Highlights for 2014 Improvement initiatives are focusing on improved processes, design changes, and increased maintenance. Vegetation management was mentioned more often this year than last. A significant percentage of sustained outages come from causes that can be considered “preventable”. We now have four years of relatively complete history of the Profile Metrics for Transmission Reliability. Most results are improved in 2013 over 2012 and 2011, while most were worse in 2011 than This looks like a positive trend, but more data are needed to say for sure. 4
Transmission Line Reliability Statistics In general, for transmission lines, we are interested in availability, as impacted by sustained outages that may or may not have an impact on an end-use customer. We ask for raw data on outages by voltage class. We have aligned the definitions with TADS for all voltages (even though TADS only applies to 200kV and above) Cause codes for all voltages based upon TADS “Automatic” operation replaces the terminology “unplanned” (with minor impact on the values) We have only asked for “automatic” outage data Those codes that are “substation related” are reported in transmission lines, but also in the used for profile measures in the substation section of the report For Transmission reliability the term “outage” refers to a ‘component’ or line outage (most of which may not have any customer impact). For instance, you might have had 10 transmission component outages last year but only 3 of them resulted in an outage to a customer. 5
Profiles & Trends 6
2013YE2012YE MeanQ1Q2Q3 # of Bars MeanQ1Q2Q3 # of Bars Transmission Line Outages < 200 kV Element Sustained Outage Frequency -- <200kV Element Momentary Outage Frequency Rate -- <200kV Circuit Sustained Outage Frequency, Mileage Adjusted <200kV Element Sustained Outage Duration Time <200kV Percentage of Elements with Zero Automatic Outages <200kV 63%83%59%45% 1166%74%69%52% 10 > 200 kV Element Sustained Outage Frequency -- >200kV Element Momentary Outage Frequency Rate -- >200kV Circuit Sustained Outage Frequency, Mileage Adjusted -- >200kV Element Sustained Outage Duration Time >200kV Percentage of Elements with Zero Automatic Outages >200kV 75%86%78%68% 1361%74%67%50% 13 Transmission line Reliability Profile 7
< 200kv measures 8
Sustained Outage Frequency Rate (SOF) < 200kv 9 This YearLast Year Transmission Reliability Pg 3 Source: TR15, ST120 Results this year are better than last year except 4 th quartile. Mean0.31 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean 0.30 Quartile Quartile Quartile
Momentary outage frequency (MOF) < 200kv 10 This YearLast Year Transmission Reliability Pg 4 Source: TR35, ST120 Numbers are higher this year, except for 2 nd quartile Mean0.39 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean 0.61 Quartile Quartile Quartile
Sustained Outage Frequency, Mileage Adjusted (SCOF100ctmi) < 200kv 11 This YearLast Year Transmission Reliability Pg 13 Source: TR15, ST120 Numbers this year are better than last year. Mean2.79 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean 2.42 Quartile Quartile Quartile
Sustained Outage Duration Time (SODT) <200kv 12 This YearLast Year Results are much better this year Transmission Reliability Pg 8 Source: TR5, ST120 Mean4.50 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean 3.36 Quartile Quartile Quartile
Percent Of Circuits With Zero Interruptions (PCZO) < 200kv 13 This YearLast Year Transmission Reliability Pg 20 Source: TR45 Mean is very nearly the same, 1 st quartile higher, 3 rd and 4 th quartiles lower than last year Mean58.8 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean % Quartile % Quartile % Quartile %
