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What makes a Eukaryote a Eukaryote?  thought to have developed as in pocketing of cell membrane-why?  therefore need to be flexible-so?  internal cytoskeleton.

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Presentation on theme: "What makes a Eukaryote a Eukaryote?  thought to have developed as in pocketing of cell membrane-why?  therefore need to be flexible-so?  internal cytoskeleton."— Presentation transcript:

1 What makes a Eukaryote a Eukaryote?  thought to have developed as in pocketing of cell membrane-why?  therefore need to be flexible-so?  internal cytoskeleton for:  structure  internal movement  nuclear envelope  digestive vessicles

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5 Types of Movement Flagella: long, whip-like, usually one or two (not more); majority use to pull themselves Cilia: short, many, same structure as flagella, just shorter, more precise TA&NR=1 TA&NR=1 Pseudopods and cytoplasmic streaming

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11 1.Chromalveolates A. Alveolates-sacs (alveoli) underneath membrane 1.Dinoflagellates-unicellular, marine, 2 flagella; all trophic styles 2.Apicomplexans-parasites with elaborate lifestyles; usu. multi hosts 3.Ciliates-macro & micronuclei; cilia- very precise (Paramecium-p. 598)

12 1. Chromalveolates A. Alveolates-sacs (alveoli) underneath membrane 1. Dinoflagellates-unicellular, marine, 2 flagella; all trophic styles (red tides)

13 1. Chromalveolates A. Alveolates-sacs (alveoli) underneath membrane 2. Apicomplexans-parasites with elaborate lifestyles; usu. multi hosts (malaria)

14 1. Chromalveolates A. Alveolates-sacs (alveoli) underneath membrane 3. Ciliates-macro & micronuclei; cilia-very precise (Paramecium) Those placed towards the top left are typically found in the open water of lakes; those close to the centre at the base are all anaerobic. The remainder are generally found in sediments and detritus, and attached to submerged surfaces (e.g. aquatic animals and plants). All are drawn to scale (see scale bar showing 1 millimetre at the right hand side). N_mD7TvYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmw N_mD7TvY HUs6cWk&feature=related

15 1. Chromalveolates B. Stramenophiles 1.Diatoms-2 flagella, 1 w/hairs, 1 w/o; silica pillboxes; photosynthetic; fresh, marine, terrestrial (p. 599) 2.Brown alge-multicellular; most marine; fucoxanthin = accessory pigment (still have chlorophyll a & c); organ & tissue differentiation 3.Oomycetes-non-photosynthetic; absorptive heterotrophs; water molds & powdery mildew (p. 601)

16 1. Chromalveolates B. Stramenophiles 1. Diatoms-2 flagella, 1 w/hairs, 1 w/o; silica pillboxes; photosynthetic; fresh, marine, terrestrial

17 1. Chromalveolates B. Stramenophiles 2. Brown alge-multicellular; most marine; fucoxanthin = accessory pigment (still have chlorophyll a & c); organ & tissue differentiation

18 1. Chromalveolates B. Stramenophiles 3. Oomycetes-non-photosynthetic; absorptive heterotrophs; water molds & powdery mildew

19 2. Plantae A.Glaucophytes-peptidoglycan layer b/w 2 chloroplast membranes B.Red alge-multicellular; phycoerythrin = accessory pigment (also have chlorophyll a)-depends on depth for color; agar (p. 602) C.Chlorophytes-green alge-chlorophyll a & b-like plants; most aquatic; mostly fresh; colonial forms-spherical & filamentous (p. 603)

20 2. Plantae A. Glaucophytes-peptidoglycan layer b/w 2 chloroplast memebranes

21 2. Plantae B. Red alge-multicellular; phycoerythrin = accessory pigment (also have chlorophyll a)-depends on depth for color; agar

22 2. Plantae C. Chlorophytes-green alge-chlorophyll a & b-like plants; most aquatic; mostly fresh; colonial forms-spherical & filamentous

23 3. Excavates-diverse!! A.Diplomonads-2 nuclei; no mitochondria; Giardia-diarrhea (p. 603) B.Parabasalids-no mitochondria; Trichomonas-STD (p. 603) C.Heteroloboseans-amoeba & flagella stages D.Euglenids-flagella; repro asexually-binary fission; photo/autotrophic-depending on conditions; 3 membrane chloroplast E.Kinetoplastids-flagella; parasites

24 3. Excavates-diverse!! A. Diplomonads-2 nuclei; no mitochondria; Giardia-diarrhea

25 3. Excavates-diverse!! B. Parabasalids-no mitochondria; anaerobic; Trichomonas- STD; symbiotic relationship with termites: allow them to digest cellulose (in turn have symbiotic bacteria!)

