Presentation on theme: "4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 43 Topic: 4.2/4.3 Intro to Photosynthesis Essential Question: What are the role of chloroplasts."— Presentation transcript:
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 43 Topic: 4.2/4.3 Intro to Photosynthesis Essential Question: What are the role of chloroplasts and chlorophyll in photosynthesis? Don’t forget to add it to your T.O.Contents! 2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules What are the role of chloroplasts and chlorophyll in photosynthesis? 4.2/4.3 Intro to Photosynthesis Key Concept: The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis SPONGE 1.How does ATP become ADP? 2. Which has more energy? 3.How does ADP become ATP again?
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis phosphate removed ATP becomes ADP when a phosphate group is removed and energy is released. ATP has more energy ADP has less energy ADP can be converted back into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis CA Standard 1.The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells. 1.F Know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Imagine you just planted beautiful roses in your garden. What materials are crucial to the roses survival? In other words, what do the roses need to stay alive? Table Talk
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis What materials are crucial to the roses survival? In other words, what do the roses need to stay alive? Water (H 2 0) Sunlight Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Soil
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis KEY CONCEPT The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis List a few things that use energy from sunlight.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Solar powered homes, cars, and calculators are just a few things that use energy from sunlight. In a way you are solar powered. Although the sun does not directly give you the energy.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis How do we get our chemical energy?
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis How do we get our chemical energy? Plants from the sun Animals from plants or other animals that fed on plants
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy. Therefore, directly or indirectly, the energy for almost all organisms begins as sunlight. (Sugar)
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic organisms are producers. Producers make their own source of chemical energy (they make their own food). Ex: Plants
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Chlorophyll is a molecule that absorbs light energy. chloroplastleaf cell leaf In plants, chlorophyll is found in organelles called chloroplasts. Photosynthesis occurs here.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis What are the roles of chloroplasts and chlorophyll in photosynthesis? Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts. Chlorophyll is a light- absorbing molecule located in chloroplasts.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts. –thylakoid -Coin-shaped compartments that contain chlorophyll -grana- stacks of thylakoids –Stroma -Fluid that surrounds the grana chloroplast stroma grana Thylakoid
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Sponge 1.Where does photosynthesis take place? 2.What is the function of chlorophyll? 3.List the 2 products of photosynthesis.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Sponge 1.Where does photosynthesis take place? Chloroplasts 2. What is the function of chlorophyll? To absorb the energy from the sunlight 3.List the 2 products of photosynthesis. -Oxygen (O 2 ) -Sugar
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis The equation for photosynthesis is: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 granum (stack of thylakoids) thylakoid sunlight 1 six-carbon sugar 6H 2 O 6CO 2 6O 2 chloroplast 1 2 43 energy stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids) Carbon dioxide water light, enzymes a sugar oxygen
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Light- de pendent reactions capture energy from sunlight (The reactions depend on light!).
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis C 6 H 12 O 6 granum (stack of thylakoids) thylakoid sunlight 1 six-carbon sugar 6H 2 O 6CO 2 6O 2 chloroplast 1 2 43 energy stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids) Light DEpendent Light INdependent
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Light Dependent reactions- take place in the thylakoids Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll The energy is carried by ATP and NADPH molecules 6 H 2 O (water) molecules are broken down 6 O 2 (oxygen) are released as waste
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis
The first stage of photosynthesis captures and transfers energy. The light-dependent reactions include groups of molecules called photosystems. Photosystems are molecules that capture and transfer energy in the thylakoids.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosystem II captures and transfers energy. –chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight –energized electrons enter electron transport chain- which is a series of proteins in the membrane of the thylakoid –water molecules are split –H+ ions –Electrons –Oxygen –Oxygen is released as waste
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosystem II captures and transfers energy. –hydrogen ions are transported across thylakoid membrane
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis
Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy- carrying molecules. –The electrons from photosystem II move on to photosystem I –chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight (even more high-energy electrons) –The electrons are added to NADP+ (similar to ADP) which are used to make NADPH (enzyme like ATP) –NADPH is transferred to light-independent reactions
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Photosystem I captures energy and produces energy- carrying molecules. –Hydrogen ions diffuse through the thylakoid membrane –ATP is produced
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP. –hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the thylakoid membrane –ATP synthase attached to the channel makes ATP –The energy from both ATP and NADPH is used to make sugars during light- independent reactions.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis The light- in dependent reactions use energy from light- dependent reactions to make sugars. –takes place in the stroma – needs 6 CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) from atmosphere – uses light-Dependent ATP/NADPH (energy) to build a sugar molecule which stores some of the energy that was captured from sunlight
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Calvin Cycle
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Light-independent reactions occur in the stroma and use CO 2 molecules. The second stage of photosynthesis uses energy from the first stage to make sugars.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Calvin Cycle: uses carbon dioxide CO 2 gas from the atmosphere and the energy carried by ATP and NADPH to make simple sugars. –1. carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle –2. energy is added and carbon molecules are rearranged –3. a high-energy three-carbon molecule leaves the cycle 1. 2. Split into 2, 3- carbon molecules 3.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis –4. two three-carbon molecules bond to form a sugar –5. remaining molecules stay in the cycle –6. 3-carbon molecules are changed back into 5-carbon molecules using ATP 4. 5. 6.
Sponge #5 What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Reactants: (What do we need for photosynthesis? Sunlight H 2 O water CO 2 carbon dioxide Products: O 2 oxygen Glucose (sugar) The equation for photosynthesis is: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Sunlight + H 2 0 ------------------------------ O 2 reactions in thylakoids CO 2 ------------------------------------ 1 six-carbon sugar Calvin cycle ATP NADPH Light dependent reactions Light independent reactions
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis SPONGE 4 What are light-dependent reactions? Name their product. What are light-independent reactions? Name their product.
4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis Light-dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight and produces oxygen as a byproduct. Light-independent reactions use energy from the light- dependent reactions to make sugars. ATP NADPH