Presentation on theme: "TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism 1870-1914 SUPERQUIZ Section III - 13 questions (32.5%) Part 1."— Presentation transcript:
TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism SUPERQUIZ Section III - 13 questions (32.5%) Part 1
New imperialism Europeans reshaped their empires during the late 19th century Prior to the _______s, Europeans used ____________ expansionism to gain territories for their empires – ________________ campaigns of conquest and occupation replaced the old system in Asia and Africa – The term “_________________________” distinguishes this brand of imperialism from prior versions New imperialism was founded upon the same ideological tenets as the imperialism of the mid 19th century – The liberal _______________ mission appeared during the beginning of new imperialism – The system of expansion soon lost touch with its philosophical roots
Four characteristics of new imperialism: European nations officially adopted imperialism for the first time in the 19th century – Expansionist __________ replaced empires governed primarily by _________ – European governments had previously sponsored imperialism _________ it had already occurred – The state replaced _____________________& _________________as the holder of imperial initiative New nations entered the world of imperialism – _____________,_________, and _____________entered into the European arena – The ________________________and __________also emerged as global powers – ______________’s longstanding superiority in global sovereignty started to fade The more competitive environment changed the political strategies of nations engaging in imperialism – Nations sought explicit ____________________________________and _________________________________ instead of informal influence
New Imperialism’s Mission New imperialism defined its own ideological mission – This brand of expansion created an unbreachable ________between imperialists and colonial subjects – _______________ ideas of a liberal empire were gradually abandoned – Europeans retreated from the ______________ goals of the early and mid 19th century – This imperialism abandoned ____________ guidelines saw Europe rise to the ___________ of its global power
Causes of the New Imperialism: Multiple factors New imperialism materialized from multiple factors – Technology – Nationalism – Economics – Politics – Culture Significant changes in the second half of the 19th century allowed the system of expansion to come into being Most of these changes occurred in ___________
Technology By the late 19th century, Europeans had access to technologies that redefined imperialism – Steamships, industrial weaponry, quinine, and gunboats all played a role in prior European expansion Gunboats: armed steamboats 2 examples of the power of technology – The opening of China and – the conquest of Burma The second industrial revolution of the late 19th century increased the power of technology – The speed, vigor, and extent of conquests increased as a result – Ironclad warships were equipped with steam turbines These boats spread the superior weaponry of Europe across the world The ____________ simplified military mobilization logistics ____________ eased the construction of roads Modern _____________ reduced the danger of living in the tropics
Nationalism… Created new _________________within imperial powers to conquer the world – term must be understood in the ______________ sense developed in new ways – During the early 19th century, nationalism encompassed _______________and ________________ ideas Assoc. w/ liberal and democratic _________ – Within the era of new imperialism, nationalism shifted to an _______________and _____________version Assoc. w/ the mass politics of the __________ included emotional appeals to ____________and_________ – It challenged the liberal policies of the mid 19th century – The possibilities of societal _____________ and the __________ individual trumped these liberal policies – Imperial domination became the marker of ___________ and a sign of national _____________
NATIONALISM contributed to the rise of a new economic and political order of nation states – Germany experienced a national _____________ that transformed it into one of the most formidable European powers – The rise of ______________and the appearance of the ________________and _________ as industrial giants rearranged the global balance of power These events affected the stakes of empire
NATIONALISM The __________ experienced a substantial challenge to their global sovereignty – They had not experienced such an obstacle since the late 18th century – __________ was put on the back burner as a third-rate power Britain and France had to go on the political and economic defensive – hoped that an expansive __________ would compensate for the loss of political and economic _________________ Germany, the United States, and Japan responded by creating their own _____________________
Economics Imperial nations viewed colonies as – markets for industrial goods – sources for raw materials and cash crops – investment grounds for excess capital The rise of ________ and the ______________as major industrial powers upset the previous economic balance – By 1890, both the U.S. and Germany exceeded British __________&___________production – Germany outsold Britain in Latin America, the Ottoman Empire, and China
