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The Sun The Ultimate Energy Source For Life on Planet Earth

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Presentation on theme: "The Sun The Ultimate Energy Source For Life on Planet Earth"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sun The Ultimate Energy Source For Life on Planet Earth
Photosynthesis The Sun The Ultimate Energy Source For Life on Planet Earth

2 Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere
Photosynthesis is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy Directly or indirectly, photosynthesis nourishes almost the entire living world © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Pyramid of Biomass Consumers Heterotrophs Producers Autotrophs
Trophic Levels Consumers The Sun Heterotrophs Producers Autotrophs Photosynthesis (P/S)

4 Autotrophs Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere, producing organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic molecules Almost all plants are photoautotrophs, using the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, certain other protists, and some prokaryotes
These organisms feed not only themselves but also most of the living world © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. BioFlix: Photosynthesis

6 Purple sulfur bacteria 1 m
Figure 10.2 (b) Multicellular alga (a) Plants Figure 10.2 Photoautotrophs. (d) Cyanobacteria 40 m (c) Unicellular protists 10 m (e) Purple sulfur bacteria 1 m 6

7 Heterotrophs Heterotrophs obtain their organic material from other organisms Heterotrophs are the consumers of the biosphere Almost all heterotrophs, including humans, depend on photoautotrophs for food and O2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Fossil Fuels The Earth’s supply of fossil fuels was formed from the remains of organisms that died hundreds of millions of years ago In a sense, fossil fuels represent stores of solar energy from the distant past (“Ancient Sunlight”) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Concept 10.1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food
Chloroplasts are structurally similar to and likely evolved from photosynthetic bacteria The structural organization of these cells allows for the chemical reactions of photosynthesis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 Photosynthesis (net consumption of water)
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Light Chlorophyll

11 Photosynthesis (tracking atoms)

12 How Does CO2 Get In The Plant?
CO2 enters the ____________ What is the source of CO2? ______ Air 78.08 %N2 20.95 %O2 0.03 %CO2 argon, helium, hydrogen, ozone, methane

13 How Does Water Get In The Plant?
Water enters through the __________ Most water is lost from the plant through the _________ To reduce water loss leaves are covered with a waxy cuticle (plant “chapstick”)

14 Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants
Leaves are the major locations of photosynthesis Their green color is from chlorophyll, the green pigment within chloroplasts Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the mesophyll, the interior tissue of the leaf Each mesophyll cell contains 30–40 chloroplasts © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 The Leaf is Covered with a Waxy Cuticle: “Plant Chapstick”
If water cannot get out of the leaf through the waxy cuticle what cannot get into the leaf for P/S? CO2 Enters H2O Exits Mesophyll cell or photosynthetic cell: Note the chloroplasts

16 Chloroplasts also contain stroma, a dense interior fluid
CO2 enters and O2 exits the leaf through microscopic pores called stomata The chlorophyll is in the membranes of thylakoids (connected sacs in the chloroplast); thylakoids may be stacked in columns called grana Chloroplasts also contain stroma, a dense interior fluid © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


18 H2OExits 2 Guard Cells surrounding a pore CO2 Enters Open Stomate Transpiration= Evaporation of water from plant stomate Closed Stomate

19 Stomata On A Pine Needle

20 Transpiration The evaporative water loss by a plant, primarily through stomata Transpiration Rate Closed Partially Fully Open Open Degree of Stomatal Opening

21 Photosynthesis and Transpiration
High Rates of P/S are associated with high transpiration rates Rate of P/S Closed Partially Fully Open Open Degree of Stomatal Opening

22 Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry
Photosynthesis is a complex series of reactions that can be summarized as the following equation: 6 CO H2O + Light energy  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 The Splitting of Water Chloroplasts split H2O into hydrogen and oxygen, incorporating the electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules and releasing oxygen as a by-product © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 Photosynthesis as a Redox Process
Photosynthesis reverses the direction of electron flow compared to respiration Photosynthesis is a redox process in which H2O is oxidized and CO2 is reduced Photosynthesis is an endergonic process; the energy boost is provided by light © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Energy  6 CO2  6 H2O C6 H12 O6  6 O2 becomes reduced
Figure 10.UN01 becomes reduced Energy  6 CO2  6 H2O C6 H12 O6  6 O2 becomes oxidized Figure 10.UN01 In-text figure, p. 188 25

