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108-year-old Chuska woman “Before the white man came, we never had to weed our gardens.” native American, California PARADIGM SHIFT click to continue.

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Presentation on theme: "108-year-old Chuska woman “Before the white man came, we never had to weed our gardens.” native American, California PARADIGM SHIFT click to continue."— Presentation transcript:

1 108-year-old Chuska woman “Before the white man came, we never had to weed our gardens.” native American, California PARADIGM SHIFT click to continue

2 neutral? Reduce Burning Fossil Fuels Produce Renewable Energy Sequester Carbon negative Challenge Our Climate Change Confronting introduction to an emerging technology HOW TO PARADIGM SHIFT The Biochar Strategy X BONUS: Create Sustainable Soil Fertility Reduce Water Pollution Grow Nutrient Dense Foods BONUS: BONUS: click to continue

3 The Biochar Strategy Carbon Negative Reduce Burning Fossil Fuels Produce Renewable Energy Sequester Carbon Increase Soil Fertility Reduce Water Pollution Grow Nutrient Dense Foods negative Challenge Our Climate Change Confronting Nutrient Dense Full Spectrum Fertility Biochar Soil Food Web Pyrolysis NEW VOCABULARY for the paradigm shift click to continue

4 Dan Kittredge Dr. Arden Anderson Remineralize the Earth 150 South Street, Northampton, MA Keynote Speaker NOFA Conference August 8-12, 2008 UMASS Amherst Beyond Organix™ Beyond Organic 3 day training program How to grow Nutrient Dense food early December 2008, eastern MA 20 certified growers for 2009 marketing SoilFoodNutritionBodiesHealth The Real Food Campaign click to continue Nutrient Dense superior food nutrition click to continue click to continue

5 How do we put fertility in our soils? … to grow food to feed our communities? How do we keep fertility in our soils? … long term, sustainable fertility? How do we put Carbon in our soils? … out of Earth’s atmosphere? … to reverse global warming? … all 90 elements in a balanced blend? … not another annual addiction? … when the price of oil is over $100 a barrel? Carbon Strategy for Survival State of Emergency in a climate of change Carbon Soil Minerals click to continue

6 In the 80s, the first scientific field tool to evaluate biological activity in soil measured conversion of O 2 into CO 2 of soil samples sealed in a vial In 2007, Australian researchers documented that biochar added to soil reduces NO x emissions by over 50% NO x is 350 times more potent than CO 2 … in the atmosphere? … that created the atmosphere? where are the Carbon … in the Carbon Cycle? Soil Minerals PARADIGM SHIFT click to continue Cycle micro-organisms? micro-organisms? micro-organisms created Earth’s atmosphere

7 releasing one one hydrogen as an an electron and aproton releasing one hydrogen as electron and aproton releasing one hydrogen as electron and aproton and one one oxygen oxygen molecule is released releasing an electron create an electric current used by the cell to make carbohydrate This is a 5-step cycle that begins with two water molecules… 4 electrons Last, one one hydrogen hydrogen is released as a proton Photosynthesis green plants turn sunshine into sugar storing energy in chemical molecules H O A third third photon photon is captured A fourth fourth photon photon is captured A of sunlight is capturedA second second photon photon is captured is the source of sweetness S4S4S4S4 S3S3S3S3 S2S2S2S2 S1S1S1S1 S0S0S0S0HHO HHO H+H+H+H+ OO e-e-e-e- S S S S H+H+H+H+ H+H+H+H+ H+H+H+H+ e-e-e-e- e-e-e-e- e-e-e-e- +H+H+H+H O H O OO photon photon photon photon hydrogen ion electron electron electron electron water water oxygen proton proton proton proton 4 protons how plants produce Oxygen Carbon Soil Minerals Carbohydrate click to continue

8 Carbon Fixation H O KidneysBladder of Oriental Philosophy & Medicine Five Element Law S4S4S4S4 S3S3S3S3 S2S2S2S2 S1S1S1S1 S0S0S0S0 water oxygen WATER TREE SOIL METAL Liver Gall Bladder Small Intestine Heart SpleenStomach LungsColon FIRE H+H+H+H+ H+H+H+H+ H+H+H+H+ H+H+H+H+ e-e-e-e- e-e-e-e- e-e-e-e- e-e-e-e- S S S S OO Photosynthesis is a Hydrogen fuel cycle: sunlight is the spark water is the fuelHHO HHO +H+H+H+H O H O OO PARADIGM SHIFT Carbon Soil Minerals click to continue click to continue Photosynthesis is the source of sweetness how plants produce Oxygen

9 Chlorophyll —the green pigment in plants— intercepts sunlight to release hydrogen from water as an electric cascade of electrons and protons. Photosynthesis uses this electric charge to remove CO 2 from the air CO 2 combines with water to create carbohydrates CO 2 + H 2 O = sugar Sweetness is only made by plants Photosynthesis is carbon-fixation —one of Earth’s 3 main carbon-fixing paths Plants connect simple sugars into complex sugars Cellulose is complex sugars linked in long spiral chains to form fibers Plants spin and weave cellulose fibers to build their bodies with cellulose threads —microscopic homes for living plant cells Chlorophyll Photosynthesis Soil Minerals Carbon Carbon Fixation H+H+H+H+ e-e-e-e- click to continue

10 At night, without sunlight, plants burn sugar and breathe out up to half of each day’s CO 2. — Respiration When a plant dies, carbon fixation stops. H 2 O — conversion of sunshine, CO 2 & H 2 O into carbohydrates and cellulose stops. The plant body slowly decays into soil Its carbon fiber skeleton returns to the air H 2 O as CO 2 & H 2 O 20% of the CO 2 plants remove from the air is secreted as sugar by roots into soil. These least of all life feast on this sweet treat. Thus, solar sweetness becomes food for microbes. In return, microbes feed plants water, minerals, enzymes & hormones an underground economy of nutrient exchange: The Soil Food Web Chlorophyll Soil Minerals CyclesCarbon Carbon click to continue Respiration

11 Some carbon stays in soil as dark, spongy organic matter — humus. Organic farms must have 4 ˗ 5% soil organic matter Soil is a carbon sink —holding carbon out of the atmosphere. When a forest is cut, no new carbon is fixed. Carbon Carbon is quickly digested by microbes H 2 O and oxidized into CO 2 & H 2 O Without annual additions, organic matter decays in a few years CarbonH 2 O Carbon returns to the air as CO 2 plus H 2 O Conventional organic matter short-term carbon storage is short-term carbon storage : — a few years, maybe two decades When plants are burned, Carbon Carbon and minerals oxidize H 2 O i nto CO 2, H 2 O & ash Ash is soluble, quickly dissolves in water, and leaches out of soil Soil Minerals Sinks Carbon Carbon click to continue

12 How can we store carbon long-term? For centuries? For millennia? How does nature do this? Pyrolysis — burning with low or no oxygen Cellulose burned with minimal oxygen — smoldered — reduces organic matter to char instead of oxidation to ash. Charcoal is left in the burner — Biochar This reduced carbon isn’t easily broken down by chemistry or digested by microbes and thus remains in the soil Carbon is removed from the air stored safely for centuries & millennia — a long-term carbon sink — sequestered Scientists estimate soil can store as much carbon as is released yearly burning fossil fuels Sequestration Soil Minerals Carbon Carbon Pyrolysis click to continue

13 Carbon Negative In the Amazon, replacing slash & burn by slash & char can end rainforest destruction and create sustainable agriculture Can this work in our “temperate” zone? click to end our question is:


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