ECONOMICS An industrial economic ____________ existed from _______ through the ______s – The idea that colonial markets could serve as ___________ against the vacillations present in global commerce caught on – Western nations abandoned ____________ policies in the _____s and _____s __________________policies gained strength These strategies advocated – trade ______________in the domestic market and – the establishment of colonies as protected economic spheres
ECONOMICS A new wave of industrial ____________ ushered in fears of _____________ in the domestic market – Industrial overproduction resulted – Europeans viewed empire as an outlet for capital and good surpluses
Economic rationales alone do not account for new imperialism Governments often pursued imperialism when economic ________ outweighed economic _______ Colonies did serve as great markets for European industrial goods in the late 19th century – In 1890, INDIA served as the source of _______of British industrial goods and _________of British investment capital European nations traded far more with __________________than with their own colonies – Britain traded more with ________________and the _______ than with its ___________ or _____________ colonies – _______________ was the largest overseas investor and trader in the era of new imperialism The most industrialized and economically powerful nations did not always take the lead in imperialist expansion – _____________ accumulated the world’s second largest empire, but – ___________ far outpaced France as an industrial producer
The primacy of nation-states brought ________ and ______ ambitions to the forefront Imperialist actions followed political motives just as much as economic motives – Seizing territorial expanses preempted other nation-states’ empires ______________sought to build a strong German _________ to combat Britain’s global power – Wilhelm II ruled Germany from _____to______ – Britain depended on its naval dominance in North Africa, the Ottoman Empire, and China Italy sought a colonial empire in East and North ____________ to achieve status as a great global power Politics
Culture Nation-states in the late 19th century utilized imperialism to assist the process of __________________ – Imperialism fully unified a country’s citizenry – Loyalties shifted from the local community to the ___________community This process initially met resistance – The loss of _______________was a particularly hard idea to accept – National leaders enticed citizens with ideas of ________ Empire represented the ___________ property of the nation – In theory, empire transcended __________________ IN THEORY: Peasants and workers along with upper class elite were _______________ to colonial subjects In reality, _________ – Empire also served as the nation’s ________________ that contrasted with the weak _________________colonies Imperialism and imperial ___________ united nation-states – Race hierarchies replaced hierarchies of ___________
Proud Brits! British troops attacked and looted the _______ capital of _________ in __________ – This capital is currently located in southern _____________ – This expedition responded to the ambush of a British military force sent in 1896 to force ______________________ from the Edo king Photograph shows British officers surrounded by treasure including – Benin bronzes – seized from the royal compound Stolen objects ended up in ___________and_________ art museums
3.01 LISTING (pp ) 1. What are four features of “new imperialism”? -European nations adopted imperialism as an official policy -A new group of nations began to imperialize -Nations sought explicit territorial occupation and political conquest -Europeans began to see a clear, gap between them and the colonized people, no longer seeking to “civilize” rather just to control.
3.01 LISTING (pp ) 2. What five new nations emerged as imperialist powers in the “new imperialism” period? -Germany -Belgium -Italy -US -Japan
3.01 LISTING (pp ) 3. What three technologies helped spread European influence abroad in the 20th century? -steamships -industrial weaponry -quinine to treat malaria
3.01 LISTING (pp ) 4. What forces were at play with the new nationalism and imperialist struggle? -economic factors -political motives -cultural incentives
The Scramble for Africa Chambers, et al. (Mortimer Chambers, Barbara Hanawalt, Theodore K.Rabb, Isser Woloch, and Lisa Tiersten) consider the scramble for Africa to be the most remarkable chapter of the expansion of Europe in the late 19th century _______ European states split up Africa from _____to_____ Only – Abyssinia (ETHIOPIA) – Liberia remained independent
The starting line: The Berlin Conference German Prime Minister _____________ presided over the Berlin Conference – lasted from _____ to ______ – originally summoned to settle control of the _______ River between the Belgians the Portuguese
` The _____________ came to establish the ground rules for European colonization of ____________ – Many European governments disliked the haphazard settlement of African territory seen up through the mid-1880s The Berlin Conference Bismarck
The Berlin Conference: a turning point in European diplomacy Africa endured bloodshed and suffering even as Europeans settled their continental disputes ___________ diplomatic shrewdness contributed to European cooperation at the Berlin Conference – The bulk of African territories went to _________and __________ to compensate for their loss of _____________ in Europe – This ceding of territories also refueled the _____________________________________ – ____________ foreign policy thus had a major impact on the scramble for Africa, even though the country held few African colonies
