Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Classification of Matter. Matter Matter - the “stuff” – solids, liquids, gases, (plasma, and Bose-Einstein condensates) – that compose the universe Matter.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Classification of Matter. Matter Matter - the “stuff” – solids, liquids, gases, (plasma, and Bose-Einstein condensates) – that compose the universe Matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of Matter

2 Matter Matter - the “stuff” – solids, liquids, gases, (plasma, and Bose-Einstein condensates) – that compose the universe Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space

3 Phase Change

4

5 SOLIDS Molecules vibrate but can’t change position Retains shape and size

6 LIQUIDS Atoms are close (similar to solids) – but can slip pass each other. Has definite volume No definite shape

7 GAS Most energetic phase on Earth Move fast – cannot attach to each other No shape or volume

8 PLASMA Results when gas is heated too a point where atoms lose electrons (10,000 C) Stars On Earth Neon and Fluorescent lights (electrical charges passed through)

9 BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE Created in 1995 Occurs when temperature approach absolute zero (zero Kelvin) and all electrons exist at their lowest energy state. Atoms do not appear as distinct particles but as one “super blob” Created 1995… Chemistry Jocks Predicted

10 Which of the following is not an example of matter? 1. Plasma 2. Wood 3. Your breath 4. Oxygen 5. A vacuum 6. water

11 What is matter made of?

12 What is matter composed of? All matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are the smallest particle of matter that still has the same properties of that type of element. (ex. copper, oxygen) Multiple atoms chemically bonded together are called molecules (ex. H 2 or O 2 oxygen gas)

13 If more than one type of atom (2 different capital letters) are bonded together, it is called a compound (ex. CuO – copper (II) oxide or MgS – magnesium sulfide) (In other words, all compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds.)

14 Classify the substance: CuCl 1. Atom 2. Molecule 3. Compound

15 Classify the substance: He 1. Atom 2. Molecule 3. Compound

16 Classify the substance: Cl 2 1. Atom 2. Molecule 3. Compound

17 Physical and Chemical Properties A physical property describes the basic characteristics of a substance. Examples: color, odor, taste, density, length, boiling point, melting point, volume, mass, temperature, phase (solid, liquid, or gas)

18 Chemical property A chemical property describes how substances react with other substances. Examples: wood burns in oxygen and gives off heat, iron rusts faster when exposed to oxygen and water

19 What kind of property? The boiling point of water is Kelvin. 1. Physical property 2. Chemical property 3. Both 4. Neither

20 What kind of property? Platinum does not react with oxygen at room temperature. 1. Physical property 2. Chemical property 3. Both 4. Neither

21 What kind of property? Gallium metal melts in your hand. 1. Physical property 2. Chemical property 3. Both 4. Neither

22 What kind of property? Metal wire conducts electricity. 1. Physical property 2. Chemical property 3. Both 4. Neither

23 Physical and Chemical Changes A physical change involves a change in physical properties (mass, temperature, phase change, etc.) but no change in the main components that make up the substance. Ex. boiling, melting, breaking, slicing A chemical change involves a change in the fundamental components of the substance and a new substance forms. Ex. burning wood, iron rusting

24 Physical or Chemical Change? Iron metal is melted 1. Physical change 2. Chemical change 3. Both 4. Neither

25 Physical or Chemical Change? Milk turns sour 1. Physical change 2. Chemical change 3. Both 4. Neither

26 Physical or Chemical Change? A piece of wax is melted over fire and starts to burn. 1. Physical change 2. Chemical change 3. Both 4. Neither

27 Physical or Chemical Change? Steam from your shower condenses on the mirror. 1. Physical change 2. Chemical change 3. Both 4. Neither

28 Physical or Chemical Change? Electrolysis sends an electric current that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. 1. Physical change 2. Chemical change 3. Both 4. Neither

29 Intensive & Extensive Intensive Property: A property that does not depend on the amount of matter present Extensive Property: A property that does depend on the amount of matter present

30 Organizational window Intensive PropertyExtensive property Physical Property Boiling point, Color, Concentration, Electrical conductance, Density, Ductility, Magnetism, Melting point, Solubility, Luster, Temperature, Thermal Conductance Length Mass Shape Volume Chemical Property Chemical stability Flamability Reactivity Toxicity We will not talk about any property that is both chemical and extensive.