26 The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview
Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions (the photo part) and Calvin cycle (the synthesis part) The light reactions (in the thylakoids) Split H2O Release O2 Reduce NADP+ to NADPH Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 The Calvin cycle (in the stroma) forms sugar from CO2, using ATP and NADPH
The Calvin cycle begins with carbon fixation, incorporating CO2 into organic molecules © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Concept 10.2: The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
Chloroplasts are solar-powered chemical factories Their thylakoids transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Structure of a Chloroplast

30 Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a green pigment
Pigments absorb light energy The color you see is the color that is reflected White versus Black Why is chlorophyll green? Would you expect green light to be an effective color of light for P/S?

31 The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of electromagnetic energy, or radiation
Visible light consists of wavelengths (including those that drive photosynthesis) that produce colors we can see Light also behaves as though it consists of discrete particles, called photons © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Light: Energy is Inversely Proportional to Wavelength

33 Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors
Pigments are substances that absorb visible light Different pigments absorb different wavelengths Wavelengths that are not absorbed are reflected or transmitted Leaves appear green because chlorophyll reflects and transmits green light © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 Chlorophyll Reflects and Transmits Green Light
Chlorophyll absorbs blue and red light Accessory pigments such as carotenoids absorb green light and pass the energy to chlorophyll

35 A spectrophotometer measures a pigment’s ability to absorb various wavelengths
This machine sends light through pigments and measures the fraction of light transmitted at each wavelength © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Absorption Spectra An absorption spectrum is a
graph plotting a pigment’s light absorption versus wavelength

37 light work best for photosynthesis
The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a suggests that violet-blue and red light work best for photosynthesis For the Cell Biology Video Space-Filling Model of Chlorophyll a, go to Animation and Video Files. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 Photosynthesis is a Two Step Process
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 The Light Reactions: Light Dependant Photochemical Convert light energy into chemical energy The Light Independent Temperature Dependant Use the chemical energy created in the light reactions to convert CO2 to glucose

39 Photosynthesis Overview (2 step process)

40 Locations of Reactions
The Light Dependent Reactions occur on the grana The Light Independent Reactions take place in the stroma

41 High Potential Energy Molecules
NADP e- (2H) NADPH H+ e- e- P P NADPH H+ NADP e- Is this an example of oxidation or reduction? (oxidation = loss of e-, reduction = gain of e-) Does the formation of NADPH require or release energy?

42 High Potential Energy Molecules
NADP e- (2H) NADPH H+ Reduction (endergonic) NADPH H+ NADP e- Oxidation (exergonic) Does the formation of NADPH require or release energy?

43 High Potential Energy Molecules
Adenosine Triphosphate Adenosine Diphosphate + P + Energy High P.E. Low P.E. Low P.E. High P.E.

44 The Light Reactions Photochemical: Light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of two high potential energy molecules.

45 The Light Reactions The Two High Potential Energy Molecules Produced are: __________ The Electron Source is?__________ When water gives up electrons what waste product is produced?

46 Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light
When a pigment absorbs light, it goes from a ground state to an excited state, which is unstable When excited electrons fall back to the ground state, photons are given off, an afterglow called fluorescence If illuminated, an isolated solution of chlorophyll will fluoresce, giving off light and heat © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Photon (fluorescence)
Figure 10.12 Excited state e Heat Energy of electron Photon (fluorescence) Photon Figure Excitation of isolated chlorophyll by light. Ground state Chlorophyll molecule (a) Excitation of isolated chlorophyll molecule (b) Fluorescence 47

