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2 Carlisle, Inc. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. Thank you!

3 Energy Use in the Built Environment U.S. ENERGY USE BY SECTOR The commercial real estate industry spends approximately $24 billion annually on energy. Energy represents the single largest controllable operating expense for office buildings - typically a third of variable expenses Source: BEEP (BOMA Energy Efficiency Program)

4 The Importance of Good Insulation Government and private initiatives call for aggressive reduction of energy consumption High-performance insulation is crucial for achievement of these objectives! Today we will learn about polyiso insulation – a commercially- available, cost-effective material that easily enables construction of more energy-efficient buildings.

5 Learning Objectives List the basic characteristics and important physical properties of polyiso foam board insulation. Describe the track record and market adoption of polyiso insulation in building construction applications. Explain the benefits afforded by polyiso insulation when used in exterior wall assemblies. List the important elements of successful installation of polyiso insulation in exterior wall assemblies.

6 Learning Objective 1: List the basic characteristics and important physical properties of polyiso insulation. Chemistry. How it’s made. Properties – Polyiso Spec ASTM C 1289 R-Value

7 Polyiso Foam Similar to polyurethane Starts as pourable resin. 2-component rapid reaction causes expansion and cure Forms a rigid plastic, closed-cell foam In production, reaction occurs in-line, while facers are laminated on both sides to form boards. Beads of mixed 2-part resin extruded onto facer Resin expands and cures, filing space between facers Boards are cut to size, packaged, cured and shipped

8 Polyiso – Green Features No CFCs, zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) EPA compliant blowing agents Recyclable through re-use or down- cycling FSC-Certified wood used on wood- faced products Durable, long service life material National manufacturing network - available regionally

9 Polyiso Insulation Properties ASTM C 1289 “Standard Specification for Faced Rigid Cellular Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation Board” – Classification: Facer composition, foam core compressive strength – Physical Properties: Dimensional stability, flexural strength, water absorption, water vapor transmission R-Value – Measure of heat flow through specimen – Test methods dictated in ASTM C 1289

10 Polyiso Insulation Facers Most roofing applications use glass-reinforced organic felt facers Polyiso for wall assemblies has coated-glass or foil facer – Coated-glass facers improved fire resistance, moisture resistance and dimensional stability – Foil facers improve fire resistance, UV resistance, moisture resistance and R-Value Polyiso can be easily laminated to plywood or OSB to form an insulating nail base facer polyiso foam core facer

11 Many Facer Options for Different Polyiso Applications

12 R-Value – The Key Property of Insulation MaterialR Value 8” concrete2.3 3.5” brick0.6 5/8” plywood0.7 5/8” gypsum board0.3 18 gauge steel stud0.0 2” thick pine timber1.7 0.040” bitumen membrane 0.0 1” of air5.5 1” of water0.2 R-value of insulation comes primarily from air or some other gas R Value of common building materials R value is a material property indicating resistance to heat flow though the material. Insulating materials have higher R-Value.

13 How Insulation Provides R-Value Foam: Cells are filled with air or other gas Fiber: Air is trapped among the fibers FOAM FIBER

14 Foam vs. Fiber Insulation Plastic Based (combustible) Board foam or spray foam Closed Cell or Open Cell Closed cell type is an air barrier Closed cell type resists water absorption FIBER Mineral Based (non- combustible) Semi-rigid boards, batts or loose (blown-in) Permeable to air and moisture FOAM

15 R-Value of Common Types of Insulation InsulationR/ inch (@75°F) 20 psi Polyiso Board5.6 to 6.7 2# CC Spray Polyurethane Foam6.0 to 6.7 25 psi Extruded Polystyrene (XPS)5.0 to 5.5 25 psi Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)3.9 to 4.4 Mineral Wool4.2 Fiber Glass3.7

16 How do Foam Insulations Provide Such High R-value? GasR/ inch (@75°F) Air5.5 Argon8.1 Pentane10.0 Dichlorodifluoromethane15.1 Foam insulation consist of plastic resin and gas Cells in polyiso insulation are filled with a higher-R- value gas than air CFC, banned for use in insulation production Most common blowing agent used in polyiso and polystyrene foam insulation

17 How does Polyiso Compare with other Foam Board Insulations? PolyisoXPSEPS R/ inch $/in $/R* Moisture High temp Vertical burn Solvent resist Sizes/ shapes * Based on 2” thick board, R-14.4 foil-faced polyiso Note: all 3 insulation types are suitable for exterior wall applications. The check mark indicates the insulation that is best in that characteristic.