31 CAN NOT BE SEPARATED BY PHYSICAL MEANS CAN BE SEPARATED BY PHYSICAL MEANS 2 or more types of matter 1 type of matter

32 Mixtures and Pure Substances Pure substances always have the same composition, even at the molecular level. (ex. water, salt, nitrogen) Impure substance of mixtures contain two or more materials that may be separated by physical means Examples of physical means include: filtration, distillation, chromatography, evaporation, sorting, magnetization

33 MIXTURES Heterogeneous Contains more than 1 type of matter Not uniform Homogeneous Contains more than 1 type of matter Same throughout Before it is Open? After it is Open? Examples: Chicken noodle soup Chocolate chip ice cream Examples: Soda pop Ink from a marker

34 CAN NOT BE SEPARATED BY PHYSICAL MEANS CAN BE SEPARATED BY PHYSICAL MEANS 2 or more types of matter 1 type of matter

35 What type of matter? NaCl (table salt) 1. Mixture 2. Substance

36 What type of substance? NaCl (table salt) 1. Element 2. Molecule 3. Compound

37 What type of matter? Bowl of Lucky Charms (it’s magically delicious) 1. Element 2. Compound 3. Molecule 4. Homogeneous Mixture 5. Heterogeneous Mixture

38 Classify a pitcher of iced tea. 1. Element 2. Compound 3. Molecule 4. Homogeneous Mixture (solution) 5. Heterogeneous Mixture

39 Classify the air in the room. 1. Element 2. Compound 3. Molecule 4. Homogeneous Mixture (solution) 5. Heterogeneous Mixture

40 Classify oxygen gas (O 2 ) 1. Element 2. Compound 3. Molecule 4. Homogeneous Mixture (solution) 5. Heterogeneous Mixture

41 Several Types of Physical Separations Physical Separations FilterDecant Naturally Separating CentrifugeEvaporative Evaporate/ Boiling Off Distillation Exotic Properties MagnetismSublimationChromatography

42 Filtering Separating out smaller and larger parts using a grating Gravity Filtering: normal filtering where the drive to filter is solely derived by gravity pulling the smaller parts through the filter (Coffee or Tea Filtering) Vacuum Filtering: filtering where a vacuum is used to pull the small particles through the filter (Büchner funnel)

43 Decanting (Pouring off) Pouring off or removing one liquid without anything else Naturally Separated Centrifuge Bottom Removal

44 Evaporative Separation Separations based on changing one substance into its vapor state, then possibly recapturing it and returning it to a liquid Evaporation: removal of a liquid by evaporation (Drying mud puddles) Boiling: removal of a liquid by boiling it into a vapor (Reducing marsala sauce)

45 Evaporative Separation Distillation: any process by which a liquid is removed through boiling or evaporation, then made to condensate and is captured as a liquid (Distillation of alcohol)

46 Pop Quiz! Study physical separation… Quiz will start at 2:11 and you will have 3 minutes to take it Get a piece of paper out

47 1.) Name 2 physical properties 2.) What is a molecule? 3.) How would you separate alcohol from water?

48 Separations by Exotic Properties Some methods of separation hinge upon the utilization of unusual properties, and are therefore rarely very useful Magnetism Sublimation

49 Separations by Exotic Properties Chromatography – components of a mixture separate by dissolving and traveling at different rates through a mobile phase of chromatography paper

50 Several Types of Physical Separations Physical Separations FilterGravity FilteringVacuum FilteringDecant Naturally Separating CentrifugeBottom RemovalEvaporative Evaporate/ Boiling Off DistillationSimpleFractalVacuumExotic PropertiesMagnetismSublimationChromatography

