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Claudine SchWeber, University of Maryland University College Joanne Tritsch, Mary Baldwin College Global Forum.

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Presentation on theme: "Claudine SchWeber, University of Maryland University College Joanne Tritsch, Mary Baldwin College Global Forum."— Presentation transcript:

1 Claudine SchWeber, University of Maryland University College Joanne Tritsch, Mary Baldwin College Global Forum on Urban and Regional Resilience Virginia Tech, Oct, 14,

2  An organization or community that has “internalized continuity management to the extent that all strategic decisions…are made with a view towards making critical enabling processes resilient from the beginning”  Brazeau 2008, p 28 2

3  “ability to positively adapt to change and transform experiences/situation to advantage and emerge stronger”… Elliot et al,2010,p216)  “capacity to cope with unanticipated dangers after they have become manifest; learning to bounce back” (Comfort, 1994, p. 158)  facilitating a “rapid, flexible, innovative and effective response when a future crisis presents itself ” (Boin & Lagadec, 2000, p. 188)  Resilient individuals can “respond quickly and effectively to change while enduring minimal stress.” (Mallak, l998,p 8) 3

4  Natural disasters: Hurricane Katrina 2005, Hurricane Sandy 2012, East coast earthquake, 2011  Community crisis: Ferguson, Mo.2014  Health concerns: Ebola virus, Swine flu, H1N1 and fear of spreading/pandemic  Organizational Crises: Federal Gov’t sequester 2013, General Motors recall 2014, ** Johnson & Johnson Tylenol crisis

5 Continuity of operations (coop): “an institution’s [community’s] ability to maintain or restore its business…when some circumstance threatens or disrupts normal operations” (Pirani and Yanofsky, p 2) Ensuring that ‘essential functions’ can continue during and after the event; re-establish full functionality quickly; continuity of mission-critical services (SchWeber, 2010) 5

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7 Anticipation (preparation) Management during event (response) Resilience (recovery) Thriving or Hyper – resilience (better off) Crisis: Trigger Event 7

8 Ability to:  Adapt to the unexpected situation, problem-solve, develop solutions out of available resources.  bricolage ( Levi-Strauss, C ) ; expand or obtain access to resources beyond those normally available  Make decisions quickly “in unfamiliar contexts’, when faced with the crisis ( Winter, 2007 )  Develop consistent communication with new media technologies ( Cason & SchWeber,2014 )  Repair lost trust ( Tritsch )  Preparation  Response, Recovery 8

9  making use of resources, tools available to accomplish the task, despite the fact that resources are less than what would be preferred  the art of creating a new entity from a diverse range of things available  Something made or put together using whatever materials happen to be available  *Levi-Strauss, C. 9

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11 “decisions in unfamiliar contexts”  “only by going forward is it possible to learn what the options are for going further forward” ( Winter, 2007, p 510 ) 11

12 Consider whether these decisions represent “System 1 or System 2” thinking: --System 1=fast, automatic, intuitive --System2=slow, deliberative, requires attention, complex considerations (Daniel Kahneman, 2011) 12

13  Electronic tools in which user can be author and audience.  Weblogs, podcasts, social networking sites, microblogs, mobile text messages, wiki, image/video sharing, instant messaging, listservs  NMT can aid or hinder communication—no one sole ‘owner’ of the communication  Cason & SchWeber,

14 Internal and external organizational communication have distinct purposes focusing on different groups of stakeholders, but they also overlap in the area of effective crisis/emergency planning 14

15  A “psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or behaviors of another” (Rousseau, Sitkin, Burt, & Camerer, 1998, p. 395).  Involves “making a confident judgment about a party’s responsibility” (Dietz, & Gillespie, 2011, p. 5). 15

16  result of “an intentional or unintentional breach of trust or the perception of such a breach” (Reina, & Reina, 1999, p. 10).  Once damaged, “there is a tendency to privilege negative evidence over positive evidence” (Lewicki, & Bunker, 1996, p. 127).   Damaged trust “leads to behavior which bolsters the validity of distrust itself” (Kramer, 1999, p. 594). 16