> 200kv measures 14
Sustained Outage Frequency (SOF) >200kv 15 This YearLast Year All values are better than last year’s Transmission Reliability Pg 6 Source: TR15, ST120 Mean0.31 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean 0.26 Quartile Quartile Quartile
Momentary Outage Frequency (MOF) > 200kv 16 This YearLast Year Transmission Reliability Pg 7 Source: TR35, ST120 Mean is higher, 1 st quartile lower, median and 3 rd quartile higher Mean0.30 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean 0.35 Quartile Quartile Quartile
Sustained Outage Frequency, Mileage Adjusted (SCOF100ctmi) > 200kv 17 This YearLast Year Transmission Reliability Pg 16 Source: TR15, ST120 All values are much lower than last year. Mean0.90 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean 0.68 Quartile Quartile Quartile
Sustained Outage Duration Time (SODT) > 200kv 18 This YearLast Year Results are much better this year. Transmission Reliability Pg 10 Source: TR5, ST120 Mean8.50 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean 2.62 Quartile Quartile Quartile
Percent Of Circuits With Zero Interruptions (PCZO) > 200kv 19 This YearLast Year Transmission Reliability Pg 21 Source: TR45 All values this year are better than last year. Mean54.4 Quartile Quartile Quartile Mean % Quartile % Quartile % Quartile %
Successful Initiatives Used To Improve Reliability Of Transmission Circuits 21 Transmission Reliability Pg 28 Source: TR70 Summary Better Maintenance – 23,37,21,30,359 Design Changes – 22,40,24,31 Process Improvement – 28,33,32,31 Summary Better Maintenance – 23,37,21,30,359 Design Changes – 22,40,24,31 Process Improvement – 28,33,32,31 IDResponse 22New standards for physical security 31 Installing TWS automatic fault locating. Developing subgrade corrosion inspection and mitigation program with EPRI. Installing new EPRI - specified, high contamination coastal insulator designs developed in partnership with alliance manufacturers. Installing EPRI Insulator Contamination Monitoring System in contaminated coastal and industrial areas to indicate when washing is required to prevent flashovers. 28 better outages coordination, Vegetation - Combining the T&D vegetation programs to provide an end to end view of asset management to improve customer reliability and seek program efficiencies. T&D maitenance planning managers review major outages on monthly basis to find areas needed to be inporved to reduce similar outages. 33 The newest initiative is to coordinate all of our other maintenance programs with the outages secured by the NERC Alert program. This will give us more efficiency with our money, personnel, and equipment, while optimizing the value of hard - to- get outages on our transmission system. 23 An initiative is in progress to perform a ground based patrol of 138 kV lines with emphasis on conductor above ground clearances, conductor crossing clearances, and reporting of abnormalities that would impact the reliability of the circuit. Red Zone Areas - In critical areas of the grid, which have been designated as 'Red Zones', work is directly overseen by a manager or supervisor responsible for that particular District or Work Center. This is done to heighten awareness and place emphasis on the associated risks involved in performing maintenance or construction activities in these areas. Additionally, special commnunication is transmitted through - out the company to ensure that others in surrounding districts are aware of the activity in addition to giving others a chance to review the scope of the activity being approved to go forward. While not new, continual emphasis on critical Red Zone Area practices is an on - going focus.