51 Filtering Separating out smaller and larger parts using a grating Gravity Filtering: normal filtering where the drive to filter is solely derived by gravity pulling the smaller parts through the filter (Coffee or Tea Filtering) Vacuum Filtering: filtering where a vacuum is used to pull the small particles through the filter (Büchner funnel) Pressurized filtering: filtering where the smaller particles are pushed through a filter, leaving the larger on the high pressure side (Reverse Osmosis)

52 Decanting Pouring off or removing one liquid without anything else Naturally Separated: Decant the top liquid on top of another substance where those two are normally separated (saltwater and sand, pouring oil off water) Centrifuge: for slowly separating mixtures a simulated-gravity- spin can separate substances before decanting (Blood & Plasma) Bottom Removal: the bottom liquid can be removed by opening a valve on the bottom of a container, or carefully using a pipette (Organic Chemistry Labs)

53 Evaporative Separation Separations based on changing one substance into its vapor state, then possibly recapturing it and returning it to a liquid Evaporation: removal of a liquid by evaporation (Drying mud puddles) Boiling: removal of a liquid by boiling it into a vapor (Reducing marsala sauce) Distillation: any process by which a liquid is removed through boiling or evaporation, then made to condensate and is captured as a liquid (Distillation of alcohol)

54 Distillations a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities (boiling points) in a boiling liquid mixture Tools: Alembic, retort, cooling columns Simple distillation: Heat the mixture – all vapors are collected and condensed (used when boiling points are extremely different or trying to separate from a solid substance) Fractal distillation: boiling off of one liquid while keeping another in liquid form, then condensing the boiled vapors Vacuum distillation: Fractal distillation in a partial vacuum (This method is used when the boiling points of the desired liquids are too hot to be safely achieved by heating the mixture)

55 Separations by Exotic Properties Some methods of separation hinge upon the utilization of unusual properties, and are therefore rarely very useful Magnetism: when one part of a mixture is magnetic, it can be removed by utilizing magnetic fields Sublimation: one material can be removed by sublimating it into a vapor, leaving the remainder present Chromatography – components of a mixture separate by dissolving and traveling at different rates through a mobile phase of chromatography paper MANY MORE!!! These sorts of separations can be a lot of fun because they are so unusual, but will rarely be needed

56 Several Types of Physical Separations Physical Separations FilterGravity FilteringVacuum FilteringDecant Naturally Separating CentrifugeBottom RemovalEvaporative Evaporate/ Boiling Off DistillationSimpleFractalVacuumExotic PropertiesMagnetismSublimationChromatography

57 Error in the Lab There is always a measure of error with measurements. Percent Error is used to calculate this error:

58 Types of Error The primary types of error in experiments are: Operator Error (not acceptable – can easily be fixed) Design Error (procedure needs to be modified) Instrument Error (instrument not calibrated)

59 Operator Error Due to a mistake that is the direct fault of the scientist (ex. Typing a number in wrongly on the calculator, not reading meniscus at eye level, copying the balance reading wrongly, not recording to the correct number of sig figs) -Not acceptable in a lab report because they can be immediately fixed

60 Design Error Error due to a faulty procedure or design Examples: using a bunsen burner instead of a hot water bath caused the temperature to move upwards too quickly; not using a magnetic stirrer caused the solution not to completely dissolve

61 Instrument Error Error due to a measuring instrument not being calibrated correctly. Examples: a clock set 5 minutes fast, a balance that records 5 g less than the actual mass, Note: reading the instrument incorrectly or recording the wrong number of sig figs is an operator error, not an instrumental error

62 Which type of error? A thermometer records all temperatures 3 degrees too low. 1. Operator error 2. Procedural error 3. Instrumental error

63 Which type of error? You record the length as 35.0cm but the correct resolution is 35.00cm. 1. Operator error 2. Procedural error 3. Instrumental error

64 Which type of error? You should have heated the solution more to get all of the solute to dissolve. 1. Operator error 2. Procedural error 3. Instrumental error


Download ppt "Classification of Matter. Matter Matter - the “stuff” – solids, liquids, gases, (plasma, and Bose-Einstein condensates) – that compose the universe Matter."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google