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Bacteria, Protists, Algae, and Marine Plants ENV 121 Lab.

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Presentation on theme: "Bacteria, Protists, Algae, and Marine Plants ENV 121 Lab."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacteria, Protists, Algae, and Marine Plants ENV 121 Lab

2 Tree of Life Figure 4.24

3 Definitions:Prokaryotes: Unicellular organisms whose cells do not have a nucleus or other organelles, simple Eukaryotes: Unicellular or multicellular organisms with cells possessing a nucleus and other organelles that are enclosed by membranes

4 Nutrition: Process by which an organism obtains from its environment Energy 1. Energy Chemical elements (carbon) 2. Chemical elements (carbon) needed for its survival and growth.Definitions:

5 Definitions: 1.Energy 1. Energy Phototroph: sunlightenergy organisms using sunlight as a source of energy Chemotroph: chemicalsenergy organisms using chemicals as a source of energy i.e. hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, methane gas

6 Definitions: 2.Obtain Carbon molecules 2. Obtain Carbon molecules Autotroph: synthesizing organisms capable of synthesizing their own food from simple inorganic molecules (e.g. carbon from CO 2 )Heterotroph: obtain organisms that obtain food from organic compounds (i.e. other living organisms) (e.g. carbon from glucose)

7 Definitions: Primary Producers organisms that manufacture organic matter from CO 2, usually by photosynthesis

8 Tree of Life Figure 4.24

9 Domain Archaea Oldest group of organisms (3.8 billion years) Prokaryotic cells DNA analysis – more closely related to eukaryotes Heterotrophs or Autotrophs important decomposers, nitrogen fixers

10 Domain Archaea Autotrophs: “extremophiles” Methanogens Methanogens – chemoautotrophs that produce methane gas from CO 2 and hydrogen gas. Halophiles Halophiles – live in high salt environments, some are photoautotrophs (performing photosynthesis) Thermophiles Thermophiles – live in environments of very high temperatures, like hot springs or near hydrothermal vents.

11 Domain Bacteria Structure: unicellular Size ranges from 0.5 to 15 μm, among smallest living organisms Prokaryotic cells Shapes include: spheres, spirals, rods, and ringsReproduction: Simple asexual division Generation time = 1-3 hrs.

12 Domain Bacteria heterotrophs Most are heterotrophs - important decomposers, some are nitrogen fixers - degrade pollutants Some are Autotrophs: Photosynthetic Photosynthetic bacteria contain chlorophyll a Chemosynthetic Chemosynthetic bacteria use energy released by breakdown of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur or iron compounds

13 Domain Bacteria Cyanobacteria (formerly “blue-green algae”) most primitive plant-like organisms Photoautotrophic bacteria Prokaryotic cells chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin Pigments: chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin Important role in O 2 accumulation in our atmosphere, some carry out nitrogen fixation Solitary or colonial ****DRAWING****

14 Domain Bacteria Prochlorococcus Synechococcus

15 Kingdom Protista General information: Often separated into many different Kingdoms Variation in cellular anatomy, ecological role, and life cycles Planktonic, unicellular, and multicellularStructure: Mostly unicellular – complex an organism as any whole plant or animal Size range: 0.8 to 2,000 μm (=2mm), larger than bacteria

16 Kingdom Protista Feeding: phytoplankton Some are photoautotrophs  phytoplankton zooplankton Some are heterotrophs  zooplankton Euglena sp. Others are mixotrophs  Euglena sp.Locomotion: Flagella or cilia

17 Kingdom Protista Phytoplankton: Make up ~1% of global chlorophyll biomass, but are responsible for ~50% global photosynthesis Are the base of the oceanic food web Regulate global climate Sink for atmospheric CO 2 Chl a Absorbance

18 Photosynthetic Protists: Diatoms: (Class Bacillariophyta) ~ 12,000 species, half are marine Unicellular, but aggregate Centric (cylindrical): planktonic Pennate (boat-shaped): benthic Enclosed by cell walls made of silica (SiO 2 ) Yellow and brown color  carotenoid pigment is fucoxanthin Fig. 5.5