26 3. Excavates-diverse!! C. Heteroloboseans-amoeba & flagella stages (some have both, some have only one stage, some have two different types of flagellated stages, some do encystment) 3wI/Sw5GMB47rTI/AAAAAAAABCg/fIIIiVsj8go/s400/Naegleria%2Blife%2Bcycle&imgrefurl=http://skepticwonder.blogspot.com/2009/11/heterolobosea-ii-change-of-heart- amoebo.html&usg=__NTV4AFrnRGLS- _I389UEfVD3d3o=&h=398&w=400&sz=27&hl=en&start=14&itbs=1&tbnid=0GfCXxR30aPW7M:&tbnh=123&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dheteroloboseans%26hl%3Den%26tbs%3Disch:1

27 3. Excavates-diverse!! D. Euglenids-flagella; repro asexually-binary fission; photo/autotrophic-depending on conditions; 3 membrane chloroplast

28 3. Excavates-diverse!! E. Kinetoplastids-flagella; parasites (Trypanosoma-sleeping sickness)

29 Groups 4. Rhizaria-unicellular; needle-like pseudopods A.Cercozoans-very diverse: amoeboid, flagella; aquatic, terrestrial B.Foraminiferans-Calcium carbonate shells (p. 587) C.Radiolarians-silica shells; marine (p. 605)

30 4. Rhizaria-unicellular; needle-like pseudopods A. Cercozoans-very diverse: amoeboid, flagella; aquatic, terrestrial (a lot of argument here; one group has chloroplasts: bound by 4 membranes and contains a vestigial nucleus) 3wI/Sn_dZSj5PjI/AAAAAAAAAgE/Zkn54RPAGEY/s400/Ebriid+Hoppenrath+Leander+2006+Protist.jpg

31 4. Rhizaria-unicellular; needle-like pseudopods 2. Foraminiferans-Calcium carbonate shells, mostly marine

32 4. Rhizaria-unicellular; needle-like pseudopods C. Radiolarians-silica shells; marine

33 5. Unikonts A.Amoebozoans 1.Loboseans-unicellular: predator, parasite, scavengers 2.Plasmodial slime mold-multinucleate; vegetative phase = feeding stage-move by cytoplasmic streaming; unfavorable conditions form fruiting body-spore bearing 3.Cellular slime mold-individual cells with in body

34 5. Unikonts A. Amoebozoans 1. Loboseans-unicellular: predator, parasite, scavengers

35 5. Unikonts A. Amoebozoans 2. Plasmodial slime mold-multinucleate; vegetative phase = feeding stage-move by cytoplasmic streaming; unfavorable conditions form fruiting body-spore bearing md.jpg&imgrefurl=http://photo.net/photodb/photo%3Fphoto_id%3D &usg=__aoJe0Gw_ClyKLcVFu_PbQZkDeig=&h=453&w=680&sz=154&hl=en&st art=6&itbs=1&tbnid=np8wEHUz7wA1vM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=139&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dplasmodial%2Bslime%2Bmold%26hl%3Den%26tbs%3Disch:1

36 5. Unikonts A. Amoebozoans 3. Cellular slime mold-individual cells within body (first 30 sec) Dog_vomit_slime_mold.jpg

37 Groups 5. Unikonts B. Opisthokonts 1.Choanoflagellates-flagella posterior (all others anterior) 2.Animals 3.Fungi

38 5. Unikonts B. Opisthokonts 1. Choanoflagellates-flagella posterior (all others anterior) very similar to sponges


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