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What makes a Eukaryote a Eukaryote?  thought to have developed as in pocketing of cell membrane-why?  therefore need to be flexible-so?  internal cytoskeleton.

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Presentation on theme: "What makes a Eukaryote a Eukaryote?  thought to have developed as in pocketing of cell membrane-why?  therefore need to be flexible-so?  internal cytoskeleton."— Presentation transcript:

1 What makes a Eukaryote a Eukaryote?  thought to have developed as in pocketing of cell membrane-why?  therefore need to be flexible-so?  internal cytoskeleton for:  structure  internal movement  nuclear envelope  digestive vessicles

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5 Types of Movement Flagella: long, whip-like, usually one or two (not more); majority use to pull themselves Cilia: short, many, same structure as flagella, just shorter, more precise http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGAm6hMys TA&NR=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGAm6hMys TA&NR=1 Pseudopods and cytoplasmic streaming http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pR7TNzJ_pA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ICqcZ99qGk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cukdrqO8XFE&feature=related

6 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG6Dd3COug4

7 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9ymaSzcsdY&NR=1&feature=fvwp

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11 1.Chromalveolates A. Alveolates-sacs (alveoli) underneath membrane 1.Dinoflagellates-unicellular, marine, 2 flagella; all trophic styles 2.Apicomplexans-parasites with elaborate lifestyles; usu. multi hosts 3.Ciliates-macro & micronuclei; cilia- very precise (Paramecium-p. 598)

12 1. Chromalveolates A. Alveolates-sacs (alveoli) underneath membrane 1. Dinoflagellates-unicellular, marine, 2 flagella; all trophic styles (red tides) http://www.thinkatheist.com/forum/topics/fantastic-creatures-with?groupUrl=science&commentId=1982180%3AComment%3A196608&groupId=1982180%3AGroup%3A815

13 1. Chromalveolates A. Alveolates-sacs (alveoli) underneath membrane 2. Apicomplexans-parasites with elaborate lifestyles; usu. multi hosts (malaria) http://creationwiki.org/pool/images/thumb/f/f1/Malaria.jpg/250px-Malaria.jpg

14 1. Chromalveolates A. Alveolates-sacs (alveoli) underneath membrane 3. Ciliates-macro & micronuclei; cilia-very precise (Paramecium) Those placed towards the top left are typically found in the open water of lakes; those close to the centre at the base are all anaerobic. The remainder are generally found in sediments and detritus, and attached to submerged surfaces (e.g. aquatic animals and plants). All are drawn to scale (see scale bar showing 1 millimetre at the right hand side). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmw N_mD7TvYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmw N_mD7TvY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saLY HUs6cWk&feature=related

15 1. Chromalveolates B. Stramenophiles 1.Diatoms-2 flagella, 1 w/hairs, 1 w/o; silica pillboxes; photosynthetic; fresh, marine, terrestrial (p. 599) 2.Brown alge-multicellular; most marine; fucoxanthin = accessory pigment (still have chlorophyll a & c); organ & tissue differentiation 3.Oomycetes-non-photosynthetic; absorptive heterotrophs; water molds & powdery mildew (p. 601)

16 1. Chromalveolates B. Stramenophiles 1. Diatoms-2 flagella, 1 w/hairs, 1 w/o; silica pillboxes; photosynthetic; fresh, marine, terrestrial http://chsweb.lr.k12.nj.us/mstanley/outlines/protista/protis3.jpg

17 1. Chromalveolates B. Stramenophiles 2. Brown alge-multicellular; most marine; fucoxanthin = accessory pigment (still have chlorophyll a & c); organ & tissue differentiation http://burtonbiology.com/chile/lisapics/mypics/P1010013.JPG

18 1. Chromalveolates B. Stramenophiles 3. Oomycetes-non-photosynthetic; absorptive heterotrophs; water molds & powdery mildew http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1a/Water_mold.JPG/200px-Water_mold.JPG http://www.infonet-biovision.org/res/res/files/1859.280x185.clip.jpeg

19 2. Plantae A.Glaucophytes-peptidoglycan layer b/w 2 chloroplast membranes B.Red alge-multicellular; phycoerythrin = accessory pigment (also have chlorophyll a)-depends on depth for color; agar (p. 602) C.Chlorophytes-green alge-chlorophyll a & b-like plants; most aquatic; mostly fresh; colonial forms-spherical & filamentous (p. 603)

20 2. Plantae A. Glaucophytes-peptidoglycan layer b/w 2 chloroplast memebranes http://www.palaeos.org/images/9/9a/Glaucocystis.jpg

21 2. Plantae B. Red alge-multicellular; phycoerythrin = accessory pigment (also have chlorophyll a)-depends on depth for color; agar http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/oceancolor/additional/science-focus/locus/images/red_tide_genera.v3.jpg

22 2. Plantae C. Chlorophytes-green alge-chlorophyll a & b-like plants; most aquatic; mostly fresh; colonial forms-spherical & filamentous http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o39D-zxiSmE&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R0Y7k4gOYko http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cor_ek7foVM&feature=related http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Spirogyra.JPG http://www.bhikku.net/archives/03/img/volvox.jpg

