Presentation on theme: "“I See You, You See Me” Video Modeling and Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention Strategy for Young Children Teresa Cogar M.Ed. Coordinator, Region 5."— Presentation transcript:
“I See You, You See Me” Video Modeling and Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention Strategy for Young Children Teresa Cogar M.Ed. Coordinator, Region 5 T/TAC
Modeling/Learning Behaviors Human behavior is primarily learned by observing and modeling others. Observational learning is a cognitive and behavioral change that occurs as a result of observing others engaged in similar actions (Bandura, 1986)
Instructional Practice Having students imitate modeled behaviors has long been a mainstay of instructional practice (Buggey,2007)
What is Video Modeling? A procedure in which a learner is shown a videotape of a model performing a target behavior or completing a desired task (Sigafoos, O’Reilly & de la Cruz, 2007)
Video Modeling Formats Peer - Using a child or adult “actor” to demonstrate the target skill or act out an exchange. These people can be familiar or unfamiliar. Point-of-View - Activities are carried out from the viewer’s perspective by holding camera at eye level. Hine & Wolery, 2006
Peers as Models Most effective models include individuals: – close to the observers age – who have similar characteristics (gender, personality, race and mood – are functioning only slightly above the observer
Point of View Modeling Filming video from the perspective of what the student would see, hear, and say in the targeted situations.
Benefits of Video as an Instructional Medium Moving visual image that can be readily produced Ability to gain attention Interactively controlled Creates a personal involvement Focuses attention on important elements of modeled behavior and ensures that these elements are relevant and within the capacity of the individual
Self-Efficacy “A person has a greater chance of learning a behavior and gaining a perception of self- competence, when he/she perceives a greater chance of success or self-efficacy.” (Bandura, 1982)
Video Modeling Research Researchers have found that video modeling allows children to take what they have learned in video modeling sessions and generalize that information into all aspects of their daily life.
- Video modeling is considered evidence based practice. Bellini and Akullian (2007) - It has been successful for improving play behavior, conversation skills, self‐help skills and (less studied) behavioral skills. - It is more effective than in vivo modeling. Research Says……..
Who is a good candidate for this strategy? Visual learners (ASD, auditory processing issues, language delay) Has demonstrated imitation skills: motor movements during action sequences on TV, words, songs, etc. Loves to watch videos
Candidates… Thos who prefer visual stimuli (Kinney et al., 2003) Children that need a way to learn through social models without initial face-to face interactions (I.E. Students with ASD) Children who benefit from visually cued instruction Individuals that exhibit strengths in processing visual rather than verbal information From “Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism?” by Corbett & Abdullah, 2005
Two Prerequisites to Video Modeling Self-recognition Attention to video Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Observational Learning Process Four pivotal factors that need to occur: 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation From “Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism?” by Corbett & Abdullah, 2005
Why is it effective? Gives a restricted field of focus Provides visual stimuli Provides visually cued instruction Provides ability to process visual information more readily than verbal information Immediate feedback and reinforcement Accentuates positive behavior Improves motivation if a person sees themselves and their surroundings on video. Combines two proven methods of intervention, visual cues and modeling, into one approach.
Creating a Video Model Steps: 1.) Decide on target behavior/skill to address Questions to consider? - Is this a behavior/skill that can be addressed through a less consuming method? - Is this behavior/skill impeding the child’s learning or ability to access the environment? - Is this behavior/skill an important one to change/improve?
Creating a Video Model Do a task analysis of skill/behavior - Determine each skill needed in the sequence Identify replacement behavior - What do you want the to do instead?
Creating a Video Model Establish baseline through data collection Videotape skills/behaviors
Creating a Video Model Edit video so only desirable skills/behaviors are seen (max 3 min)
Other components…… Consider a motivating theme Create a script for the video Debrief with child, positively review what has been seen and heard to promote new behavior
What do I need? Video Camera: Digital video camera Digital camera Flip camera VHS camera Video Editing Software Computer with a CD or DVD burner
Camcorder to Computer iMovie @ iMovie HD @ MovieMaker @ 1.Connect Camcorder 2. Cut and paste Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Video downloads to here Cut & Paste to timeline Bells & whistles Also Cut & Paste Editing window: 2 markers can be dragged to highlight anything you want cut - press delete - it’s gone. Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Target Behaviors/Instructional Goals What are the components of defining a target behavior that helps support a good instructional goal? Many times when a strategy and intervention doesn’t work we think that the student’s do not have the skills. We need to reassess: Is the skill level to high, too demanding, too low?
