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© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The preterite tense The imperfect tense Using the imperfect and preterite together The imperfect continuous Grammar 3
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The PRETERITE tense is used to talk about completed actions in the past. It is used: 1. in telling stories and for non descriptive events. 2. for actions that were completed in the past. (FINISHED events) 3. for actions in the past which happened only once. (SINGLE events) 4.for actions that were repeated but finished in the past. (REPEATED events) 5.for actions that were part of a chain of events. (CHAIN events) 6.for actions that took place over a specific period of time. It can be used with the following expressions of time: ayer, anteayer, la semana pasada, el mes/año pasado, el otro día, hace dos días/semanas/meses, el domingo, en 1950, en Navidad… Examples: Viví cinco años en Madrid. I lived in Madrid for five years. Él cenó, vio la tele y se acostó. He had dinner, watched TV and went to bed. Ayer te llamé por teléfono. I rang you yesterday. The preterite tense 1
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 There are two sets of regular endings to learn: 1. -AR 2. -ER/ -IR As with other tenses you have to: 1. take the infinitive. 2. take off the infinitive ending. 3. add the endings for the tense. -AR endings -é -aste -ó -amos -asteis -aron -ER / -IR endings -í -iste -ió -imos -isteis -ieron Notice the ‘we’ ending in –AR and –IR verbs is the same as in the present tense. The preterite tense 2
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 hablar = to speak / talk habl Regular -AR verbs é aste ó amos asteis aron I spoke, I did speak. You spoke, you did speak. He /she/ it spoke, did speak. We spoke, we did speak. You spoke, you did speak. They spoke, they did speak. The preterite tense 3
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 Choose 3 of the verbs below and write them out in full: aceptar = to accept cantar = to sing llenar = to fill amar = to love charlar = to chat llorar= to cry arreglar = to fix dibujar = to draw mirar = to look at ayudar = to help entrar = to go in saltar = to jump bajar = to go down ganar = to win viajar = to travel bailar = to dance lavar = to wash Regular -AR verbs The preterite tense 4
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The preterite tense 5
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 comer = to eat com í iste ió imos isteis ieron Regular -ER verbs I ate, I did eat. You ate, you did eat. He / she / it ate, did eat. We ate, we did eat. You ate, you did eat. They ate, they did eat. The preterite tense 6
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 beber = to drink meter = to put correr = to run vender = to sell coser = to sew Regular -ER verbs The preterite tense 7 Practise saying or writing out these other verbs.
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The preterite tense 8
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 ABRIR= to open abr í iste ió imos isteis ieron Regular -IR verbs I opened, I did open. You opened, you did open. He / she / it opened, did open. We opened, we did open. You opened, you did open. They opened, they did open. The preterite tense 9
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 Like ABRIR batir = to beat escribir = to write cubrir = to cover permitir = to allow recibir = to receive Regular -IR verbs The preterite tense 10 Practise saying or writing out these other verbs.
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The preterite tense 11
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 explicar = to explain expliqué I explained explicaste you explained explicó he/she/it explained explicamos we explained explicasteis you explained explicaron they explained The first group of irregular verbs are only slightly irregular as they show stem changes* in the first person singular only. There are three types: 1. Verbs which end in –GAR change to GUÉ 2. Verbs which end in –CAR change to QUÉ 3. Verbs which end in –ZAR change to CÉ jugar = to play juguéI played jugaste you played jugó he/she/it played jugamos we played jugasteis you played jugaron they played cruzar = to cross crucé I crossed cruzaste you crossed cruzó he/she/it crossed cruzamos we crossed cruzasteis you crossed cruzaron they crossed Stem changing verbs The preterite tense 12
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 apagar = to put out acercarse = to approach cazar = to hunt cargar = to load atacar = to attack empezar = to begin descargar = to unload buscar = to look for organizar = to organizeentregar = to hand over secar = to dry rezar = to pray llegar = to arrive pescar = to fish utilizar = to usenavegar = to sail chocar contra = to crash intopagar = to pay sacar = to take outregar= to water marcar = to score a goal, tocar= to touch dial a numberalmorzar = to have lunch Stem changing verbs The following verbs work in the same way. Can you write out three of them in full? The preterite tense 13
