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4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Handicrafts and Responsible Tourism in emerging destinations.

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Presentation on theme: "4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Handicrafts and Responsible Tourism in emerging destinations."— Presentation transcript:

1 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Handicrafts and Responsible Tourism in emerging destinations Dr Simon C Woodward ICRT, Leeds, UK

2 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Issues to consider Traditional views on the handicrafts sector Issues from an RT perspective Lessons for success Opportunities to pursue

3 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 The theory: handicrafts are good because: Few barriers to entry (Daniels, 2003; Makhado & Kepe, 2006) Can use local materials (Jodha, 2008) Provides jobs for women (Rogerson & Sithole, 2001) Can supplement main income stream (Rogerson, 2000) Place of manufacture can include home (Tipple, 2005) Contributes to sustainable livelihoods (Ashley, 2006) Can raise funds for conservation (Healy, 1994) Celebrate local/ national identity (Markwick, 2001; Wherry, 2006)

4 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Spending by international tourists in Fès, Morocco, 2009 ItemDirhamsUS $% of total spending Accommodation د. م.‏ $ % Traditional handicrafts د. م.‏ $ % Food and drink د. م.‏ $ % Tranport (e.g. taxi, bus,…) د. م.‏ $ % Other souvenirs د. م.‏ $ 9.346% Clothing د. م.‏ $ 8.266% Guides books د. م.‏ $ 4.113% Museum entry tickets د. م.‏ $ 1.291% Other items د. م.‏ $ 4.043% Total د. م.‏ 1, $ % © Simon Woodward, 2010

5 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 However... Globalisation is bringing in new products, changing market dynamics Some inappropriate sources of raw materials Concerns over loss of ‘authenticity’ Concerns over loss of quality Loss of interest in handicraft work amongst younger generations

6 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Comparison of prices, Riyadh souq ©Woodward & Goodwin, 2010

7 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Market share for different handicrafts, Riyadh souq ©Woodward & Goodwin, 2010

8 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Survey of craft workers in Saudi Arabia Craft SectorAssistantsSon(s) Approx. Age of youngest Saudi Leather worker, souq, QassimAll-Indian sub-continentNot interested60 Metal workers, QassimNone – two sole tradersNot interested70 Blacksmith, QassimTwo PakistanisHave disowned father55 Carpenter, Qassim None – would train a Saudi but not a non-Saudi Not interested, nor is any other Saudi, would like to train someone 55 Dagger Souq, NajranMostly Pakistani75% passing on skills to their sonsn/a Leather-workers, NajranSome Saudi, mostly PakistaniNot interested – regarded as low status work50 Gun repairing, NajranAll SaudiBusiness will pass to sonn/a Rug weaving, NajranSaudi – father and son Done as a hobby to keep the craft alive, both have “real” jobs. 40 Carpenter, Hail Saudi owned but now staffed by Pakistanis Not very interested – work is now that of the migrant labour. n/a Weaving, HailBedouin womanLikely to pass to daughter45 Bisht, HofufAll SaudiLikely to pass to son30 Pottery, HofufSaudi – only one potter Not potting commercially, only selling imported pots. 65 Rush mats, HofufOne family onlyPossibly45 Palm fond carpenter, HofufOne familyWill pass to son.45 Weaving, HofufSaudiSon works for Aramco and not interested70 ©Woodward & Goodwin, 2010 Craft SectorAssistantsSon(s) Approx. Age of youngest Saudi Leather worker, souq, QassimAll-Indian sub-continentNot interested60 Metal workers, QassimNone – two sole tradersNot interested70 Blacksmith, QassimTwo PakistanisHave disowned father55 Carpenter, Qassim None – would train a Saudi but not a non-Saudi Not interested, nor is any other Saudi, would like to train someone 55 Dagger Souq, NajranMostly Pakistani75% passing on skills to their sonsn/a Leather-workers, NajranSome Saudi, mostly PakistaniNot interested – regarded as low status work50 Gun repairing, NajranAll SaudiBusiness will pass to sonn/a Rug weaving, NajranSaudi – father and son Done as a hobby to keep the craft alive, both have “real” jobs. 40 Carpenter, Hail Saudi owned but now staffed by Pakistanis Not very interested – work is now that of the migrant labour. n/a Weaving, HailBedouin womanLikely to pass to daughter45 Bisht, HofufAll SaudiLikely to pass to son30 Pottery, HofufSaudi – only one potter Not potting commercially, only selling imported pots. 65 Rush mats, HofufOne family onlyPossibly45 Palm fond carpenter, HofufOne familyWill pass to son.45 Weaving, HofufSaudiSon works for Aramco and not interested70 Craft SectorAssistantsSon(s) Approx. Age of youngest Saudi Leather worker, souq, QassimAll-Indian sub-continentNot interested60 Metal workers, QassimNone – two sole tradersNot interested70 Blacksmith, QassimTwo PakistanisHave disowned father55 Carpenter, Qassim None – would train a Saudi but not a non-Saudi Not interested, nor is any other Saudi, would like to train someone 55 Dagger Souq, NajranMostly Pakistani75% passing on skills to their sonsn/a Leather-workers, NajranSome Saudi, mostly PakistaniNot interested – regarded as low status work50 Gun repairing, NajranAll SaudiBusiness will pass to sonn/a Rug weaving, NajranSaudi – father and son Done as a hobby to keep the craft alive, both have “real” jobs. 40 Carpenter, Hail Saudi owned but now staffed by Pakistanis Not very interested – work is now that of the migrant labour. n/a Weaving, HailBedouin womanLikely to pass to daughter45 Bisht, HofufAll SaudiLikely to pass to son30 Pottery, HofufSaudi – only one potter Not potting commercially, only selling imported pots. 65 Rush mats, HofufOne family onlyPossibly45 Palm fond carpenter, HofufOne familyWill pass to son.45 Weaving, HofufSaudiSon works for Aramco and not interested70