17  Self-protection and risk aversion (Gillespie, & Dietz, 2009; Lewicki, & Bunker, 1996)  Pessimism concerning co-worker motives and competencies Retaliatory and (Dietz, & Gillespie, 2011; Jones, 2008)  revenge seeking (Baumgartner, Fischbacher, Feierabend, Lutz, & Fehr, 2009)  Increased cynicism and general bad behavior (Kramer, 1999; Wang, & Wart, 2007) 17

18 Greater effort is required for trust repair than for damaging or even initially building trust.  “The mistrusted party must not only re- establish positive expectations, but also overcome the salient negative expectations that are likely to have arisen from the trust violation” (Kim, Dirks, Cooper, & Ferrin, 2006, p. 50). 18

19  Integrity breaches are more harmful to trust than competency breaches  In breaches of trust, a single error of competency is often viewed as a mistake, where a single error of integrity is often viewed as a signal of greater dishonesty.  Honest acknowledgment, apologies, offers of redress  may mitigate damage  Tritsch 19

20  Preparation: communication ◦ Compatibility of communication modes among varied personnel—emergency management, police, organization/ community leaders (e.g. 9/11 problem) Federal gov’t web options: Ready site health/CDC weather Local government: Montgomery County, MD = Alert sign up; Twitter information; social media link; Washington DC: Homeland Security & Emergency Management Agency; = sign up for DC Alerts; ‘Be Aware’ links re utility outage, etc; Arlington, Va: Emergency = sign up link for Alerts; how to deal with an active shooter; emergency plan details; Arlington Prepares smartphone apphttp://montgomerycert.org/ Plan B, C???? Practice, Practice, Practice ◦ 20

21  Participants’ examples  Ferguson, Mo. (handout) 21

22 Workforce resilience  Ability of employees to continue to fulfill essential functions despite stress  Closely connected with personal resilience  positive adaptation to change; ability to recover from disruptive change without acting in dysfunctional or harmful ways 22

23  Personal and family impact  Department and staff adaptability  Cultural dynamics of team, unit 23

24  ability of employees to continue to fulfill essential functions when [affected by stressful situations].  Workforce resilience elements: ◦ Leadership in unit, organization ◦ Training and support for new, additional positions..+ rewards ◦ Support for colleagues with increased work-loads ◦ Knowing the organization’s plans for action ◦ Contact for questions, concerns –public and confidential 24

25  Plan for impact on staff and families  Provide support for changing roles : family notification process, communication  Identify family assistance support, e.g., transportation out of area, to medical facility  Identify and contact alternative contact sources, especially of existing communications not operative (e.g., power outages). -- FEI Crisis Management: Keys to organizational resilience (2012) 25

26  HRO: organizations that “operate continuously under trying conditions and have fewer than their fair share of major incidents.”  HROs are not error-free…but errors don’t disable them.  *Weick & Sutcliffe, 2007,p 14 26

27  1. Preoccupation with Failure: attention to details and previous failures  2. Reluctance to simplify: create a broader picture of what is being faced than simple summaries  3. Sensitive to Operations: attention to front line/ real work as it occurs or occurred  4. Commitment to resilience : ‘intrinsic ability of an organization (system) to maintain or regain a dynamically stable state which allows it to continue operations after a mishap and/or in the presence of a continuous stress”;--Improvising workarounds that enable the system to keep functioning; require knowledge, understanding, of technology, system, co-workers, self.  5. Deference to expertise: cultivate staff diversity in skills, knowledge; decision-making pushed down, around; rank does not drive authority to take action, implement (e.g, flight operations emergencies)  Weick & Sutcliffe, pp

28  Resilience requires development and maintenance of HRC (high reliability communities).  How might (some of) the HRO principles be applied to communities? 28

29  to Move from   To   To thriving  29


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