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 For verbs ending in -aer, -eer, -oír and -oer changes occur in the 3 rd person forms (singular & plural): -ió changes to -yo; -ieron changes to -yeron. For verbs ending in -uir changes occur in the same way. Verb 1 st person3 rd person 3 rd person singular singular plural caer* = to fall caí cayó cayeron creer* = to believe creí creyó creyeron leer* = to read leí leyó leyeron oír* = to hear oí oyó oyeron roer* = to nibble roí royó royeron destruir = to destroy destruí destruyó destruyeron construir = to build construí construyó construyeron huir = to run away huí huyó huyeron Stem changing verbs The preterite tense 14
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 Stem change verbs -ar and -er verbs that change their stem in the present tense do not change in the preterite. PresentPreterite cierrocerré cierrascerraste cierracerrócerramos cerráiscerrasteis cierran cerraron -ir verbs that change their stem in the present do change in the preterite. 1. o > u – the first change is o > u and it occurs in the third person forms (singular & plural). DORMIR durmiódurmierondormí MORIR morímuriómurieron The preterite tense 15
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The second stem change group in -ir verbs. PEDIR pedípidió pidieron En el restaurante Paco pidió tortilla de jamón. Paco asked for ham omelette in the restaurant. Mis amigos pidieron una paella enorme. My friends ordered an enormous paella. 2. e > i Changes also occur in the third person forms (singular & plural). The preterite tense 16 PREFERIR preferíprefirió prefirieron
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 What would the third person singular and plural be for each of the verbs below? despedirse de = to say goodbye to divertirse = to enjoy oneself hervir = to boil pedir = to ask for preferir = to prefer rendirse = to surrender repetir = to repeat seguir = to follow sentir = to feel, to be sorry servir = to serve vestirse = to get dressed se despidió se despidieron se divirtió se divirtieron hirvió hirvieron pidió pidieron prefirió prefirieron rindió rindieron repitió repitieron siguió siguieron sintió sintieron sirvió sirvieron se vistió se vistieron The preterite tense 17
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The last group of irregular verbs in the preterite tense is easy once you have learnt the first person singular! PONER = to put puse pusiste puso pusimos pusisteis pusieron There are no accents on these verbs. Just learn the first person and then put the endings on the new stem. The endings are almost the same as for regular –er and –ir verbs. Can you spot the differences? I put You put He / she / it put We put You put They put The preterite tense 18
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 Verbs which follow the same pattern as poner: Verb stem 1 st person andar - to walk anduv anduve estar - to be estuv estuve obtener - to obtain obtuv obtuve tener - to have tuv tuve hacer - to do hic hice poder - to be able pud pude saber - to know sup supe suponer - to suppose supus supuse venir - to come vin vine querer - to love/want quis quise conducir - to drive conduj conduje traer - to bring traj traje producir - to produce produj produje decir* - to say dij dije Endings -e -iste -o -imos -isteis -ieron Note: hacer has a different stem in the 3 rd person singular - hizo The preterite tense 19
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 hacer = to do / make hice I did / I made hiciste You did / you made hizo He/she/it did / made hicimos We did / we made hicisteis You did / you made hicieron They did / they made estar = to be estuve I was estuviste You were estuvo He/she/it was estuvimos We were estuvisteis You were estuvieron They were ser = to be + ir = to go I was fui I went You were fuiste You went He/she/it was fue He/she/ it went We were fuimos We went You were fuisteis You went They were fueron They went Notice ser and ir share the same forms Some very important verbs! The preterite tense 20
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 1.Yesterday I went to the cinema. 2.It was a fantastic film. 3.Before I went to the cinema I did my homework. 4.He was a great soldier and a wonderful father. 5.My grandfather went to Australia in They went to the hairdresser’s. 7.The boys made their beds for the first time! 8.It was a great day and the weather was very good. estar, ir, hacer and ser Practise using the preterite of estar, ir, hacer and ser by writing out these sentences in Spanish. The preterite tense 21
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 1.Ayer fui al cine. 2.Fue una película fenomenal. 3.Antes de ir al cine hice los deberes. 4.Fue un gran soldado y un padre maravilloso. 5.Mi abuelo se fue a Australia en mil novecientos sesenta (1960). 6.Fueron a la peluquería. 7.¡Por primera vez los chicos hicieron sus camas! 8.Fue un día fantástico e hizo muy buen tiempo. estar, ir, hacer and ser The preterite tense 22
