2What is a Flowchart?Flow charts are diagrams that show a particular process from beginning to end.They are used by programmers to help build logical paths for robots/computers to follow, and also by businesses to help solve problems and improve efficiency.Flow charts can be used to provide a visual aid when describing any type of process.
4Imagine flowcharting your day… According to studies, the average human makes about 612 decisions a day. This equals to 4,900 decisions in a week and 254,800 in a year.
5Rounded BoxThis is used to represent an event which occurs automatically. Such an event will trigger a subsequent action, for example `receive telephone call’, or describe a new state of affairs.There must be a START and an END box. All flow paths should be between these.Start has 1 output and no inputs.End box has no outputs and 1 input.STARTAlarm goes offEND
6DiamondUsed to represent a decision point in the process. Typically, the statement in the symbol will require a `yes’ or `no’ response and branch to different parts of the flowchart accordingly.Hit the Snooze button?YesNoSTARTAlarm goes offEND
7RectangleThis is used to represent an event which is controlled within the process. Typically this will be a step or action which is taken.Go back to sleepYesSTARTAlarm goes offNoENDHit the Snooze button?Get out of bed
8Linear Flowchart START Get a Pot Put it on the stove Fill it most of the way with waterPut it on the stoveWhen boiling, add pastaWait for the water to boilTurn on the burnerCook for 11 minutes, stirring occasionallyStrain pasta from water.Put pasta on a plate.Get a StrainerENJOY YOUR PASTA.END
9Non-Linear Flowchart START Get a Pot Put it on the stove Fill it most of the way with waterPut it on the stoveIs the water boiling?Add pastaNOYESWait for the water to boilTurn on the burnerCook for 11 minutes, stirring occasionallyStrain pasta from water.Put pasta on a plate.Get a StrainerENJOY YOUR PASTAWhy did you make pasta then?THROW OUT THE PASTA AND ORDER A PIZZADo you like pasta?NOYES
12Brick Parts -SidesOUTPUT PORTS(Motors)Computer ConnectionB & C - Large MotorsD - Small MotorINPUT PORTS(Sensors)PC D C B ASPEAKERUSB PORTSD CARD SLOTThe best use of sensors is with the Switch Flow Control block
13SWITCHSwitches are used, primarily with sensors, to help a robot interact with its environment and make decisions.When the appropriate conditions are met, the robot will run the program in the CHECK box. If the appropriate conditions are not met, the robot will run the program in the X box.If, then statements…If the color sensor reads a blue color, then it will say “Blue”. If the color sensor does not read a blue color, then it will say “LEGO”.
14LOOPLoops are used to repeat certain commands a definite or infinite amount of time depending on the setting.This can help save time and space in the program.In the program below, the robot will drive forward for 3 seconds at 50% power, then turn right at 30% power for 1 rotation. This will repeat for 4 times.
15Sensors Sensors are used by robots to interact with its environment The best use of sensors is with the Switch Flow Control blockColor / LightSensorGyroscopicSensorTouchSensorUltrasonicSensor
17Touch SensorWhen the Touch Sensor is activated, it closes an electrical circuit which allows current to flow. If the sensor is released the circuit is broken and no current flows.The flow or lack of current is detected by the brick allowing it to know whether the sensor is pressed or not.The sensor has three modes:pressed and heldpressed and releasedreleased
18ULTRASONIC SENSORPORT VIEWSends an ultrasonic (rapid sound) signal out and receives back their echoes to help the robot determine the distance of objects.Can measure distance in centimeters or inches.FeaturesDistances measured up to 250 cm (~100-inch)Accuracy of +/- 1 cm (+/- 0.4-inch)Has the ability to recognize other ultrasonic sound (other robots)
20(Time Wave is Emitted) x (Speed of Sound) ULTRASONIC SENSORPORT VIEWThe Ultrasonic Sensor uses the speed that sound waves travel (341 m/s) to measure distance to an object.The sensor has two openings;one opening emits ultrasonic waves,the other opening receives them.The sensor measures the distance by timing how long it takes for an ultrasonic wave sent out by the emitter to bounce off an object and come back to the receiver.(Time Wave is Emitted) x (Speed of Sound)2*Distance to Object =*Wave has to travel to object and back.
21Gyro SensorUsed as assistance in stability of a robot. The mechanical system can determine the rotation and robot orientation on several axes giving the possibility for users to measure the angles and design robots with proper navigation systems.Students can use this sensor in building balancing robots with high accuracy in movements.Similar to the technology that keeps the image on smartphones orientated in the correct direction.
22Color SensorUsed for object detection, follow a line, sorting objects, or detection of a normal or reflected light.The digital EV3 Color Sensor could be used for applications to detectthe absence of color,the difference between colors,up to seven different colors,the light intensity.Featuresdetection for up to seven colors;detect the absence of color;it works in ambient light;sample rate of 1 kHz;Auto-ID is built into the EV3 Software;
24LIGHT REFLECTION SENSOR Measures the percentage of light reflected off of a surface.Brighter surface colors (white, yellow) reflect a larger percentage of light back to the sensor. ( %)Darker surface colors (black, blue) reflect a lower percentage of light back to the sensor ( %)ORANGEREDGREENYELLOWPURPLEBLUEBLACKWHITE
26PORT VIEWAllows you to instantaneously see the status or reading of the motors and sensors plugged into the brick.Port ViewMotor ControlIR ControlBrick ProgramBrick Dialog
27Port ViewMotor ControlIR ControlBrick ProgramBrick DialogPORT VIEWAllows you to instantaneously see the status or reading of the motors and sensors plugged into the brick.Port ViewPort ViewMotor ControlIR ControlBrick ProgramBrick Dialog
28EV3452------------2: GYRO-ANG78deg---------PORT VIEWMotorsAllows you to instantaneously see the status or reading of the motors and sensors plugged into the brick.---624-15794:US-DIST-CM143.5CMSensors
31452GYROSCOPIC SENSORThe digital EV3 Gyro Sensor measures the robot’s rotational motion and changes in its orientation.Used to create precise turns measure angles, create balancing robots.Angle mode measures angles with an accuracy of +/- 3 degreesGyro mode has a maximum output of 440 degrees/second---2: GYRO-ANGdeg-42-26-15473325412739