3Chlorophyll a is the most abundant and important photosynthetic pigment. It is the primary pigment for photoexcitation.The other photosynthetic pigments are called accessory pigments.They enables the plant to absorb sunlight of greater range of wavelength.They transfer the energy of the light they have absorbed to chlorophyll a for photoexcitation.They protect chlorophyll a from destruction by absorbing excessive sunlight.
5Action SpectrumThe action spectrum is highly correlated to the absorption spectrum.
6for separation of photosynthetic pigments Paper chromatographyfor separation of photosynthetic pigments
7Different photosynthetic pigment has different Rf value. Rf value of a pigment = Distance travelled by the pigmentDistance travelled by the solvent frontThe list below indicates the Rf value of the most common photosynthetic pigment using Petroleum ether: acetone(9:1) as a developing solvent:Carotene 0.95Xanthophyll 0.71Chlorophyll a 0.65Chlorophyll b 0.45
9Electromicrograph of Chloroplast Light dependent stage of photosynthesis takes place in grana and intergrana.Light independent stage of photosynthesis takes place in stroma.
10Mechanism of Photosynthesis Light dependent stage1: Chlorophyll molecule is excitated from its ground state by a process called photoexcitation.Ch Ch+ + e-
11Mechanism of Photosynthesis Light dependent stage2: The high energy electron is transferred via a series of electron transport chain.
12Mechanism of Photosynthesis Light dependent stage3: The energy is handed over to form ATP, a process called photophosphorylation.
13Mechanism of Photosynthesis Light dependent stage4: Water molecule is splitted up to give oxygen, hydrogen ion and electron, a process called photolysis. The H+ together with the e- via the electron transport chain reduce NADP to NADPH2. The electron returns the chlorophyll ion to its ground state.
14Mechanism of Photosynthesis Light dependent stageAlternative explanation for step 4: Water is ionized to form hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion
15Mechanism of Photosynthesis Light dependent stage4 OH- 2H2O + O2 + 4e-The electron returns the chlorophyll ion to the ground state. The H+ together with the e- via the electron transport chain reduce NADP to NADPH2.
16The main products formed by the light dependent stage are ATP and NADPH2 which will be used in the light independent stage of photosynthesis.The light dependent stage is a series of photochemical reactions which are NOT controlled by enzymes. The rate is therefore NOT temperature dependent.Light dependent stage takes place in grana and intergrana.Light independent stage takes place in stroma.
18Products of Photosynthesis Some triose phosphate is to synthesize glucose and then sucrose and starch.
19Products of Photosynthesis Fatty acids and glycerol are produced from the 3-C compound and triose phosphate respectively. Lipids are formed by combining glycerol and fatty acids,
20Products of Photosynthesis Amino acids are formed from the 3-C compounds.
21Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis Light intensityCarbon dioxide concentrationTemperature
22Concepts of Limiting factor The rate of photosynthesis is controlled by light intensity, CO2 concentration and temperature.The most unfavourable factor affects the rate of photosynthesis most. This factor is called Limiting factor. The change in other factors have no effect on the rate of photosynthesis.When the limiting factor becomes favourable, it will no longer be limiting and the rate of photosynthesis increases accordingly until the other factors become limiting.
26ChemosynthesisAutotroph/ autotrophic organisms are able to synthesize their own food using the raw materials such as carbon dioxide and water.Inorganic raw materials Organic foodInorganic raw materials Organic foodSunlight energyPhoto-autotroph:Inorganic raw materials Organic foodChemical energyChemo-autotroph:
27Examples of Chemo-autotrophs/ Chemosynthetic organisms Iron bacteria:Fe2+ Fe3+ + EnergyInorganic raw materials Organic foodColourless sulphur bacteria:S SO4= + energyInorganic raw materials Organic food
29Nitrite bacteriaNitrite bacteria oxidize the ammonium ion in the soil into nitrite ion with release of energy:2 NH O2 2 NO H2O + 4 H+ + EnergyThe energy is used to synthesize organic food for this bacteria.
30Nitrate BacteriaNitrate bacteria oxidizes nitrite ion into nitrate ion with release of energy.2 NO2- + O2 2 NO3- + EnergyThe energy is used to synthesize organic food from inorganic raw materials.