Successful Initiatives Used To Improve Reliability Of Transmission Circuits (Cont’d) 22 IDResponse 37 Planned replacement of Reliable Power polymer insulators due to reliability concerns, ongoing replacement of Alcatel -Canada Wire cable terminations due to reliability concerns, new transmission substation switch maintenance program, planned replacement of aging transmission equipment. 38None 40ISO:9000 implementation, Identifying poor performing transmission circuits, adding a smart digital (ION) metering system, improve maintenance programs 24System upgrades, situational awareness, CCVT replacement 21Reviewing lightning protection practices 30Identify trends in outages to replace equipment or wire 359Avian guarding old towers with bird contact problems. 32Asset management program just started. Summary (repeated from previous page) Better Maintenance – 23,37,21,30,359 Design Changes – 22,40,24,31 Process Improvement – 28,33,32,31 Summary (repeated from previous page) Better Maintenance – 23,37,21,30,359 Design Changes – 22,40,24,31 Process Improvement – 28,33,32,31
Successful Initiatives Used To Reduce Frequency Of Outages 23 Detailed Results of this Question are presented on the next slide. Below is a summary of the categories of the results Transmission Reliability Pg 26 Source: TR50 CategoryCompanies Better Maintenance31,23,37.40,21,30,32 Increased or Enhanced Vegetation Management 31,28,23,37,40,30,27,359 Design Changes23,359 Root Cause Analysis38 Process Changes22,28,33,24,32
SUCCESSFUL INITIATIVES USED TO REDUCE FREQUENCY OF OUTAGES 24 Detailed Results, See summary on previous page Transmission Reliability Pg 26 Source: TR50 IDResponse 22Human performance process improvements, compliance and performance tracking 31 Coordinated 5 - year Vegetation Management and Transmission Line Inspection & Maintenance Programs. Grounding study and program for all transmission structures. Eliminate pre - form static splices. Utilize only 100% silicone polymer insulators at all voltages -- no EPDM. 28 better outages coordination, Vegetation - Combining the T&D vegetation programs to provide an end to end view of asset management to improve customer reliability and seek program efficiencies. T&D maitenance planning managers review major outages on monthly basis to find areas needed to be inporved to reduce similar outages. 33 We continue to maintain a very active and successful Veg Mgmt program which is viewed as the program that gives us the most impact to reliability improvement, but the collaboration of all of our other maintenance programs work to reduce the frequency of outages as well. 23 ROW Management - Herbicide treatment by contractor using back pack sprayers. Inspections - Aerial inspections on a 6 month basis to catch encroachments, fast growing vegetation, and facility issues. Maintenance - Our pole inspection and treatment program has proven successful in extending the life of the asset along with providing locations where pole replacements are required. Districts focus on pole and arm condition through a replacement program on an as needed basis as a follow - up to pole inspection and aerial inspections. Design - New installations are designed to employ concrete or steel structures that require less maintenance going forward. Wood cross arms are replaced with steel cross arms to reduce the frequency of pole arm fires.
SUCCESSFUL INITIATIVES USED TO REDUCE FREQUENCY OF OUTAGES (Cont’d) 25 IDResponse 37 Vegetation management, LiDAR, annual helicopter patrols and visual inspections, ongoing replacement of aging Copperweld static wire with Alumoweld static wire. 38Root Cause Analysis 40 Redundancy, more robust protection schemes, massive tree trimming program, buzzard management, and equipment maintenance. 24Coordinated maintenance between all groups 21Replacing line switiches 30 Continued focus on ROW clearing and structure/equipment maintenance; annual helicopter inspections, osmose pole change and inspections, 345kV arm changeout 27Clear cutting of ROW of vegetation 359Vegetation, Higher Lightning Protection standards, Removal of wood assets. 32Increasing conductor clearances when performing maintenace. Utilizing improved system modeling. Detailed Results, See summary on second previous page
Percentage of SUSTAINED AUTOMATIC OUTAGES BY CAUSE Code 27 < 200kV> 200kV Transmission Reliability Pg 24, 25 Source: TR15 There are some notable differences between the two classifications. Weather & Lightning are major contributors for some Failed Substation Equipment is significant for some, not for others Failed AC Circuit Equipment is also significant for some Unknown and Other are the majority for a few Difficult to compare companies or voltages because populations are different Weather & Lightning are major contributors for some Failed Substation Equipment is significant for some, not for others Failed AC Circuit Equipment is also significant for some Unknown and Other are the majority for a few Difficult to compare companies or voltages because populations are different
Time Trends, < 200kV 28 Most all measures have improved in in 2013 compared to rd quartile trend is not as positive as mean and other quartiles.
Time Trends, > 200kV 29 Transmission Reliability Pg 6 Source: TR15, ST120, ST125 Virtually all measures have improved in in 2013 compared to 2012 and We now have four years of good data, so trends are more clear.
Total reported sustained outage events from all respondents 30 The bars shown in RED can be considered “preventable”, along with perhaps a few others. The four bars shown in RED account for over 44% of all sustained outages. Total Events = 118
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