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The imperfect tense is used to talk about the past. Whereas the preterite describes a single completed action in the past, the imperfect tense... describes something that happened frequently or regularly in the past. is used for descriptions in the past, such as describing what the weather was like or giving your opinion of something you did (characteristics of people, things or conditions). tells us what something used to be like. describes something that went on for a long period of time. is used for telling the time. is used for telling one’s age. The imperfect tense 1
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 This tense is used in the following different ways: 1. To describe actions, people or things in the past. 2. To describe an action that started in the past and was going on or continued in the past. 3.To describe actions that used to be done frequently in the past. 4.To describe thing(s) which were going on in the past before another event started. 5.For telling the time. 6.For telling one’s age. The imperfect tense translates any of the following English clue words or phrases: I was eating. We were talking. I used to eat. She was an interesting teacher. The imperfect tense 2
© Boardworks Ltd of General descriptions in the past. Example: La casa era enorme. The house was enormous. Describing what the weather was like. Example: De vez en cuando hacía sol. From time to time it was sunny. Giving your opinion of something you did. Example: Comí pollo, estaba muy rico. I ate chicken, it was delicious. Main uses of the imperfect The imperfect tense 3
© Boardworks Ltd of Saying what something used to be or would be like. Examples: – Cuando era joven, comía muchos caramelos. When I was young, I used to eat lots of sweets. – Cuando visitábamos a nuestros parientes nos daban regalos y revistas. When we used to visit our relatives they would give us presents and magazines. Both of these examples describe things and events that were repeated in the past. The imperfect tense 4
© Boardworks Ltd of Describing something that happened frequently or regularly in the past. Examples: – Cuando tenía 10 diez años, hacía natación dos veces por semana. When I was 10 years old, I went swimming twice a week. – Durante mis vacaciones del verano pasado me levantaba temprano, desayunaba e iba a la playa. During my holidays last summer I used to get up early, have breakfast and go to the beach. The imperfect tense 5
© Boardworks Ltd of Describing something that went on for a long period of time. Examples: – Cuando era joven, vivía en el campo y teníamos dos gatos. When I was young, I lived in the country and we had two cats. – Cuando íbamos al campo podía nadar en el río y dar un paseo. When we went to the country I could swim in the river and go for a walk. The imperfect tense 6
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The imperfect tense 7 5. For telling the time. Example: – Eran las dos de la mañana. It was two o’clock in the morning. 6. For telling one’s age. Example: – El niño tenía tres años. The boy was three years old.
© Boardworks Ltd of Was…doing and were…doing If you want to translate was or were doing something, you must use the imperfect tense. These are the clue phrases that help you identify the tense and mean you must use the imperfect tense. Examples: – Hacía los deberes cuando mi madre regresó a la casa. I was doing my homework when my mother came home. – Jugábamos al fútbol cuando empezó a llover. We were playing football when it started to rain. The imperfect tense 8
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The imperfect tense 9 There are a number of useful words that can indicate the use of the imperfect. a menudo por aquel entonces algunas veces siempre cada día/semana/mes/año todos los días/meses/años con frecuencia todos las semanas de vez en cuando varias veces frecuentemente muchas veces
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 Regular verbs The imperfect tense is quite easy to form and has very few irregular parts. There are only two sets of endings to learn and only three irregular verbs. Formation of the imperfect tense Take the following steps: 1. Take the infinitive of the verb you wish to use. 2. Take off the -AR, -ER or -IR. 3. Add the endings. -AR endings: -aba -abas -aba -ábamos -abais -aban. -ER / IR endings: -ía -ías -ía -íamos -íais -ían. The imperfect tense 10
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 All regular -AR verbs are formed in the following way. HABLAR= to speak / talk habl aba abas aba abais ábamos aban I talked, I was talking, I used to talk. You talked, you were talking, you used to talk. He / she / it talked, was talking, used to talk. We talked, we were talking, we used to talk. You talked, you were talking, you used to talk. They talked, they were talking, they used to talk The imperfect tense 11