Lines of European influence in Africa had been long drawn The political discussion served to ratify the principle that European __________________ – ensured the claim to the land beyond the coast – if authority could be established The Berlin Conference did legitimize some new claims in central Africa – _________and_____________gained control of parts of central Africa – The discussion primarily extended European control from existing coastal settlements into Africa’s interior
The Berlin Conference centralized power in Africa, a traditional decentralized political landscape Africans experienced a shift in political lines that redrew __________ and __________groups – Some new European colonies encompassed more than _________ African political units Artificial implementation of the “_________” designation reconfigured African ethnic and cultural ____________ – Many modern-day tribes are the result of the Berlin Conference – Christian missionaries did attempt to _____________ related language dialects These attempts strengthen cultural bonds between otherwise disparate groups
Extended European abolition of slavery and the slave trade to Africa Explorers such as _____________________had unsuccessfully campaigned against the slave trade in East Africa in the mid 19th century Europeans enforced abolitionism in their new role as formal _____________ Abolitionism stemmed from both – humanitarian purposes – as a politically expedient pretense for conquest African slavery still existed underground until the early 20th century ______________ replaced slavery – European colonizers even utilized this forced labor themselves
The wars of conquest The conquest of Africa came only through bloody wars of conquest that lasted from the _______s to the first decade of the 20th century Europeans enjoyed several advantages during these armed conflicts – Coastal African footholds and longstanding commercial connections provided a steady stream of ___________and local __________ of operations – Divisions between local communities also left African communities open for European Expansion The British used the subdued _________ against the _____________overlords » The British then conquered the Nupe soon after
Europeans’ enormous technological advantage, especially in weaponry The second ______________________magnified the already existing arms gap between Europeans and Africans Africans acquired ______ in the late 19th century By this time, Europeans had rapid-firing ___________________and_________________ Breechloaders were also called ___________ rifles Europeans tested most of the weaponry used in _________________during the colonial warfare of the late 19th century
The Battle of Omdurman The Battle of ________________ – in __________ – exemplifies the arms _______ This ________skirmish saw Anglo-Egyptian forces use – hand-driven _____________machine guns and – field artillery Only ________Anglo-Egyptians died, with another ________ wounded In stark contrast, ___________ Sudanese soldiers died, with another _________ wounded
African Resistance If Africans gained equal firearm technology, they normally resisted European invasions Islamic _________ ruler ___________in French West Africa fended off French troops from the mid _____s to the late ____s French West Africa occupied modern-day __________________________________________________ ______________________was the most critical component of European conquest of Africa
Dark Horses: New imperial nations European nations besides Britain and France created substantial African empires _____________entered as a major African power following the Berlin Conference – ______________established his claims in the Congo at the political roundtable European powers did extract ____________and_________ rights in the region – Belgian domination of the __________________took over _____years This area of land is now known as the __________________________________ The Congo Free State is ______times larger than Belgium
The dark horses: New imperial nations ___________ also inserted itself into the scramble for Africa – __________________claimed a few African _____________ for Germany during the Berlin Conference These 4 areas were the most active areas for German missionaries and Traders: – South West Africa (NAMIBIA) – East Africa (TANZANIA) – Cameroon, and – Togoland (TOGO)
German Belligerence: Morocco The ascension of _______________ to power in ________forced _____________ from power Germany initiated an aggressive ____________________ strategies made Germany an active threat to both imperial – Britain – France The _________________of _____ - ______ erupted from German protests of the ___________________ power split in the region Germany wanted a sphere of influence in ______________
German Belligerence: Agadir The __________Incident of _________developed from a German __________arriving in the port of Agadir in ____________ Wilhelm II sent this boat to intimidate the ______ Both the ____________________and the ____________________had _____________ resolutions France retained effective control of Morocco through both incidents These incidents highlight the _____________ of the post-Bismarckian government inGermany
The Agadir Incident: 1911
