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2014 System Operator Conference 1 Protection System Misoperations: Why Should a System Operator Give a Hoot? April 17 & May 1, 2014 – Charlotte, NC September.

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Presentation on theme: "2014 System Operator Conference 1 Protection System Misoperations: Why Should a System Operator Give a Hoot? April 17 & May 1, 2014 – Charlotte, NC September."— Presentation transcript:

1 2014 System Operator Conference 1 Protection System Misoperations: Why Should a System Operator Give a Hoot? April 17 & May 1, 2014 – Charlotte, NC September 11 & 25, 2014 – Nashville/Franklin, TN David Greene, P.E. Senior Reliability Engineer SERC Reliability Corporation

2 2014 System Operator Conference Learning Objectives Explain how Protection System Misoperations impact the Bulk Electric System (BES). State the process for addressing Protection System Misoperations per the PRC-004 NERC Reliability Standard. List the common categories of Protection System Misoperations and name some common causes. Identify ways in which Protection System Misoperations can impact System Operators (per PRC-001 requirements). Recognize what is and is not a Protection System Misoperation from actual examples. 2 At the conclusion of this training session, you should be able to:

3 2014 System Operator Conference Outline of Topics  Explain Applicable PRC Standards PRC-001 & PRC-004  Misoperation Reporting Process  Misoperation Categories  Misoperation Causes  Example 1 – Failure to Trip  Example 2 – Unnecessary Trip with Fault  Example 3 – Unnecessary Trip without Fault  Example 4 – Human error  Example 5 – Slow Trip  Example 6 – Special Protection System Fail to Operate  Example 7 – AZ/CA Blackout – SPS Coordination?  Examples 8-10 more Unnecessary Trip with Fault  Summary of Main Points 3

4 2014 System Operator Conference Understanding the Intent of PRC System Operator Can you handle the Truth??? We need you on that Wall Actually, you are on the wall whether or not you realize it 4

5 2014 System Operator Conference Understanding the Intent of PRC Protection System Misoperations will happen FIX THEM! And by the way, don’t dilly dally around getting it done! 5

6 2014 System Operator Conference Misoperation Reporting Process 1.Misoperation occurs 2.TO, GO, DP analyzes misoperation 3.TO, GO, DP develops Corrective Action Plan (CAP) 4.TO, GO, DP implements CAP 5.TO, GO, DP reports misoperations and CAP status quarterly 6.Region (SERC Protection and Controls Subcommittee PCS) reviews misoperations and operations reporting 7.Region provides misoperations and operations data to NERC after Region review 8.Region monitors timeliness of CAP implementation 6

7 2014 System Operator Conference Four Misoperation Categories Presented in order of increasing occurrences: Slow Trip Failure to Trip Unnecessary Trip without a Fault Unnecessary Trip with a Fault 7

8 2014 System Operator Conference Ten Misoperation Causes 1.AC system 2.As-left personnel error 3.Communication failures 4.DC system 5.Incorrect settings 6.Logic error 7.Design error 8.Relay failures/malfunctions 9.Unknown/unexplainable 10.Other/explainable 8

9 2014 System Operator Conference Line Fault Misoperation Example 1: Failure to Trip Line Fault What the heck? 9

10 2014 System Operator Conference Misoperation Example 2:Unnecessary Trip with Fault X 01 Station A Station D Station C Station B Line Fault Why trip? 10

11 2014 System Operator Conference Misoperation Example 3: Unnecessary Trip without Fault Generator trip Why separate from the grid? 11

12 2014 System Operator Conference W BUS 2: Cleared to install capacitor Misoperation Example 4: Human Error BUS 1 NOT A Misoperation 12

13 2014 System Operator Conference Misoperation Example 5: Slow Trip X 04 Station B Station E Station D Station C Line Fault Why trip? G G W Station A 13

14 2014 System Operator Conference W W L1 TX1 TX 2 L4L3 L2 Out of Service G1G2 500kV 200kV X Line Fault and Lockout Unit Supposed to Trip Misoperation Example 6: Special Protection System (SPS) Failure to Operate Line Overload, Instability Line Overload 14

15 2014 System Operator Conference L3 Misoperation Example 7: AZ/CA Outage - SPS Lack of Coordination L2 L4 Note: Drawing copied from the FERC, NERC AZ/CA Sept 8, 2011 Outage Report AZ/CA Blackout was initiated by a Switching Error, not a misoperation 15

16 2014 System Operator Conference Example 7 Cont’d: AZ/CA Outage - SPS Lack of Coordination Note: Drawing copied from the FERC, NERC AZ/CA Sept 8, 2011 Outage Report “S” Line Remedial Action Scheme (SPS) operated too soon SONGS Separation Scheme (SPS) – Lack of Coordination Protection Settings to close to Facility Emergency Ratings 16

17 2014 System Operator Conference Open for Maint. STA 3 W BUS 1 BUS STA STA Misoperation Example 8: Unnecessary Trip with Fault Insulator failure X Why trip? 17

18 2014 System Operator Conference STA C STA B W BUS STA D STA B Misoperation Example 9: Unnecessary Trip with Fault BUS 1 Why 01 and 07 trip? 18 X X Line Fault

19 2014 System Operator Conference Misoperation Example 10: Unnecessary Trip with Fault X 04 Station B Station E Station D Station C Temporary Line Fault Why 03,04,05 trip? G G W Station A 19

20 2014 System Operator Conference Learning Objectives Met? 1.How do Protection System Misoperations impact the Bulk Electric System (BES)? 2.Which NERC Reliability Standard(s) address Protection System Misoperations? 3.What are the four categories of Protection System Misoperations? 4.Name three of the ten causes for Protection System Misoperations? 5.How do Protection System Misoperations impact System Operators? 20 Can you answer:

21 2014 System Operator Conference Summary The main points of this training session are: Protection System Misoperations happen – Fix them! PRC-004 identifies requirements for analyzing, reporting and correcting misoperations – Comply! System Operators get to deal with the results of Protection System Misoperations so: YOU shall know the purpose and limitations of Protection Systems schemes applied in your area! (PRC-001, Requirement 1). 21

22 2014 System Operator Conference Now, Talk to Me David Greene (W) (M)


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