18 Learning Objective 2: Describe the track record and market adoption of polyiso insulation in building construction applications.

19 Polyiso History Derived from polyurethane chemistry, which first appeared in the 1950s Polyiso foam insulation for construction first appeared on the US market in the late 1970s Polyisocyanurate Manufacturers Association (PIMA) established in 1988 More than 70% of all roof insulation used in the USA is polyiso Growing use in exterior wall assemblies Polyiso in a wall assembly Polyiso directly over steel roof deck

20 Polyiso Use - Construction Polyiso has high service temp – up to 250°F Unaffected by most solvent-based adhesives and coatings Thermoset plastic – performs well in roof and wall assembly fire testing High R-value per inch allows thinner board Roof Wall

21 Polyiso Heat Resistance and Dimensional Stability Heat Resistance – Polyiso service temp up to 250°F – Can be installed directly under metal and under roofing membrane Dimensional Stability – Won’t shrink or warp with heat and humidity. Polyiso boards directly under black roof membrane

22 Polyiso Moisture Resistance ASTM C 209, 2h room-temp water immersion, <0.1% volume Closed cell polyiso foam resists moisture absorption from ambient humidity Moisture-resistant facers, such as foil and coated glass greatly enhance performance Polyiso is suitable for use in above- grade exterior wall assemblies and in covered roof assemblies. Behind wall cladding Under roof membrane

23 Polyiso R-Value Measurements Felt-Faced Roofing Insulation – CAN-ULC S770 Long-Term Thermal Resistance (LTTR) – R-5.6 to 6.0 per inch Wall Insulation ASTM C 518 – 75°F mean temp – ASTM C 1289 requires 180 day aging at room temp and minimum 40°F temp difference – R-6.0 to 6.7 per inch Coated-glass-faced Foil-faced

24 Learning Objective 3: Explain the benefits polyiso insulation affords when used in exterior wall assemblies. “Continuous insulation” in building code High R-value per Inch Heat & moisture management Air & vapor barrier Fire performance

25 The Colder the Climate, the more Insulation is Required USDOE Heating Zones 8 in the USA 1 is warmest, 8 is coldest

26 Component R-Value vs. Assembly U-Value Building Code Gives 2 Compliance Options: – Meet a minimum R value of insulation prescribed for that type of assembly – Meet a maximum assembly U Value designated for that type of assembly Material 1 R1R1 R2R2 R3R3 R4R4 R Assembly =R 1 +R 2 +R 3 +R 4 Material 2 Material 3 Material 4 U Assembly R 1 +R 2 +R 3 +R 4 1 =

27 Requirements for “ci” Example: IECC 2012 Steel Stud Wall Requirements R-13 + 7.5 ci Stud Cavity Insulation Continuous Insulation R-13 in the stud cavity R-7.5 minimum “continuous insulation” “ci” is insulation installed continuously across studs.

28 Energy Loss Through Insulation Discontinuity IR camera image showing thermal bridging Batt insulation installed between steel studs

29 Continuous Insulation Requirement Nominal Stud Size (a) Space of Framing (in) Cavity Insulation R-Value Correctio n Factor Effective Framing/ Cavity R-Values 2 X 416 o.c.R-11 R-13 R-15 0.50 0.46 0.43 R-5.5 R-6.0 R-6.4 2 X 424 o.c.R-11 R-13 R-15 0.60 0.55 0.52 R-6.6 R-7.2 R-7.8 2 X 616 o.c.R-19 R-21 0.37 0.35 R-7.1 R-7.4 2 X 624 o.c.R-19 R-21 0.45 0.43 R-8.6 R-9.0 2 X 816 o.c.R-250.31R-7.8 2 X 824 o.c.R-250.38R-9.6 Insulation placed between studs loses much of its nominal R-Value Source: ASHRAE 90.1, 90.2

30 Zone 5 & Marine 4 3.8 ‘06‘09‘12 7.5 Zone 6 ‘06‘09‘12 3.8 7.5 Zone 7 ‘06‘09‘12 7.5 Zone 8 7.5 ‘06‘09‘12 Zone 1 ‘06‘09‘12 5 NR Zone 2 ‘06‘09‘12 5 NR Zone 3 7.5 ‘06‘09‘12 3.8 NR Zone 4 (Exc. Marine) 7.5 ‘06‘09‘12 7.5 NR Example – IECC Requirements for “ci”, Non- Residential Steel Stud walls IECC version Min R-value of ci required