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 All regular -ER and -IR verbs are formed in the following way. COMER = to eat com ía ías ía íamos ían íais I ate, I was eating, I used to eat. You ate, you were eating, you used to eat. He / she / it ate, was eating, used to eat. We ate, we were eating, we used to eat. You ate, you were eating, you used to eat. They ate, they were eating, they used to eat. The imperfect tense 12
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 ía ías ía íamos íais ían abr I opened, was opening, I used to open. You opened, were opening, you used to open. He / she/ it / opened, was opening, used to open. We opened, we were opening, we used to open. You opened, you were opening, you used to open. They opened, they were opening, they used to open. The imperfect tense 13 ABRIR= to open
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The good news about the imperfect tense is that all of the verbs except three are regular. The three irregular verbs are SER, IR and VER. VER = to see veía I saw, used to see. veías you saw, used to see. veía he / she / it saw, used to see. veíamos we saw, used to see. veíais you saw, used to see. veían they saw, used to see. leer = to read also does this. leía I read, used to read SER = to be era I was, used to be. eras you were, used to be. era he / she / it was, used to be. éramos we were, used to be. erais you were, used to be. eran they were, used to be. IR = to go iba I went, used to go. ibas you went, used to go. iba he / she / it went, used to go. íbamos we went, used to go. ibais you went, used to go. iban they went, used to go. The imperfect tense 14
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 To summarize: The imperfect tense is used for descriptions in the past and the meaning of the imperfect tense can change according to context and use. (Yo) Iba a Madrid. Could mean: 1.I went to Madrid. Repeated action. 2.I was going to Madrid. Action begun in past and probably going to be interrupted by another event. 3.I used to go to Madrid. Frequent action 4.I would go to Madrid. Frequent action The imperfect tense 15
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 menu The imperfect tense 16
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 These two past tenses are often used together especially for stories or narratives in the past. Look at these examples and try to use the tenses in a similar way. – Cuando miré por la ventana llovía. When I looked out of the window it was raining. – Leía cuando el teléfono sonó. I was reading when the telephone rang. In each of these sentences: (1)the verb in the preterite describes a single, completed action. (2) the verb in the imperfect describes an action which was already going on and which was interrupted by another action. menu Using the imperfect and preterite together
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 The same kind of verb construction can be used with the imperfect tense to describe continuous actions in the past. This time the English phrase you are describing is was doing something. – Estaba comiendo I was eating To form the imperfect continuous in Spanish you need two parts: (1) The imperfect tense of the verb ESTAR. (2) The present participle of the verb you are emphasising. Notice that you still use the present participle. The imperfect continuous 1
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 I was eating You were eating We were eating You were eating They were eating He / she / it was eating Estaba comiendo Estabas comiendo Estaba comiendo How to form the imperfect continuous tense. COMER = to eat Estábamos comiendo Estabais comiendo Estaban comiendo Now practise saying and writing out these verbs: ABRIRHABLAR The imperfect continuous 2
© Boardworks Ltd of 43 ¿Sabes cambiar estos verbos del presente al imperfecto progresivo? 1.Juan y Ana beben café con leche en la cafetería. 2.Anita pone la mesa para ayudar a su madre. 3.Nosotros leemos revistas en la clase de ciencias. 4.Los camareros sirven a muchos clientes. 5.El gato duerme en el jardín. 6.Los niños juegan al fútbol en el parque. 7.María se viste en su dormitorio. 8.Mi madre ve su telenovela preferida en la tele. 9.Yo aprendo el español en el instituto. 10.Vosotros cantáis en el coro. 11.El cliente pide la cuenta. 1.Juan y Ana estaban bebiendo café con leche en la cafetería. 2.Anita estaba poniendo la mesa para ayudar a su madre. 3.Nosotros estábamos leyendo revistas en la clase de ciencias. 4.Los camareros estaban sirviendo a muchos clientes. 5.El gato estaba durmiendo en el jardín. 6.Los niños estaban jugando al fútbol en el parque. 7.María estaba vistiéndose en su dormitorio. 8.Mi madre estaba viendo su telenovela preferida en la tele. 9.Yo estaba aprendiendo el español en el instituto. 10.Vosotras estabais cantando en el coro. 11.El cliente estaba pidiendo la cuenta. menu The imperfect continuous 3
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© Boardworks Ltd of 47 The preterite tense The imperfect tense Using the imperfect and preterite together The imperfect continuous Grammar 1 The.
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