Portugal The Portuguese expanded their holdings on Africa’s _____and__________coasts – West African coasts: _____________________ – East Africa coast: _______________________ These led to prolonged wars of resistance, especially in the _____________ Valley
Italy Italy experienced ________________from its colonization of Africa – The new country sought to increase its international standing by taking territory in _______ Africa (HORN OF AFRICA) – in ________, the Italians seized Eritrea Somaliland (Somalia) in _______,King _________________Abyssinian troops resisted Italian encroachments – at the Battle of _____________ – _____________-man army armed with European breechloaders, field artillery, and a few machine guns Italy did successfully establish a protectorate in ____________ Libya in __________
The has-been’s resurgence: France ________and___________expansion in Africa overshadowed all other European expansion France dominated _______Africa and ________ Africa – The British : French Empire as a mere ________________ France expanded in every direction from __________ – To the east, France eliminated British and Italian influence The growing indebtedness of rulers served as the excuse for the declaration of ___________ as a French protectorate in 1881 To the west, France moved on _____________ – ______ gained a small realm of control within the country – The French successfully kept the ___________ out of Morocco – By _______, the French established the sub-Saharan territory of __________________________
The has-been’s resurgence: France The French claimed part of __________ in eastern Africa In 1896, France conquered _________________ – A __________ plantation economy thrived based on forced labor of the indigenous peoples France established the ________________in central Africa in __________ – This area of land is currently known as the _____________________ The 1900 invasion of the region of Lake _______ united French interests in North Africa and West Africa with central African land holdings Chad and French Congo combined in _________ to form __________________________________
The long-time favorite: Britain British imperialists had long envisioned a railway that connected __________to______ To span the British African Empire _____________________announc ed plans for a ___________and ___________________from Cairo to Cape Town in ________ Caricatures appeared of this South African ___________ magnate following his announcement
The long-time favorite: Britain The British moved to consolidate their hold on ________&______ in the 1880s – The French lost joint control of _______in the 1870s and 1880s France and Britain had previously shared ______________ control over Egypt The French had financed the construction of the ____________ Egypt became a British protectorate in ________
British used Egypt as a base to expand into Turco-Egyptian-controlled Sudan The suppressed millenarian jihadist _____________state then fought against the British – This power had previously tried to overthrow Egyptian rule during the __________ Armies of the Mahdi attacked ___________ in _______ – MAHDI means ____________________ – Khartoum served as the Egyptian capital of ______________ – A _______-month siege followed General ____________________________________Anglo-Egyptian troops faced annihilation The general gained his nickname from his previous role in suppressing the ________________Rebellion – The Mahdi established an ________________ state centered at nearby ___________________ The British launched a new campaign to retake Sudan in _____ – In ______, Lord _____________ led the famed battle at Omdurman
Charles “Chinese” Gordon
Khartoum: Gordon’s last stand
Kitchener avenges Gordon’s death
BRITISH EAST AFRICA and BUGANDA British Sudanese expansion linked Egypt with British colonies in southeast Africa: – ____________________in 1888 – now known as ________________ ___________ became a British colony in 1894 – Now known as _____________
the British Gold Coast The British simultaneously expanded from trading forts purchased from – the Netherlands and – Denmark The British defeated the ____________, gaining control of _________ The _______________ expanded into Nigeria from ________to __________ ________________led this British-chartered company
Expansion from British Cape Colony The _______________ War of _____to_____ allowed the British to expand north _____________led British expansion in this region
The British Wedge The British created a wedge between German ______________ Africa and German _________Africa – German South West Africa: modern-day ______________ – German East Africa incorporates parts of – Mozambique, – continental Tanzania, – Rwanda, and – Burundi British territories also approached the southern border of the __________________ This expansion similarly threatened independent _______________republics that were located north of the Cape Colony
Cecil Rhodes ( ) “The Colossus of Rhodes”
“We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit the cheap slave labor that is available from the natives of the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods produced in our factories.” ~CECIL RHODES
“Remember that you are an Englishman, and have consequently won first prize in the lottery of life”
"I contend that we are the first race in the world, and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race...If there be a God, I think that what he would like me to do is paint as much of the map of Africa British Red as possible...”
