Presentation on theme: "4.2/4.3 Intro to Photosynthesis"— Presentation transcript:
1 4.2/4.3 Intro to Photosynthesis Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 43Topic: 4.2/4.3 Intro to PhotosynthesisEssential Question:What are the role of chloroplasts and chlorophyll in photosynthesis?Don’t forget to add it to your T.O.Contents!4.2/4.3 Intro to Photosynthesis2.1 Atoms, Ions, and MoleculesWhat are the role of chloroplasts and chlorophyll in photosynthesis?Key Concept: The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy
2 How does ADP become ATP again? SPONGEHow does ATP become ADP?Which has more energy?How does ADP become ATP again?
3 ATP has more energy ADP has less energy ATP becomes ADP when a phosphate group is removed and energy is released.ATP has more energy ADP has less energyADP can be converted back into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group.phosphate removed
4 CA StandardThe fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells.1.F Know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.
5 Table TalkImagine you just planted beautiful roses in your garden. What materials are crucial to the roses survival? In other words, what do the roses need to stay alive?
6 Water (H20) Sunlight Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Soil What materials are crucial to the roses survival? In other words, what do the roses need to stay alive?
7 KEY CONCEPT The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy.
8 List a few things that use energy from sunlight.
9 Solar powered homes, cars, and calculators are just a few things that use energy from sunlight. In a way you are solar powered. Although the sun does not directly give you the energy.
11 How do we get our chemical energy? Plants from the sunAnimals from plants or other animals that fed on plants
12 Photosynthesis is a process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy. Therefore, directly or indirectly, the energy for almost all organisms begins as sunlight.(Sugar)
13 Photosynthetic organisms are producers. Producers make their own source of chemical energy (they make their own food).Ex: Plants
14 Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy. chloroplastleaf cellleafIn plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts.Photosynthesis occurs here.
15 What are the roles of chloroplasts and chlorophyll in photosynthesis? Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts.Chlorophyll is a light-absorbing molecule located in chloroplasts.
16 Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts. thylakoidCoin-shaped compartments that contain chlorophyllgrana- stacks of thylakoidsStromaFluid that surrounds the granachloroplaststromagranaThylakoid
17 Where does photosynthesis take place? SpongeWhere does photosynthesis take place?What is the function of chlorophyll?List the 2 products of photosynthesis.
18 Where does photosynthesis take place? Chloroplasts SpongeWhere does photosynthesis take place?Chloroplasts2. What is the function of chlorophyll?To absorb the energy from the sunlightList the 2 products of photosynthesis.Oxygen (O2)Sugar
19 The equation for photosynthesis is: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide water light, enzymes a sugar oxygenC6H12O6granum (stack of thylakoids)thylakoidsunlight1 six-carbon sugar6H2O6CO26O2chloroplast1243energystroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)
20 Light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight (The reactions depend on light!).
21 Light DEpendent Light INdependent 1 2 4 3 granum (stack of thylakoids) C6H12O6granum (stack of thylakoids)thylakoidsunlight1 six-carbon sugar6H2O6CO26O2chloroplast1243energystroma (fluid outside the thylakoids)Light DEpendentLight INdependent
22 6 O2 (oxygen) are released as waste Light Dependent reactions- take place in the thylakoidsSunlight is absorbed by chlorophyllThe energy is carried by ATP and NADPH molecules6 H2O (water) molecules are broken down6 O2 (oxygen) are released as waste
24 The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy. The light-dependent reactions include groups of molecules called photosystems.Photosystems are molecules that capture and transfer energy in the thylakoids.
25 Photosystem II captures and transfers energy. chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlightenergized electrons enter electron transport chain- which is a series of proteins in the membrane of the thylakoidwater molecules are splitH+ ionsElectronsOxygenOxygen is released as waste
26 Photosystem II captures and transfers energy. hydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane
28 Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules. The electrons from photosystem II move on to photosystem Ichlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight (even more high-energy electrons)The electrons are added to NADP+ (similar to ADP) which are used to make NADPH (enzyme like ATP)NADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions
29 Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy-carrying molecules. Hydrogen ions diffuse through the thylakoid membraneATP is produced
32 The light-dependent reactions produce ATP. hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the thylakoid membraneATP synthase attached to the channel makes ATPThe energy from both ATP and NADPH is used to make sugars during light-independent reactions.
33 The light-independent reactions use energy from light-dependent reactions to make sugars. takes place in the stromaneeds 6 CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) from atmosphereuses light-Dependent ATP/NADPH (energy) to build a sugar molecule which stores some of the energy that was captured from sunlight
35 The second stage of photosynthesis uses energy from the first stage to make sugars. Light-independent reactions occur in the stroma and use CO2 molecules.
36 1. carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle Calvin Cycle: uses carbon dioxide CO2 gas from the atmosphere and the energy carried by ATP and NADPH to make simple sugars.1. carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle2. energy is added and carbon molecules are rearranged3. a high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle2.3.Split into 2, 3-carbon molecules1.
37 4. two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar 5. remaining molecules stay in the cycle6. 3-carbon molecules are changed back into 5-carbon molecules using ATP4.5.6.