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A. Langmuir(1881-1957) K. Blodgett(1898 –1979) G. N. Lewis (1875- 1946) M. H. Thatcher(1925 –2013)

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Presentation on theme: "A. Langmuir(1881-1957) K. Blodgett(1898 –1979) G. N. Lewis (1875- 1946) M. H. Thatcher(1925 –2013)"— Presentation transcript:

1 A. Langmuir( ) K. Blodgett(1898 –1979) G. N. Lewis ( ) M. H. Thatcher(1925 –2013)

2 Gilbert Newton Lewis (1875 –1946, age71) American physical chemist known for 1)the discovery of the covalent bond (Lewis dot structures & cubical atom model), 2) purification of heavy water (D 2 O), 3) reformulation of chemical thermodynamics in a mathematically rigorous manner (Fugacity), 4) theory of Lewis acids and bases, 5) photochemical experiments (photon, triplet).

3 Issue 1) Chemical Bond In 1916(age 41), he published a paper on chemical bonding "The Atom and the Molecule” in which he formulated the idea of covalent bond, consisting of a shared pair of electrons, and he defined the term odd molecule (free radical) when an electron is not shared. He included Lewis dot structures as well as the cubical atom model. These ideas on chemical bonding were expanded upon by Irving Langmuir and became the inspiration for the studies on the nature of the chemical bond by Linus Pauling.

4 Issue 4) Lewis Acid & Base In 1923(age 48), he formulated the electron-pair theory of acid-base reactions. In the so-called Lewis theory of acids and bases, a "Lewis acid" is an electron-pair acceptor and a "Lewis base" is an electron- pair donor. Great Concept In Chemistry: Lewis acid&base, Brønsted acid&base, Pearson’s HSAB

5 Issue 6) Why he was not able to get N prize????? He was a professor of chemistry at MIT (age 36), and the University of California, Berkeley (age 37). Although he never won the award he was nominated for a Nobel Prize 35 times. See Wikipedia encyclopedia ● G. N. Lewis vs. V. Nernst (1920, Nobel Prize in chemistry, thermodynamics) ● His student Harold Urey (1934 Nobel Prize in chemistry, the discovery of deuterium D 2 ) ● His posdoc Glenn T. Seaborg(1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, discovery of the transuranium elements) ● Irving Langmuir (1932 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry )

6 Issue 6) Death & Mystery In 1946, a graduate student found Lewis's lifeless body under a laboratory workbench at Berkeley. Lewis had been working on an experiment with liquid hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and deadly fumes from a broken line had leaked into the laboratory. However, some believe that it may have been a suicide. ●Why ? ●Why he did not win the Nobel Award even was nominated so many times? See Wikipedia encyclopedia(G. N. Lewis vs. V. Nernst, His student )

7 If Lewis's death was indeed a suicide, a possible explanation was depression brought on by a lunch with Irving Langmuir. Langmuir and Lewis had a long rivalry, dating back to Langmuir's extensions of Lewis's theory of the chemical bond.

8 Langmuir had been awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on surface chemistry, while Lewis had not received the Prize despite having been nominated 35 times. On the day of Lewis's death, Langmuir and Lewis had met for lunch at Berkeley, a meeting that Michael Kasha recalled only years later. Associates reported that Lewis came back from lunch in a dark mood, played a morose game of bridge with some colleagues, then went back to work in his lab. An hour later, he was found dead. Langmuir's papers at the Library of Congress confirm that he had been on the Berkeley campus that day to receive an honorary degree.

9 Issue 2-1) D 2 O & Nobel Prize In 1913 (age 38), Lewis was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He resigned in 1934(age 59), refusing to state the cause for his resignation. His decision to resign may have been sparked by resentment over the award of the 1934 Nobel Prize for chemistry to his student, Harold Urey, for the discovery of deuterium (D 2 ), a prize Lewis almost certainly felt he should have shared for his work on purification and characterization of heavy water ( Lewis was the first to produce a pure sample of D 2 O in 1933 (age 58)).