Discovery of Diamonds and Gold Leads to Boer War The 1860s discovery of diamonds and the 1880s finding of gold in the _____________ republics led to _________________ encroachment – British colonies surrounded the Afrikaner republics by _______ British citizens soon overran the independent African states The Afrikaners declared war in ________ – British forces quickly occupied the major Afrikaner cities The Boer War still lasted until ________ – Skillful _________________ resistance allowed the Afrikaners to draw out the war The rest of Europe watched Britain make slow progress across the Afrikaner republics
The Boer War: The Boers The British
The Boer War The British began targeting ______________ – Homeless Afrikaners gathered together in areas known as ________________________ Disease and starvation killed at least _____________ men in these areas Approximately _____________men died throughout the Boer War The advent of the Boer War inspired ________________feelings in the British – As the war dragged on, British citizens and politicians grew ________________
A Future British Prime Minister British Boer War Correspondent, Winston Churchill
The Boer War The Boers fought an irregular, guerilla style war against the British army. The Boers depended upon their knowledge of the land, hit-and-run tactics, and help from the local people to wage war. H. H. Kitchner was the general of the British army. He employed brutally harsh tactics to suppress the Boers. Total War Scorched Earth Policy Concentration Camps (first use of this term)
The Boer War The result of the Boer War was that the Cape Colony and the three Dutch states were combined to form the Union of South Africa. The agrarian Boer landscape was devastated by the British scorched earth tactics. The population of Boers and black South Africans was devastated by the war and the internment camps.
The Union of South Africa British victory in the Boer War allowed the _______ establishment of _________________________ _________________’s ambitions became partially fulfilled – The British implemented Afrikaner policies of ________________ – These regulations appeased ___________minorities – __________________ of white and black Africans became standard practice in South Africa
Unsportsmanlike conduct: Intra- European conflict in Africa ________________ clashes increased in number by the turn of the 20th century The amount of European expansion present throughout Africa as well as the heightened tension in Europe contributed to these skirmishes – The _______________represented one such conflict – The Afrikaners possessed ____________ weapons
Unsportsmanlike conduct: Intra- European conflict in Africa Britain and France fought – at Fashoda – on the Nile River – in 1898
The FASHODA CRISIS The conflict was the inevitable meeting of French and British expansion – The French expanded from _____to______Africa – The British expanded south from _________ and north from _________________ French forces heading east from the _______ met British troops going south from _____________________
Unsportsmanlike conduct: Intra- European conflict in Africa The _____________ affair in France caused the French government to back down from conflict with Britain The French recognized British control of the ___________ in exchange for the British recognition of ______________________
The Dreyfus Affair
The _______Egyptian revolt fought against British and French financial influence – ____________instigated the revolt – ________________headed the British South Africa Company
A trackside perspective: Why Britain acquired Egypt ___________________ (1841 – 1917) – the first British Commissioner of the __________________ – First Earl of _________ – the British Agent and ___________________ after Britain’s 1882 colonization of Egypt
Evelyn Baring, Earl of Cromer Consul General of Egypt
Cromer ruled Egypt with an iron fist He reorganized Egypt – financially, – judicially, and – administratively These actions saved Egypt from _________________ – He successfully defended Egypt from other European powers
Cromer ruled Egypt with an iron fist Egyptians disliked Cromer’s ______________ways – Cromer often subordinated Egypt to ___________interests ____________-class Egyptians could not receive higher ____________ Cromer feared that education would lead to ____________________sentiment _____________ had followed this pattern
Cromer ruled Egypt with an iron fist Cromer engaged in agricultural experiments to promote the growth of Egyptian __________ These successful tests provided British industries with raw materials
Cromer: Admired in the West The West greatly admired Cromer The London Times – called him __________________________ – after his death in ________________ In the excerpt, Cromer explains – why the British took over Egypt According to Cromer, – no other European power could have done the same
3.01 LISTING (pp ) 5. What two areas of Africa remained free after European imperialism of ? -Abyssnia (Ethiopia) -Liberia
3.02 IDENTIFY (pp )
3.03 DEFINITIONS (pp )
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p ) T F 1. At the Berlin Conference the European powers drew lines of partition to divide up African territory. 1. False—the lines had been drawn long before the conference. At the conference they ratified the idea that a claim to coastal lands gave a country claims inland as well.
