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© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. Wireless Networking for the Smart Grid Narasimha Chari Chief Technology Officer
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 2 Technology and products company Outdoor mesh routers and network management software 800+ customers in 50 countries 40+ patents Founded in 2000 Headquarters in Sunnyvale, CA About Tropos
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 3 Smart Grid requires broadband communications Automated Metering Power Quality and Planning Renewable Integration SMART GRID Demand Response Distribution Automation and Control Outage Management Field Data Applications PHEV Management
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 4 Other applications representing higher traffic include: Substation Video PHEV Station Mobile GIS AVL …and more in the future Smart Grid bandwidth needs growing
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 5 Tiered view of Smart Grid communications
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 6 Tropos architecture components Wireless IP Mesh Routers PTMP and PTP Radio Systems Centralized Wireless Network Management
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 7 GridCom: Distribution-Area Network
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 8 Distribution Area Network requirements Availability Survivability Coverage Performance: Bandwidth & latency QoS Security Manageability Interoperability
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 9 Reliability challenges at utility-scale Very large service territories Mix of urban, suburban and rural areas Diverse application mix with different requirements Stringent requirements –Mission-critical apps need very high availability networks (4 or 5 9's) –Need for highly survivable networks to aid in service restoration following outages –Sub-cycle latencies (<20ms) for DA Most utilities do not own licensed spectrum Wireless is hard
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 10 Techniques for high-reliability wireless Hardware –High-performance radios –Ruggedized outdoor-optimized hardware –Backup power options –MIMO techniques Architecture –Resilient mesh architecture (path and route diversity) –Opportunistic use of multiple bands (frequency band diversity) –Distributed channel coordination (channel diversity) –Combination of mesh and PTMP topologies –Fault detection and isolation Cognitive radio techniques –Adaptive modulation –Transmit power control –Adaptive noise immunity
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 11 High Reliability Mesh Routers Reliable Self organizing fully redundant mesh >99.99% system availability -40ºC to 55ºC operating range IP67 weather tight (NEMA 6+) Available battery backup IEEE 1613 compliant Secure Multi-layer security – 802.1x, IPSec, AES FIPS 140-2 certified Manageable Monitoring, configuration, upgrades, fault management, security Multiple Applications High bandwidth: up to 15Mbps Low latency: 3-5ms per hop Application QoS: 802.11e, 802.1p, VLANs
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 12 Mesh architecture Tropos mesh software leverages redundant paths, channels, frequencies, and backhaul locations to create the most robust network possible
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 13 Cognitive Radio Techniques for High Reliability Mesh architecture: inherently capable of routing around interference through leveraging path diversity Multi-band radio technologies can efficiently and adaptively exploit multiple frequency bands, with failover and load- balancing between them (e.g., dual-mode 2.4/5 GHz) Dynamic frequency selection: ability to detect interference or elevated noise levels and dynamically switch channels Transmit power control and adaptive modulation: techniques for adapting radio transmission parameters in real-time to maintain link reliability
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 14 Private Network Architectures: Mesh and PTMP PTMP Advantages Mesh Advantages Large coverage areaResilient high-availability architecture Compelling economics for sparse areas Ideal solution for NLOS environments, dense urban areas Easy to deploy High system capacity PTMP ChallengesMesh Challenges LOS is challenging in urban areasRequires pole-top mounting assets Expensive site acquisition, constructionEconomics for sparsely-populated areas Hub-and-spoke architecture with single point of failure Management of many distributed assets
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 15 PTMP and Mesh are Complementary PTMP and Mesh are complementary technologies for the DAN layer –PTMP is very cost-effective rural deployments –PTMP is suitable for mesh capacity injection in denser areas, especially where there isn’t utility-owned fiber –Mesh is well-suited for urban/suburban areas providing resilience and higher capacity Optimal combination of Mesh and PTMP leverages the strengths of both –Mesh extends coverage range of PTMP and improves reliability –Architectural resilience through mesh failover capabilities –Unification of mesh and PTMP components through Tropos Control –Combined deployment achieves Economics optimized for mix of urban/suburban/rural areas Meets requirements for multiple DAN applications
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. | Page 16 What Optimal Technology Mix Looks Like Data Center(s) Tropos Control Tier 3 (NAN) Tier 4 (HAN) Dense Urban SuburbanRural / Ultra Rural Tier 1: Fiber (SONET, GigE), Microwave, MPLS Core Decreasing Mesh Density Transition to WiMAX/P2MP/LTE Tier 1 Topology Implemented with Path Diversity Where Possible Spur Fiber Microwave Tropos Gateway (GW) Routers Installed at Tier 1 Core Sites GW P2MP Demarc to Mesh Gateways Tropos Node (ND) Routers Distribute Tier 2 Capacity Across Urban/Suburban Service Areas Smart Grid Devices Connect via Wired or Wireless Ethernet to Tropos Mesh Nodes Tier 1 / Tier 2 Mesh Used in Rural to Overcome P2MP Propagation Obstacles Rural Subscribers Served via P2MP
© 2011 Tropos Networks, Inc. Thank you!
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