2 Objectives: Identify and locate laboratory safety devices in the classroom. Demonstrate proper/safe laboratory procedures. Identify and know the function of various laboratory equipment. Demonstrate proper laboratory techniques.
Introduction Safety in the laboratory should be first and foremost Accidents in a chemical laboratory may have the potential of resulting in serious consequences. Common laboratory accidents include cuts, burns, contact with corrosive or toxic chemicals, and the inhalation of volatile fumes. The occurrence of each of these accidents, and others, can be minimized if simple safety precautions are followed.
When to wear goggles and aprons? If using chemicals and flames 4
Eye Protection Eye protection must always be worn while in a chemistry laboratory. This is not simply due to common sense, but also government regulations. Safety goggles or glasses with side shields are needed. If a chemical gets into your eyes, you must quickly get to the eyewash and flush your eyes with water, while rolling them back and forth, for no less than 20 minutes. Ideally, eye contacts should not be worn in the laboratory; however, if an accident occurs and you have eye contacts in, you must try to remove them immediately.
Personal Safety: Goggles NO!!!!!!! YES!!!!!!!!! 6
THINK! Accidents in the lab can be prevented! You are the most likely cause of an accident! 8
When you first enter the lab… A. Go to lab and start experiments B. try out your own experiments while you wait C. read the lab and wait for the teacher’s instructions D. go pick up chemicals and practice the lab ANSWER: C 9
Read Lab First Read the experimental procedure ahead of lab. 10
Disposing of Matches The match should be quenched with water, NOT thrown into the waste crock directly. Fires may occur. 11
If the fire alarm rang, what should you be sure is turned off? Bunsen burner Electrical equipment Gas valves Close chemical containers 13
Proper Attire Clothing that covers your body and fits comfortably should be worn. Clothing that is loose can be a hazard and knock over glassware or catch fire in a flame. Clothing that is tight will hold chemicals close against your skin. Shoes should protect your feet and not be made of cloth (chemicals can leak through) or open-toed. Jewelry should be removed; watches and rings can hold chemicals against the skin. Hair should be pulled back If corrosive chemicals come in contact with the hands, they should be rinsed immediately in the sink and your instructor notified.
What should I wear in the lab… if I am going to work with chemicals and flames? Goggles 15
Closed Toed Shoes The Safety Code of most schools will not approve of open foot ware; so avoid sandals or flip-flops 16
NO FLOPPIES Avoid floppy garments; avoid things that dangle Avoid long, loose hair styles for the same reason. When Bunsen burners are in use, long hair sometimes catches on fire 17
Handling of Acids or Bases "Vinyl" gloves or "nitrile" gloves (often green or blue in color) are preferred. You probably will not use dangerous materials in high school. 18
Fire Safety Small fires can be extinguished by covering them with a container, such as a beaker, to eliminate oxygen. Moderately sized fires require the use of a fire extinguisher. Large fires require the evacuation of the building and notifying the fire department. If your clothing catches fire, the best extinguisher is water from the safety shower. If a safety shower is not available, you can fall to the floor and cover yourself with a fire blanket. Make sure you are aware of the location of the safety shower and fire blanket prior to performing any experiments. Synthetic clothing fibers melt during combustion and produce hot liquids that stick to the skin. It is best to wear natural fibers, such as cotton, for fire safety when working in the laboratory.
Fire Extinguishers the carbon dioxide extinguisher is red general purpose extinguishers. AVOID using a dry- chemical extinguisher on a fellow human being. 21
EYE WASH If you get something from the lab in your eye— GET IT OUT IMMEDIATELY! Run some water through the eyewash fountain before you use it. Retract your eyelid (hold it open); Don’t squint—this restricts water access. Run fresh water over your eye for several minutes. Go to the school nurse immediately afterward. 26
First Aid Kit These items may be used temporarily for small injuries (say, a cut finger) Go to the school nurse immediately afterward. Do not wait until the end of the day. 27
First Aid Kit However, if blood is in evidence-- STAY AWAY! Let the victim apply his/her own bandage. If blood is on the floor or lab bench, let trained personnel do the clean-up. 28
Volatile and Toxic Chemicals Many volatile and toxic chemicals must be used in a fume hood. Many toxic fumes have a pungent smell that can be overpowering (e.g., ammonia). Other toxic fumes may not be as noxious, but may cause respiratory or other health damage. It is important not to breathe either of these fumes. Fume hoods are enclosed workspaces that draw these fumes away from the user and out of the building. Most fume hoods have a safety-glass window that can be used to shield the user from violent or vigorous reactions. Fume hoods can also be used to remove flammable fumes that may pose a fire hazard. Because potentially hazardous chemicals are found in the laboratory, it is important not to eat in the laboratory to reduce the possibility of ingestion of a hazardous chemical.
FUME HOOD Use the HOOD for reactions that give off vapors, especially smelly vapors. The draft of the HOOD will sweep away vapors so that the lab itself maintains reasonable air quality 30
Safety Shower Shower should be used for dire EMERGENCY only! If you (or a lab mate) is spilled chemicals, position yourself (or your lab mate) under the safety shower. 31
Safety Shower Pull the handle—a deluge of water will result. 32
Safety Shower The safety shower should also be used if you suffer a massive spill of a dangerous chemical on yourself, and need to get it off rapidly. 33
Broken Glass Sweep it up right away Don’t track in it all period. 34
Broken Glass Place the broken glass in the designated box. 35
If you need to leave the lab table to go to the bathroom, A. Be sure someone is watching your lab station B. shut off the gas valve and electrical equipment 36
Is it OK to… A. eat in the lab B. put your head in the fume hood C. chew gum in the lab D. drink in the lab E. have horseplay in the lab ANSWER: NO 37
What is the first aid step to do if you… Cut your finger Your clothing caught on fire You burned your finger Mercury ran out of a thermometer Don’t touch it Stop drop and roll Run it under cold water Clean the wound, then use a band-aid 38
All living organisms should be handled with… RESPECT That means do not throw things into their homes. Do not tap on the aquaria. Do not throw them on other students. 39
What should you bring back with you to the lab? A. Book Bag B. Something to write with C. Lab sheet D. Biology Book E. Lunch ANSWER: B and C 40
NO!!!!!!!!!!!!! No UNAUTHORIZED experiments! These are terrible dangers in unskilled hands. 41
NO!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! No EATING or DRINKING in the LAB. A good practice is to assume everything in the lab is toxic. 42
No!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! DO NOT drink from lab equipment. NOT EVEN distilled water. 43
Pipets NO When using pipets, DO NOT suck the liquid into the pipet directly by mouth. 44
Pipets YES –DO use a rubber bulb to create a vacuum. 45