48 A Photosystem: A Reaction-Center Complex Associated with Light-Harvesting Complexes
A photosystem consists of a reaction-center complex (a type of protein complex) surrounded by light-harvesting complexes The light-harvesting complexes (pigment molecules bound to proteins) transfer the energy of photons to the reaction center © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 10.13a Photosystem STROMA Photon Light- harvesting complexes Reaction- center complex Primary electron acceptor e Thylakoid membrane Figure The structure and function of a photosystem. Transfer of energy Special pair of chlorophyll a molecules Pigment molecules THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) (a) How a photosystem harvests light 49

50 A primary electron acceptor in the reaction center accepts excited electrons and is reduced as a result Solar-powered transfer of an electron from a chlorophyll a molecule to the primary electron acceptor is the first step of the light reactions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 There are two types of photosystems in the thylakoid membrane
Photosystem II (PS II) functions first (the numbers reflect order of discovery) and is best at absorbing a wavelength of 680 nm The reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS II is called P680 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 Photosystem I (PS I) is best at absorbing a wavelength of 700 nm
The reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS I is called P700 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 Noncyclic (Linear) Electron Flow
During the light reactions, there are two possible routes for electron flow: cyclic and linear Noncyclic (linear) electron flow, the primary pathway, involves both photosystems and produces ATP and NADPH using light energy © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

54 The Model For The Light Reactions Noncyclic Electron Flow

55 A photon hits a pigment and its energy is passed among pigment molecules until it excites P680
An excited electron from P680 is transferred to the primary electron acceptor (we now call it P680+) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 Diffusion of H+ (protons) across the membrane drives ATP synthesis
Each electron “falls” down an electron transport chain from the primary electron acceptor of PS II to PS I Energy released by the fall drives the creation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane Diffusion of H+ (protons) across the membrane drives ATP synthesis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 In PS I (like PS II), transferred light energy excites P700, which loses an electron to an electron acceptor P700+ (P700 that is missing an electron) accepts an electron passed down from PS II via the electron transport chain © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 The electrons are then transferred to NADP+ and reduce it to NADPH
Each electron “falls” down an electron transport chain from the primary electron acceptor of PS I to the protein ferredoxin (Fd) The electrons are then transferred to NADP+ and reduce it to NADPH The electrons of NADPH are available for the reactions of the Calvin cycle This process also removes an H+ from the stroma © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


60 The Model For The Light Reactions Cyclic Electron Flow

61 Cyclic Electron Flow Cyclic electron flow uses only photosystem I and produces ATP, but not NADPH No oxygen is released Cyclic electron flow generates surplus ATP, satisfying the higher demand in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

62 The Light Reactions are Light Dependent
Can you think of a habitat or ecosystem where P/S might be limited? Light Saturation Rate of P/S Low Med High Light Intensity

63 The Light Independent Reactions
What is the “fuel” that drives the light independent reactions? __________ Where was this “fuel” produced?_______________________

64 ATP and NADPH are produced on the side facing the stroma, where the Calvin cycle takes place
In summary, light reactions generate ATP and increase the potential energy of electrons by moving them from H2O to NADPH © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

65 STROMA (low H concentration) Cytochrome complex NADP reductase
Figure 10.18 STROMA (low H concentration) Cytochrome complex NADP reductase Photosystem II Photosystem I Light 3 Light 4 H+ NADP + H Fd Pq NADPH 2 Pc H2O 1 1/2 O2 THYLAKOID SPACE (high H concentration) +2 H+ 4 H+ To Calvin Cycle Figure The light reactions and chemiosmosis: the organization of the thylakoid membrane. Thylakoid membrane ATP synthase ADP + P i ATP STROMA (low H concentration) H+ 65

66 Concept 10.3: The Calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar
The Calvin cycle regenerates its starting material after molecules enter and leave the cycle The cycle builds sugar from smaller molecules by using ATP and the reducing power of electrons carried by NADPH Carbon enters the cycle as CO2 and leaves as a sugar named glyceraldehyde 3-phospate (G3P) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