10 Issue 2-2) By accelerating deuterons (deuterium nuclei) in Ernest O. Lawrence‘s cyclotron, Lewis was able to study many of the properties of atomic nuclei. During the 1930s, he was mentor to Glenn T. Seaborg, who was retained for post-doctoral work as Lewis’ personal research assistant. Seaborg went on to win the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements” 93 Np- 102 No, 106 Sg (seaborgium)

11 第四遷移元素 アクチノイド系 21 元素 ( 89 Ac~ 111 Rg) 名 Ac アクチニウ ム actinium Th トリウム thorium Pa プロトアク チニウム protactinium U ウラン uranium Np ネプツニウ ム neptunium Pu プルトニウ ム plutonium Am アメリシウ ム americium Cm キュリウム curium Bk バークリウ ム berkelium Cf キャリフォ ルニウム californium Es アインスタ イニウム einsteinium Fm フェルミウ ム fermium 名 Md メンデレビ ウム mendelevium No ノーベリウ ム nobelium Lr ローレンシ ウム lawrencium Rf ラザホージ ウム rutherfordium Db ドブニウム dubnium Sg シーボーギ ウム seaborgium Bh ボーリウム bohrium Hs ハッシウム hassium Mt マイトネリ ウム meitnerium Ds ダームスタ チウム darmstadtium Rg レントゲニ ウム roentgenium

12 Irving Langmuir (1881 –1957 age 76) American chemist and physicist. 1)His most noted publication (1919, age 38) was the famous article "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules”. He outlined his "concentric theory of atomic structure building on Lewis's cubical atom theory and W. Kossel's chemical bonding theory “.

13 2) While at General Electric [1909–1950 (age 28-69)], Langmuir advanced several basic fields of physics and chemistry and surface science, invented the gas-filled incandescent lamp and the hydrogen welding technique. ● improvement of the diffusion pump ● invention of the high-vacuum tube. ● discover y: filling the bulb with an inert gas such as argon lengthen the lifetime of a tungsten filament. ● discover y : atomic hydrogen→invent the atomic hydrogen welding process (the first plasma weld ).

14 3-1) His surface chemistry began at this point, when he discovered that molecular hydrogen introduced into a tungsten- filament bulb dissociated into atomic hydrogen and formed a layer one atom thick on the surface of the bulb. 3-2) In 1917 (age 36), he published a paper on the chemistry of oil films. He theorized that the hydrophilic group down in the water and the hydrophobic chains clumped together on the surface with one molecule thick. water air

15 3-3) He joined Katharine B. Blodgett to study thin films and surface adsorption. They introduced the concept of a monolayer and the two-dimensional physics which describe such a surface. In 1932 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry.“

16 Katharine Burr Blodgett (1898 –1979 age 81) ● The first woman to work as a scientist for General Electric Lab. in New York. ● The first woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in Physics from University of Cambridge. 1) During her research, she often worked with Langmuir, who had worked with her father. They worked on monomolecular coatings designed to cover surfaces of water, metal, or glass. 2) In 1938 (age 40), she devised a method to spread these monomolecular coatings one at a time onto glass or metal. This coating is now called the Langmuir-Blodgett film. The Langmuir-Blodgett trough is also named after her.

17 Langmuir-Blodgett trough & Langmuir-Blodgett film Monomolecular layer

18 She also invented the color gauge, a method to measure the molecular coatings on the glass to one millionth of an inch. The "color gauge" employs the concept that different thicknesses of coatings are different colors. She saw that soap bubbles were different colors and discovered that at each place that the soap bubble was a new color, it has a different thickness. She made a glass "ruler" to show different colors corresponding to the thicknesses. Measuring thickness became as simple as matching colors.

19 Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, ( ) She was a Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Originally she was a research chemist before becoming a barrister. Studied chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford. She arrived at Oxford in 1943 and graduated in 1947 (four-year Chemistry Bachelor of Science Degree); she studied Langmuir- Blodgett films, in her final year she specialized in X- ray crystallography under the supervision Of Dorothy Hodgkin (1964 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, vitamin B 12 ).