19 Photosynthetic Protists: Diatoms “Shell”  Frustule light passes through holes perforations allow gasses and nutrients Frustules of dead diatoms  diatomaceous ooze Important primary producers – temperate and polar regions Can produce domoic acidReproduction: Asexual = Cell division Sexual  egg + sperm in auxospore stage ****DRAWING****

20 Photosynthetic Protists: Dinoflagellates: (Class Dinoflagellata) Dinoflagellates: (Class Dinoflagellata) ~ 1,200 species, all marine Important primary producers – Warm regions Unicellular flagella 2 unequal flagella External cell wall armored cellulose with plates made of cellulose or naked Have chlorophyll, can also ingest food particles Have Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll c 2, and peridinin Fig. 5.7 Gonyaulax polyedra

21 Photosynthetic Protists: Dinoflagellates Massive blooms cause “red tides” Some release toxins that cause shellfish poisoning (PSP, NSP, DSP) Some bioluminesce Some are symbiotic to other organisms and called zooxanthellae ****DRAWING***** Zooxanthellae from anemone, Bartholomea annulata Photo by DC Tulipani, 8/2003




25 Photosynthetic Protists: Coccolithophores: (Class Haptophyta) Covered with small calcareous coccoliths Flagellates Major source of primary production <20µm in diameter

26 Non-photosynthetic Protists (Zooplankton): Foraminiferans: (Phylum Granuloreticulosa) foramen = little hole, ferre = to bear Planktonic protozoans (animal-like protists), exclusively marine Shells (tests) made of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) “Amoeba with a shell” Pseudopodia Shells of planktonic forams sink to bottom to form foraminiferan ooze

27 Non-photosynthetic Protists: Foraminiferans Most live on bottom, free or attached Important contributors in coral reefs and sandy beaches (Bermuda’s “pink” beaches) ****DRAWING****


29 Non-photosynthetic Protists: Radiolarians (Phylum Polycystina) Planktonic, marine Secrete tests made of silica (SiO 2 ) Tests typically spherical with radiating spines psuedopodia – diatoms (Why?) Open waters throughout ocean Shells settle to bottom and form siliceous ooze, called radiolarian ooze ****DRAWING**** Fig. 5.11

30 Non-photosynthetic Protists: Genus Euglena ~150 species, freshwater Flagellum used for locomotion Mixotrophs: Mixotrophs: Contain chlorophyll  photosynthesize Some eat small particles of living matter Euglena spirogyra Euglena acus

31 Photosynthetic Protists: Multicellular Algae General Structure: More complex than unicellular algae Still lack the highly specialized structures and reproductive mechanisms of land plants Fig. 6.1

32 Photosynthetic Protists: Multicellular Algae Chlorophyta Phylum Chlorophyta: “Green algae” Contain chlorophyll a – no pigment to mask Unicellular (3 examples - DRAWINGS) Desmids Volvox sp. Cladophora sp. Multicellular (2 examples - DRAWINGS) Ulva sp. Codium sp. Ulva sp. Codium fragile

33 Photosynthetic Protists: Multicellular Algae Phaeophyta Class Phaeophyta: “Brown algae” Multicellular, mostly marine Fucoxanthin Olive-green to dark brown color from carotenoid pigment: Fucoxanthin Also have chlorophyll a and c Often dominant primary producers on temperate and polar rocky shores 2 examples - DRAWINGS Macrocystis pyrifera Egregia sp.

34 Egregia Pelagophycus Macrocystis

35 Photosynthetic Protists: Multicellular Algae Rhodophyta Phylum Rhodophyta: “Red algae” Essentially marine, all multicellular Common, more species than green/brown combined Contain red pigments called phycobilins Most are soft bodied, some coralline reds encrusted with hard calcium carbonate, Why? 2 examples – DRAWINGS Corallina sp. (calcified)

36 Pelagophycus Halimeda Porphyra

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