67 Calvin Cycle (Step One)

68 Figure 10.19 The Calvin cycle.
Input 3 (Entering one at a time) CO2 Phase 1: Carbon fixation Rubisco 3 P P Short-lived intermediate 3 P P 6 P Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) 3-Phosphoglycerate 6 ATP 6 ADP Calvin Cycle 6 P P 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 6 NADPH 6 NADP 6 P i Figure The Calvin cycle. 6 P Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) Phase 2: Reduction 1 P G3P (a sugar) Glucose and other organic compounds Output 68


70 Concept 10.4: Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates
Dehydration is a problem for plants, sometimes requiring trade-offs with other metabolic processes, especially photosynthesis On hot, dry days, plants close stomata, which conserves H2O but also limits photosynthesis The closing of stomata reduces access to CO2 and causes O2 to build up These conditions favor an apparently wasteful process called photorespiration © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

71 Photorespiration: An Evolutionary Relic?
In most plants (C3 plants), initial fixation of CO2, via rubisco, forms a three-carbon compound (3-phosphoglycerate) In photorespiration, rubisco adds O2 instead of CO2 in the Calvin cycle, producing a two-carbon compound Photorespiration consumes O2 and organic fuel and releases CO2 without producing ATP or sugar © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

72 Photorespiration may be an evolutionary relic because rubisco first evolved at a time when the atmosphere had far less O2 and more CO2 Photorespiration limits damaging products of light reactions that build up in the absence of the Calvin cycle In many plants, photorespiration is a problem because on a hot, dry day it can drain as much as 50% of the carbon fixed by the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

73 C4 Plants C4 plants minimize the cost of photorespiration by incorporating CO2 into four-carbon compounds in mesophyll cells This step requires the enzyme PEP carboxylase PEP carboxylase has a higher affinity for CO2 than rubisco does; it can fix CO2 even when CO2 concentrations are low These four-carbon compounds are exported to bundle-sheath cells, where they release CO2 that is then used in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

74 Saltbush Saltbush can live in salty soils since it has salt glands

75 Saltbush – A C4 Plant

76 Kranz Anatomy Note that the chloroplasts are in the center of the leaf


78 CAM Plants Some plants, including succulents, use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to fix carbon CAM plants open their stomata at night, incorporating CO2 into organic acids Stomata close during the day, and CO2 is released from organic acids and used in the Calvin cycle © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

79 Cactus – A Stem Succulent
CAM P/s Green Stem



82 The Importance of Photosynthesis: A Review
The energy entering chloroplasts as sunlight gets stored as chemical energy in organic compounds Sugar made in the chloroplasts supplies chemical energy and carbon skeletons to synthesize the organic molecules of cells Plants store excess sugar as starch in structures such as roots, tubers, seeds, and fruits In addition to food production, photosynthesis produces the O2 in our atmosphere © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

83 Electron transport chain
Figure 10.17 Mitochondrion Chloroplast MITOCHONDRION STRUCTURE CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE H Diffusion Intermembrane space Thylakoid space Electron transport chain Inner membrane Thylakoid membrane Figure Comparison of chemiosmosis in mitochondria and chloroplasts. ATP synthase Matrix Stroma ADP  P i ATP Key Higher [H ] H Lower [H ] 83

84 A Comparison of Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
Chloroplasts and mitochondria generate ATP by chemiosmosis, but use different sources of energy Mitochondria transfer chemical energy from food to ATP; chloroplasts transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP Spatial organization of chemiosmosis differs between chloroplasts and mitochondria but also shows similarities © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

85 In mitochondria, protons are pumped to the intermembrane space and drive ATP synthesis as they diffuse back into the mitochondrial matrix In chloroplasts, protons are pumped into the thylakoid space and drive ATP synthesis as they diffuse back into the stroma © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

86 Climate Change In the last 150 years since the Industrial Revolution, CO2 levels have risen greatly Increasing levels of CO2 may affect C3 and C4 plants differently, perhaps changing the relative abundance of these species The effects of such changes are unpredictable and a cause for concern, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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