? __________ Where was this “fuel” produced?_______________________

64 ATP and NADPH are produced on the side facing the stroma, where the Calvin cycle takes place In summary, light reactions generate ATP and increase the potential energy of electrons by moving them from H 2 O to NADPH © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

65 Figure 10.18 STROMA (low H  concentration) THYLAKOID SPACE (high H  concentration) Light Photosystem II Cytochrome complex Photosystem I Light NADP  reductase NADP  + H  To Calvin Cycle ATP synthase Thylakoid membrane 2 13 NADPH Fd Pc Pq 4 H + +2 H + H+H+ ADP + P i ATP 1/21/2 H2OH2O O2O2

66 Concept 10.3: The Calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO 2 to sugar The Calvin cycle regenerates its starting material after molecules enter and leave the cycle The cycle builds sugar from smaller molecules by using ATP and the reducing power of electrons carried by NADPH Carbon enters the cycle as CO 2 and leaves as a sugar named glyceraldehyde 3-phospate (G3P) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

67 Calvin Cycle (Step One)

68 Input 3 (Entering one at a time) CO 2 Phase 1: Carbon fixation Rubisco 3PP P6 Short-lived intermediate 3-Phosphoglycerate 6 6 ADP ATP 6PP 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Calvin Cycle 6 NADPH 6 NADP  6 P i6 P i 6P Phase 2: Reduction Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) 3P P Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) 1P G3P (a sugar) Output Glucose and other organic compounds Figure 10.19-2


70 Concept 10.4: Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates Dehydration is a problem for plants, sometimes requiring trade-offs with other metabolic processes, especially photosynthesis On hot, dry days, plants close stomata, which conserves H 2 O but also limits photosynthesis The closing of stomata reduces access to CO 2 and causes O 2 to build up These conditions favor an apparently wasteful process called photorespiration © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

71 Photorespiration: An Evolutionary Relic? In most plants (C 3 plants), initial fixation of CO 2, via rubisco, forms a three-carbon compound (3-phosphoglycerate) In photorespiration, rubisco adds O 2 instead of CO 2 in the Calvin cycle, producing a two-carbon compound Photorespiration consumes O 2 and organic fuel and releases CO 2 without producing ATP or sugar © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

72 Photorespiration may be an evolutionary relic because rubisco first evolved at a time when the atmosphere had far less O 2 and more CO 2 Photorespiration limits damaging products of light reactions that build up in the absence of the Calvin cycle In many plants, photorespiration is a problem because on a hot, dry day it can drain as much as 50% of the carbon fixed by the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

73 C 4 Plants C 4 plants minimize the cost of photorespiration by incorporating CO 2 into four-carbon compounds in mesophyll cells This step requires the enzyme PEP carboxylase PEP carboxylase has a higher affinity for CO 2 than rubisco does; it can fix CO 2 even when CO 2 concentrations are low These four-carbon compounds are exported to bundle- sheath cells, where they release CO 2 that is then used in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

74 Saltbush can live in salty soils since it has salt glands

75 Saltbush – A C 4 Plant

76 Kranz Anatomy Note that the chloroplasts are in the center of the leaf


78 CAM Plants Some plants, including succulents, use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to fix carbon CAM plants open their stomata at night, incorporating CO 2 into organic acids Stomata close during the day, and CO 2 is released from organic acids and used in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

79 Cactus – A Stem Succulent Green Stem CAM P/s



82 The Importance of Photosynthesis: A Review The energy entering chloroplasts as sunlight gets stored as chemical energy in organic compounds Sugar made in the chloroplasts supplies chemical energy and carbon skeletons to synthesize the organic molecules of cells Plants store excess sugar as starch in structures such as roots, tubers, seeds, and fruits In addition to food production, photosynthesis produces the O 2 in our atmosphere © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

83 Mitochondrion Chloroplast MITOCHONDRION STRUCTURE CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE Intermembrane space Inner membrane Matrix Thylakoid space Thylakoid membrane Stroma Electron transport chain HH Diffusion ATP synthase HH ADP  P i KeyHigher [H  ] Lower [H  ] ATP Figure 10.17

84 A Comparison of Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Chloroplasts and mitochondria generate ATP by chemiosmosis, but use different sources of energy Mitochondria transfer chemical energy from food to ATP; chloroplasts transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP Spatial organization of chemiosmosis differs between chloroplasts and mitochondria but also shows similarities © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

85 In mitochondria, protons are pumped to the intermembrane space and drive ATP synthesis as they diffuse back into the mitochondrial matrix In chloroplasts, protons are pumped into the thylakoid space and drive ATP synthesis as they diffuse back into the stroma © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

86 In the last 150 years since the Industrial Revolution, CO 2 levels have risen greatly Increasing levels of CO 2 may affect C 3 and C 4 plants differently, perhaps changing the relative abundance of these species The effects of such changes are unpredictable and a cause for concern, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Climate Change

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