Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis AP Biology Unit 4 Vocabulary Review What is an autotroph? –Make their own energy What is a heterotroph? –Aren’t able to make own energy–"— Presentation transcript:
Photosynthesis AP Biology Unit 4
Vocabulary Review What is an autotroph? –Make their own energy What is a heterotroph? –Aren’t able to make own energy– have to get it from another source
Photosynthetic Organisms Photosynthesis is one way to make your own energy Who does it? –Plants, algae, some other protists, some prokaryotes (ex. cyanobacteria)
Location of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts –Organelles that contain the pigment chlorophyll and other pigments –Openings in the leaf (stomata) allow CO 2 (reactant) to enter and O 2 (product) to leave
Equation for Photosynthesis 6 CO H 2 O + ENERGY C 6 H 12 O O 2 In terms of reactants and products, it is the reverse of cellular respiration, but process is different.
Stages of Photosynthesis Light Reactions –Captures light energy to produce ATP and NADPH Calvin Cycle (“Dark” Reactions) –Uses ATP and NADPH to “fix” carbon into a carbohydrate –“fix” means to incorporate the carbon into a compound
Light Reactions Main point = convert sunlight energy into chemical energy (ATP and NADPH) Sunlight can be divided into different wavelengths of light– only some are useful in photosynthesis
Light Reactions Photosynthetic pigments in the chloroplast absorb different wavelengths –Chlorophyll a –Chlorophyll b –Carotenoids
Question… Why are most plants green? The chlorophyll and carotenoid molecules absorb the blue-violet and red light and use it to perform photosynthesis They reflect green light – colors we see are the reflected wavelengths.
Light Reactions: Photosystems Photosystems are the complex of pigments that receives the sunlight to begin the process Photosystems absorb energy to excite an electron in chlorophyll There are 2 different photosystems in chlorophyll – I and II.
Light Reactions: Noncyclic Flow Step 1: Light excites electrons in photosystems I and II Step 2: Excited electrons are passed down an electron transport chain – generates ATP and NADPH
Noncyclic Flow Excited electron from Photosystem II fills the space left in Photosystem I Water is split (photolysis) to provide an electron to fill the space left in Photosystem II
Cyclic Electron Flow Under certain circumstances, the excited electrons will only flow through Photosystem I (not II)
Cyclic Electron Flow Generates ATP Doesn’t generate NADPH Runs because the Calvin Cycle needs more ATP than NADPH May shift from noncyclic to cyclic flow when NADPH levels are high
Electron Transport Chain very similar to cellular respiration An H + concentration gradient across the thylakoid membrane drives ATP synthesis
Calvin Cycle Also called the Dark Reactions, Non-light Dependent Reactions, or the Calvin Benson Cycle Uses the ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions to produce glucose using CO 2
Calvin Cycle: Rubisco Rubisco is the enzyme that first “traps” CO 2 into the cycle Through a series of reactions, CO 2 is used to eventually make glucose
Calvin Cycle CO 2 only contributes 1 carbon 6 “turns” of the calvin cycle are needed to produce one glucose. RuBP also has to be regenerated so that cycle can continue
The O 2 released during photosynthesis comes from 1.CO 2 2.H 2 O 3.NADPH 4.RuBP (RuDP) 5.C 6 H 12 O 6 15
Carbohydrate-synthesizing reactions of photosynthesis directly require 1.Light 2.Products of the light reactions 3.Darkness 4.O 2 and H 2 O 5.Chlorophyll and CO 2 15
The end products of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are 1.ADP, H 2 O, NADPH 2.ADP, PGAL, RuBP (RuDP) 3.ATP, CO 2, H 2 O 4.ATP, NADPH, O 2 5.CO 2, H +, PGAL 15