Activity Watch each video Think about target behavior Write it on your sheet Then, write the skill needed to replace the behavior- “What do you want them to do?” Hold on to this sheet! We will come back to it
Hold on to that Thought! Let’s look at Video Self-Modeling
VSM vs. VM Self or Others? Some studies show that “using others as a model is equally as effective as using self as a model” (Sherer et al. 2001) However some skills may be better addressed through using self as a model such as: Stuttering Reducing inappropriate behaviors Etc.
Video Self-Modeling Intervention where observers are shown videotapes of themselves successfully engaging in an activity.
Video Examples http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0yj-TKbvnI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xh313WJvzCw&feature=related
Two Forms of Self-Modeling D, Dowrick, 1977 1977 Positive Self-Review: Reinforcing already known skills to improve performance/ fluency Feedforward: Video of skills not yet learned. Introducing a new skill or behavior. Laura Wilkinson Gold medal Platform Diver 37 Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Positive Self-Review – student to view only positive performances of a behavior that has been targeted for intervention (Dowrick) Self-Review
How to Capture Footage for Feedforward Videos Imitation – Great for language. Have children imitate advance language skills Role Play – Fun! Act out behaviors in full Hollywood fashion. Get a director’s chair and clacker. Capture Rare Behaviors – Used with children who are not responsive. Include child and family in planning when possible Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Imitation Once we capture the child’s words, we can get very creative with the editing: 1.We can ask questions that fit the utterance, e.g. Child says, “I go home”. You can dub in adult or peer asking, “What do you do after school?” 2.You can cut and paste individual words into sentences - slightly expanding utterances. (You will get a visual “flutter” between words, but this doesn’t seem to bother the children.) 3.You can do Simon Says type games to capture physical behavior - I do, you do. Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Role Play Make it fun and include child in planning when possible. Works very well with Functional Behavior Assessments and/or Positive Behavior Supports. Triggers for negative behaviors become scenes in the movie - but appropriate responses are acted out. Social initiations/interactions can be scripted and lines fed to actors.
3 Components of a VSM Movie 1.Positively label the behavior - helps child discern the target behavior. “Here’s Tony talking nicely with his friends!” This usually follows with cheering/clapping. 2. Body - Child behaving/performing well. 3. Reinforcement at end/re-label behavior. “Nice playing, Tony!” 46 Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Capturing More Difficult Skills/Behaviors Tape the student over a period of time Edit the footage to show only the desirable skills/behaviors that may be more rarely performed Ex. Food aversion - Child rarely puts spoon to mouth during lunch. = set up camera for 2 lunch periods, collect all the spoon to mouth and link together = we have an eater. Ex. Responding to questions: Film play sessions in which questions were asked. May take a long time to get enough responses for short video. Can be very time consuming!
Skills and Target Behaviors Video Modeling can be used to address the following skills and target behaviors for students to be successful in all aspects of daily life: » Social interaction behaviors » Academic skills » Communication skills » Daily living skills » Play skills » Social initiations » Perception of emotion » Perspective taking
Many Settings….. Modeling is a normalized method applicable to many different settings (Tryon & Keane, 1986) Modeling can enable children to benefit from inclusive environments (Jones and Schwartz,2004) Modeling may facilitate generalization and maintenance from setting to setting.