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16 A particular concern in the Arab world In Arab countries craft trades are structured in a traditional way: – Master – Worker – Apprentice Industry often depends upon trade secrets and word of mouth If sons aren’t interested, who will maintain the craft

17 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 So..... The handicraft sector is dynamic I don’t think we need to worry about ‘authenticity’ – It has multiple meanings (Wherry, 2006) – Differences in perceptions between domestic & international markets (Chibnik, 2008) But, we do need to consider: – Craftsmanship – Artistic quality – Emotional appeal

18 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 What are the main drivers for success? Quality Innovation Uniqueness Understanding the market Kean, Niemayer & Miller (1996) & Douglas & Douglas (2004)

19 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Key challenges for the RT community Making sure the sector contributes to local incomes Linking in with broader sustainable development strategies Contribution to the quality of life Contribution to the quality of the holiday experience

20 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Opportunities to pursue Spread benefits through the value chain – Sourcing (Ashley, 2006) – FairTrade (Evans et al, 2000) Encourage quality and innovation – Partnerships with designers Improve access to markets – Night markets (Ashley, 2006) – Sell through attractions (Kruger & Verster, 2001) – Sell to hotels (Ashwell, 2007; Çekel, 2009) Support training initiatives – Skills development – Link to sales opportunities

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23 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Retail outlet for local handcrafts, Hail, Saudi Arabia

24 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Night market, Luang Prabang

25 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Proposals for a craft retail centre, Duba Fort, Tabuk Province, KSA

26 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Four fondouqs project, Fès, Morocco

27 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Concluding comments The handicrafts sector is an essential component of many traditional lifestyles It has a key role to play across the responsible tourism movement Every part of our industry needs to be involved: – International agencies – National/ regional/ local government – Private sector – 3 rd sector/ NGOs

28 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 Thank you

29 4 th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations, Muscat, October 2010 References Kean, R; Niemayer, S & Miller, N (1996) Competitive strategies in the craft product retailing industry. Journal of Small Business Management Jan 1996 pp13-23 Kruger, S & Verster, R (2003) An appraisal of the Vulamehlo handicrafts project. Development Southern Africa v 18 no2 pp Makhado, Z & Kepe, T (2006) Crafting a livelihood: local level trade in mats and baskets in Pondoland, South Africa. Development Southern Africa vol 23 no 4 pp Markwick, M (2001) Tourism and the development of handicraft production in the Maltese Islands. Tourism Geographies v3 no1 pp29-51 Rogerson, C & Sithole, P (2001) Rural handicraft products in Mpumulanga, South Africa South African Geographical Journal v83 no2 pp Rogerson, C (2000) Rural handicraft production in the developing world: Policy lessons for South Africa. Agrekon v39 no2 pp Tipple, G (2005) The place of theme-based enterprises in the informal sector. Urban Studies vol 42 no4 pp Wherry, P (2006) The nation-state; identity management and indigenous crafts: constructing markets and opportunities in North West Costa Rica Ethnic & Racial Studies v29 no1 pp124 – 152 Ashley, C (2006) Participation of the poor in Luang Prabang tourism economy: current earnings and opportunities for expansion. ODI Working Paper no 273 Çekel, N (2009) Use of woven fabric of Kizilcabölük for the decoration of hotels. Journal of New World Sciences v4 no4 pp Chibnik, M (2008) Advertising Oaxacan wood carvings. Human Organisation v67 no4 pp Daniels, A (2003) Factors that influence the expansion of the micro-enterprise sector. J. International Development. No 15 pp657–692 Douglas, N & Douglas, N (2004) Cruise ship passenger spending patterns in Pacific Island ports. International Journal of Tourism Research v6 no4 pp Evans, G; Cleverdon, R; Richards, G & Hall, D (2000) Fair trade in tourism: community development or marketing tool? Tourism & Sustainable Community Developmnet pp Healy, R (1994) ‘Tourist merchandise’ as a means of generating local benefits from ecotourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism v 2 no3 pp Jodha, N (2008) Rural commons and livelihood strategies in dry regions of India. European Journal of Development Research v20 no 4 pp597–611


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