23 3. Excavates-diverse!! A.Diplomonads-2 nuclei; no mitochondria; Giardia-diarrhea (p. 603) B.Parabasalids-no mitochondria; Trichomonas-STD (p. 603) C.Heteroloboseans-amoeba & flagella stages D.Euglenids-flagella; repro asexually-binary fission; photo/autotrophic-depending on conditions; 3 membrane chloroplast E.Kinetoplastids-flagella; parasites

24 3. Excavates-diverse!! A. Diplomonads-2 nuclei; no mitochondria; Giardia-diarrhea http://content3.eol.org/content/2008/12/10/21/78382_large.jpg

25 3. Excavates-diverse!! B. Parabasalids-no mitochondria; anaerobic; Trichomonas- STD; symbiotic relationship with termites: allow them to digest cellulose (in turn have symbiotic bacteria!) http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/1/11/Trichomonas_LifeCycle.gif

26 3. Excavates-diverse!! C. Heteroloboseans-amoeba & flagella stages (some have both, some have only one stage, some have two different types of flagellated stages, some do encystment) http://tolweb.org/Heterolobosea/96360 http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_FeaU01D- 3wI/Sw5GMB47rTI/AAAAAAAABCg/fIIIiVsj8go/s400/Naegleria%2Blife%2Bcycle&imgrefurl=http://skepticwonder.blogspot.com/2009/11/heterolobosea-ii-change-of-heart- amoebo.html&usg=__NTV4AFrnRGLS- _I389UEfVD3d3o=&h=398&w=400&sz=27&hl=en&start=14&itbs=1&tbnid=0GfCXxR30aPW7M:&tbnh=123&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dheteroloboseans%26hl%3Den%26tbs%3Disch:1

27 3. Excavates-diverse!! D. Euglenids-flagella; repro asexually-binary fission; photo/autotrophic-depending on conditions; 3 membrane chloroplast http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiZ85y0g3UI http://www.infovisual.info/02/001_en.html

28 3. Excavates-diverse!! E. Kinetoplastids-flagella; parasites (Trypanosoma-sleeping sickness) http://www.k-state.edu/parasitology/625tutorials/FIGcruzi01.jpg

29 Groups 4. Rhizaria-unicellular; needle-like pseudopods A.Cercozoans-very diverse: amoeboid, flagella; aquatic, terrestrial B.Foraminiferans-Calcium carbonate shells (p. 587) C.Radiolarians-silica shells; marine (p. 605)

30 4. Rhizaria-unicellular; needle-like pseudopods A. Cercozoans-very diverse: amoeboid, flagella; aquatic, terrestrial (a lot of argument here; one group has chloroplasts: bound by 4 membranes and contains a vestigial nucleus) http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_FeaU01D- 3wI/Sn_dZSj5PjI/AAAAAAAAAgE/Zkn54RPAGEY/s400/Ebriid+Hoppenrath+Leander+2006+Protist.jpg

31 4. Rhizaria-unicellular; needle-like pseudopods 2. Foraminiferans-Calcium carbonate shells, mostly marine http://images.nbii.gov/RFemmer/D_med-res/Foraminiferans-10-species-2.jpg

32 4. Rhizaria-unicellular; needle-like pseudopods C. Radiolarians-silica shells; marine http://images.nbii.gov/RFemmer/D_med-res/Radiolarians-10-species-2.jpg

33 5. Unikonts A.Amoebozoans 1.Loboseans-unicellular: predator, parasite, scavengers 2.Plasmodial slime mold-multinucleate; vegetative phase = feeding stage-move by cytoplasmic streaming; unfavorable conditions form fruiting body-spore bearing 3.Cellular slime mold-individual cells with in body

34 5. Unikonts A. Amoebozoans 1. Loboseans-unicellular: predator, parasite, scavengers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsYpngBG394&feature=response_watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gKNzzxuz6uk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6rnhiMxtKU http://tolweb.org/tree/ToLimages/3212957287_129489fca2_o.150a.jpg

35 5. Unikonts A. Amoebozoans 2. Plasmodial slime mold-multinucleate; vegetative phase = feeding stage-move by cytoplasmic streaming; unfavorable conditions form fruiting body-spore bearing http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://gallery.photo.net/photo/8415236- md.jpg&imgrefurl=http://photo.net/photodb/photo%3Fphoto_id%3D8415236&usg=__aoJe0Gw_ClyKLcVFu_PbQZkDeig=&h=453&w=680&sz=154&hl=en&st art=6&itbs=1&tbnid=np8wEHUz7wA1vM:&tbnh=93&tbnw=139&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dplasmodial%2Bslime%2Bmold%26hl%3Den%26tbs%3Disch:1

36 5. Unikonts A. Amoebozoans 3. Cellular slime mold-individual cells within body http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkVhLJLG7ug http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GScyw3ammmk&feature=related (first 30 sec) http://static.newworldencyclopedia.org/thumb/5/5d/Dog_vomit_slime_mold.jpg/180px- Dog_vomit_slime_mold.jpg

37 Groups 5. Unikonts B. Opisthokonts 1.Choanoflagellates-flagella posterior (all others anterior) 2.Animals 3.Fungi

38 5. Unikonts B. Opisthokonts 1. Choanoflagellates-flagella posterior (all others anterior) very similar to sponges http://monado.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/choanoflagellate.jpg


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