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©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 18 Trophic State and Eutrophication Dodds & Whiles
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.1 Whole-lake nutrient additions at Lake 226 in northwestern Ontario. The far lake received nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon, and the near lake received only nitrogen and carbon. The algal bloom in the far lake gives the lake a light color. (Copyright 1974 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Photograph courtesy of D. W. Schindler.) (From Schindler, D. W. Eutrophication and recovery in experimental lakes: Implications for lake management. Science, 184: May 24, 897–899, 1974).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.2 Two trophic classification systems for lakes. (A) Probability distribution for chlorophyll related to trophic state. The y axis is the probability that a lake will have a specific trophic state given a set value of chlorophyll. For example, at 10 μg chl liter 21, the chances are approximately 0% that the lake is ultraoligotrophic, 5% that the lake is oligotrophic, 50% that it is mesotrophic, 45% that it is eutrophic, and 5% that it is hypertrophic (hypereutrophic). (Adapted from Eutrophication of Waters. Monitoring and Assessment and Control © OECD, 1982). (B) A logarithmic scale that allows a continuous index to be derived from Secchi depth, total phosphorus, or chlorophyll a. (Plotted from data of Carlson, 1977).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.3 Relationship of trophic state index (determined by the method of Carlson, 1977; Fig. 18.2B) and water odor of surface (A) and hypolimnetic (B) samples from six Kansas reservoirs. Water odor was ranked by human testers, with a higher rank indicating lower drinking water quality. (Reproduced with permission from Arruda and Fromm, 1989).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.4 Relationships of total nitrogen to fish biomass (A) and chlorophyll to total N (B) and total P (C) in 67 Florida lakes. Note that the relationship between fish and nutrients is weaker than that between chlorophyll and nutrients. (Data from Bachman et al., 1996).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.5 David Schindler.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.6 Relationship between mean growing season concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll in 228 temperate lakes coded by N:P ratios. (Corrected data plotted following Smith, 1982).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.7 A nomogram relating epilimnetic chlorophyll concentration to total phosphorus (A) and Secchi depth (B). (Based on equations in OECD, 1982). This graph can be used to estimate changes in clarity related to a known change in total phosphorus.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.8 A simplified diagram of the steps that can be used to modify eutrophication in a lake.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.9 Ranges of phosphorus and nitrogen fluxes from different land-use categories and the rates of nitrogen and phosphorus loading. The last three bars on the right are rates of loading from the sum of wet atmospheric deposition (in precipitation) and dry deposition (in dust) in areas that are forested, agricultural, or urban. (Adapted from Loehr et al., 1989).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.10 Relationship between total nitrogen concentration in streams and the percentage of land in agricultural and urban use from a variety of watersheds in Kansas. (Data courtesy of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.11 Relationship between total nitrogen concentration in the water column and mean benthic chlorophyll from about 200 temperate streams coded by N:P ratios. (Data from Dodds et al., 2006b).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.12 Chemical and biological parameters as a function of distance downstream from untreated sewage effluent. (A, Redrawn from Hynes, 1960, and from a modern sewage treatment plant (B)).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.13 W. Thomas Edmondson.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 18.14 Changes over time in phosphorus loading (A), epilimnetic chlorophyll (B), and proportion of cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae; C) in Lake Washington. (Redrawn from Edmondson and Lehman, 1981).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 17 Nutrient Use and Remineralization Dodds & Whiles.
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