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p ) T F 2. The Berlin Conference decentralized power in Africa. 2. False—it centralized power in a previously decentralized political landscape.
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p ) T F 3. The Berlin Conference extended the European abolition of slavery and the slave trade to Africa. TRUE
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p ) T F 4. Advanced European weaponry was used for the first time in World War I. 4. False--The weaponry used in World War I was first tested in the late 19th century colonial wars.
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p ) T F 5. Europeans benefitted from the divisions between local African communities. TRUE
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p ) T F 6. Even when Africans had access to equally advanced technology, they were easily defeated by the Europeans. 6. False—in the rare cases where Africans had access to technology they were often able to thwart European conquest.
3.05 CHOICES (p ) 1. In Africa, the Europeans faced _________ resistance from the indigenous peoples. little much
2. Europeans _________________ _________ the divisions between local African communities. Benefitted from Fought against
3. Otto von Bismarck was _________ imperialistically aggressive than Kaiser Wilhelm II. more less
4. ___________ was discovered in South Africa in diamonds gold
5. In the nineteenth century, Germany was working to build up a strong __________ to challenge Britain’s global power. army navy
6. The Congo Free State was 70 times _________ than Belgium. larger smaller
7. The gap in weaponry between the Europeans and the indigenous Africans was _____________ new. completely nothing
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) When did the Berlin Conference take place?
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) Who presided over the conference? German Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) Was the leader an effective one? Yes, he was diplomatically shrewd and his leadership fostered cooperation amongst the powers present
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) What was the purpose of the conference? To sort out the conflict between the Portuguese and Belgians over control of the Congo and to lay ground rules of colonization
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) The bulk of the African territories were given to what two powers? Great Britain, France
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) Whose claims to the Congo were legitimized at the conference? King Leopold II of Belgium
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) How was the African map redrawn? It consolidated previously separate polities and ethnic groups in new European units.
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) What motivated the abolitionist push at the conference? Humanitarianism and the fact that it was politically expedient as a justification for conquest.
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) 1._________________________managed to enlarge its _________________________holdings on the West African coast and to establish Portuguese East Africa on the Southeast coast of Africa. 2. _________________________sought to stake a territorial claim in East Africa but were defeated by King _________________________II’s troops.
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) 3.Italy was able to successfully declare a _________________________in Tripoli in ___________clearly dominated West Africa and _________________________Africa, expanding out in every direction from _____________________where they had been entrenched since 1830.
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp ) 5. Britain sought to build a _________________________from _________________________to _________________________that would span their African Empire. 6. The British and French shared financial control over _________________________until the French were edged out in the 1870s and 1880s. The British claimed it as a protectorate in 1882.
3.08 DATING (pp )
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 1. Evelyn Baring’s title was… the first Earl of Cromer.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 2. He was the first British Commissioner of… the Egyptian Public Debt office.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 3. After Egypt became a British colony in 1882, he became the… British Agent and Consul General.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 4. Egyptians disliked several things about Cromer including… his autocratic ways and willingness to subordinate the interests of Egypt for those of Britain.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 5. Cromer’s primary agricultural objective was… promoting the growth of Egyptian cotton and providing British industries with raw materials.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 6. After his death he was called the… “Maker of Modern Egypt”.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 7. In 1882, Cromer called the class of pure Egyptians “ignorant” since they… had been a subject race for so many centuries.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 8. Cromer called the foreign occupation of Egypt… “inevitable” or at least “nearly inevitable”.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp ) My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed. 9. The question Cromer addressed in his article is whether… Great Britain was the best power to control Egypt.