Our Goal… To bring any instructional practice we use with students to multiple settings as part of daily life activities
Instructional Goals Must have an instructional goal in mind. Want to select and define a target behavior that supports the child’s ability to watch the behavior of another and apply what they see in their own interactions, language play, etc. Want the child to generalize skills to other settings (including home)
Planning: Storyboarding Identify the target/replacement behavior (something measurable/observable). Determine best method for capturing the behavior. Determine video scenes. – Task-analyze the target or replacement behavior. – Each step becomes a scene. – Or, each trigger of negative behavior becomes a scene. Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Sample Storyboard Morning Routine *Drawn freehand with child and family assistance Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Creating a Tantrum Reduction Video 1.Conduct a Functional Behavior Assessment to determine tantrum triggers. 2.Translate triggers to scenes in a storyboard. 3.Plan scenes with child if possible, storyboard too. 4.Set up scenes using peers and appropriate settings. Prompt dialog and go over child’s response to trigger in his role of movie star. 5.Film - edit - view. - Self-talk. Allow kids to give themselves reinforcement: “Wow, I really handled that well!” “That wasn’t hard at all!” etc. Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Tantrum Storyboard Self-talk may compliment VSM Tom Buggey, Ph D Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network April, 8, 2010
Let’s go Back to Target Sheet! Look at replacement behavior What goal do you have in mind? What intervention would you use? How would you make the home school connection?
VSM Do’s Do – Depict positive behaviors – Select behaviors that are developmentally appropriate – Keep the video under 5 minutes – Ensure confidentiality if the video will be used by schools or agencies – Make sure there is an IEP or ISFP link – Get informed consent from parents/caregivers – Make the filming process fun – Learn new technology skills – Allow child to leave video daily and when requested – Allow child to watch the video without comment if the video includes clear written or verbal statement about the featured behavior. Buggey,2009
VSM Don’ts Don’t: – Depict negative behaviors – Select behaviors that are too advanced – Have too many special effects – Force the child to watch the video – Begin without parental consent – Expect miracles Buggey, 2009
Commercial Products http://www.modelmekids.com/community- social-skills-autism.html Watch Me Learn @, Model Me Kids @, and Teach2Talk @
Resources Commercial Peer-modeling sites: http://www.modelmekids.com/ http://www.socialskillbuilder.com/ http://www.watchmelearn.com/ Bandura, A. Retrieved from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html http://www.siskin.org/index.php?sid=89 http://www.alaskachd.org/video/
Exit Please write down one valuable piece of information you learned or How you might use this intervention Strategy with your students. Leave your card at your seat Have a great day!
References Apple, A.L., Billingsley, F., Schwartz, I.S. (2005). Effects of video modeling along and with self-management on compliment-Giving behaviors of children with high-functioning ASD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(1), 33-46. Bandura, A. Retrieved from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.htmlhttp://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 73 (3). Buggey, T. (2007). A picture is worth... Video self-modeling applications at school and home. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(3), 151-158. Buggey, T. (2005) VSM applications with students with autism spectrum disorder in a small private school setting. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(1), 52-63. 69
References Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(6), 537-552. Charlop, M.H., & Milstein, J.P. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 275-285. Clare, S.K., Jenson, W.R., Kehle, T.J. & Bray, M.A. (2000). Self-modeling as a treatment for increasing on-task behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 37(6), p. 517-522. Corbett, B.A. & Abdullah, M. (2005). Video Modeling: Why does it work for children with autism? Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2 (1), 2-8. Creer & Miklich (1970).The application of a self-modeling procedure to modify inappropriate behavior: a preliminary report. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8, 91-2. 70
References Darden, F. (2006). Video self-modeling to facilitate visual symbol learning in preschoolers with developmental delays. Dissertation: Florida State University. Delano, M.E. (2007). Improving written language performance of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 345-351. D'Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B.A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11. Dowrick, P.W. (1991). Practical guide to using video in the behavioral sciences. New York: Wiley. Dowrick, Kim-Rupnow, & Power. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. The Journal of Special Education, 39(4), 194-207. 71
References Darden, F. (2006). Video self-modeling to facilitate visual symbol learning in preschoolers with developmental delays. Dissertation: Florida State University. Delano, M.E. (2007). Improving written language performance of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(2), 345-351. D'Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B.A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11. Dowrick, P.W. (1991). Practical guide to using video in the behavioral sciences. New York: Wiley. Dowrick, Kim-Rupnow, & Power. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. The Journal of Special Education, 39(4), 194-207. 72