20 Experimentalists & Theoreticians Nano & Fusion

21 Sir Humphry Davy(Chemistry ) ● 1807— Discover several alkali and alkaline earth metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, B) by electrolysis using voltaic pile ●laughing gas(nitrous gas N 2 O) ●First arc lamp, ●Davy lamp Michael Faraday (Scientist, Chemist ) ● electrochemistry, electromagnetism ●benzene, ● Bunsen burner with Davy ● metallic Au nanoparticlenanoscience ●environmental science Nano & Fusion (1) Wikipedia

22 Robert Bunsen(Chemistry ) ● Organometallic compd. almost died & lost sight in his right eye cacodyl (organo arsenic molecule) Me radical ● Bunsen cell battery(1841 Pt → C ) ●Photochemistry ● Bunsen burner Gustav Kirchhoff(Physics, Chemistry ) ● Kirchhoff’ laws (circuit theory, thermodynamics) ● Spectroscopyblack body radiation ● Bunsen-Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy Nano & Fusion (2)

23 ● Bunsen & Kirchhoff discovered Cs & Rb by spectrum analysis Cs Forty tons of mineral water from Dürkheim was concentrated to isolate 17 g of deep blue element They were the first recipients of the prestigious Davy Medal for their researches & discoveries in spectrum analysis

24 Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) German physicist. He coined the term “black body 黒体輻射 " radiation in 1862, and two different sets of concepts (one in circuit theory, and one in thermodynamics) are named "Kirchhoff's laws" after him; there is also a Kirchhoff's Law in thermochemistry. ローベルト・ブンゼンとともに、分光学研究に取り組み、セシ ウムとルビジウムを発見した。フラウンホーファーが発見した 太陽光スペクトルの暗線(フラウンホーファー線)がナトリウ ムのスペクトルと同じ位置に見られることを明らかにし、分光 学的方法により太陽の構成元素を同定できることを示した。 The current entering any junction is equal to the current leaving that junction. i 2 + i 3 = i 1 + i 4

25 フラウンホーファー線は、一連のスペクトルで、ドイツの物理学者ヨゼフ・フォ ン・フラウンホーファーの名前に由来する。太陽光の可視光スペクトルのなかに暗 線として観測された。 1802 年、イギリスのウイリアム・ウォラストンが、太陽光のスペクトルのなかにい くつかの暗線の存在を報告した。 1814 年にフラウンホーファーは、ウォーラストン とは別に、暗線を発見し、系統的な研究を行い、 570 を超える暗線について波長を計 測した。主要な線に A から K の記号をつけ、弱い線については別の記号をつけた。 グスタフ・キルヒホッフとローベルト・ブンゼンによって、それぞれの線が、太陽 の上層に存在するいろいろな元素や地球の大気中の酸素などによって吸収されたス ペクトルであることが示された。 他の恒星のドップラー効果によるフラウンホーファー線の波長のズレを調べること で、その恒星と太陽系との相対速度を知ることができる Na D 1, D 2 He D 3 O 2 B, a

26 Charles( 良男 ) J. Pedersen(Chemistry, ) ● Synthesis of Crown ethers, ● Naked anion Born in Pusan( 釜山 ), Korea, Norwegian father and Japanese mother International school in Yokohama Univ. Dayton in Ohio (at 18) MIT DuPont(at 23). At 63(1967), he published two papers about crown ethers → At 83( 1987 ) received Nobel Prize with Donald Cram and Jean-Marie Lehn. Supramolecule Crown ether to detect Cs + by Cs + Nano & Fusion (3)

27 Nano & Fusion (4) Linus C. Pauling (1901–1994) (Chemist, Biochemist, Peace activist, Author, Educator) Oregon Agricultural College (16). ● In his last two years at school, Pauling became aware of the work of Gilbert N. Lewis and Irving Langmuir on the electronic structure of atoms and their bonding to form molecules. → ● Caltech (Crystallography) → ●Guggenheim Fellowship to study under A. Sommerfeld, N. Bohr, E. Schr ö dinger → ● Quantum chemistry New concept: hybridization

28 The Nature of the Chemical Bond(1939) 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry ● Valence Bond Theory(Quantum chemistry) ● Biological Molecule ● Molecular Genetics ● Molecular Medicine ?? Pauling is notable for the diversity of his interests: quantum mechanics, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, protein structure, molecular biology, and medicine. In all these fields, and especially on the boundaries between them, he made decisive contributions.

29 Pauling's work on crystal structure contributed significantly to the prediction and elucidation of the structures of complex minerals and compounds. His discovery of the alpha helix and beta sheet is a fundamental foundation for the study of protein structure

30 L. Pauling as an educator Williams Lipscomb (Boron Chemistry, Biochemistry) 1976 Lipscomb’s student R. Hoffman (Extended Hückel) 1981, T.A.Steitz, A. Yonath(Bio) 2009 Martin Karplus(Theory, Molecular dynamics) 2013 Pauling Lipscomb Karplus HoffmanSteitz Yonath

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