31 Common Types of “ci” Polyiso XPS EPS SPF Rockwool

32 R-Value of Common Types of Insulation Polyiso has the Highest R-Value per Inch – Use thinner board to comply with minimum code requirements – Use same size board and put more R-value into limited wall space

33 Benefits of Thinner Insulation Reduced cost of insulation Simplify and reduce cost of cladding attachment – Shorter fasteners – Larger spacing – More cladding options

34 Example: Polyiso vs. XPS On 10,000 SQ FT of wall, what is the difference in heat loss through the wall, given a ΔT of 30°F? – XPS Wall: 16,216 BTU/h; POLYISO Wall: 12,300 BTU/h – POLYISO wall presents a 24% improvement 1 3 5 4 2 1 3 5 4 6 2 2” XPS R-10 2” Foil-Faced POLYISO R-14.4 Component R- Value XPS WallPOLYISO Wall 15/8” Interior Gyp0.5 2R-13 w/4”SS 16” OC 6.0 35/8” Exterior Gyp0.5 440 mil membrane0.0 52” foam10.014.4 61.5” air space0.92.3 73.5” brick0.6 Assembly U Val.U-0.054U-0.041 6 6 7 7

35 “ci” on the Exterior Keeps walls Drier during Winter Wall is dry where insulation is installed on the exterior Indoor moisture condenses on cold steel studs and gypsum sheathing. Vapor retarder traps this moisture. Condensation of interior moisture on cold block

36 “ci” and Air/Vapor Barrier Membrane work Together Gypsum sheathing Steel studs and insulation Continuous insulation (ci) installed over air/vapor barrier Exterior cladding fastened to structure Air/vapor barrier Air/vapor barrier prevents air and moisture transmission through wall, even seals around fasteners “ci” “ci” keeps steel studs, gypsum sheathing and stud cavity above dew point, preventing condensation Fully-adhered air/vapor barrier membrane on gypsum sheathing

37 Polyiso Board Can be Installed as an Air and Vapor Barrier Vapor Barrier (ASTM E 96): – 1” board has < 1 Perm w/ coated glass facer, <0.1 Perm with foil facer Air Barrier (ASTM E 2178): – 2010 ASHRAE 90.1 and 2012 IECC qualify minimum ½” thickness foil-faced as an “air barrier ” Reduced cost assembly, but less redundancy than wall with membrane + “ci”

38 NFPA 285 2-story wall assembly burn test Applicable to Type I-IV Construction Simulates an interior fire, with flashover effect through window opening. Vertical and lateral fire propagation is evaluated. Insulation, cladding and wall membranes can trigger Code Requirement!

39 NFPA 285 Test Set-Up Burn room burner 7’ 6” min. 10’ Window burner Test Wall 18’ Section View – not drawn to scale 1 st : burn room burner is ignited 2 nd after 5 min, window burner is ignited 3 rd after 30 minutes, both burners are shut off. 4 th residual burning is allowed to progress for at least 10 minutes Thermocouples here cannot reach 1,000 deg F

40 NFPA 285 Acceptance Criteria Measures lateral and vertical propagation of fire Pass/fail determined by amount and layering of combustible components. Mineral wool fire stopping required in stud cavity between floors cladding insulation Air barrier Sheathing stud interior finish EXTERIOR: Fire propagation not to occur beyond area of flame plume impingment CORE: Fire propagation within the wall is allowed only a certain distance above window opening, indicated by thermocouples Air space INTERIOR: Temp not to exceed 750 F in 1 st story stud cavity and flames shall not reach second story.

41 Assembly test includes… Base Wall System Approved Exterior Finish Insulation Material Options Floor line Fire-stopping Stud Cavity Exterior Sheathing WRB Membrane NFPA 285 Pass – what does it mean?

42 Polyiso Performs well in Vertical Burn!! NFPA 285 test, in progress and inspection after burn Inspection – Polyiso stays in place – No formation of burning drips – Protects underlying rubberized asphalt membrane

43 Polyiso Passes the NFPA 285 Test with Many Types of Claddings Projects showing polyiso insulation and aluminum compsite (ACM) rain screen cladding

44 Class A Polyiso Passes NFPA 285 Even When Applied Over Open Studs Install air, water, vapor and thermal barrier in one layer Build a high-performance wall at a reduced cost!

45 Polyiso Allows Simple Window Details in the NFPA 285 Test XPS NFPA 285 Window Detail: Specifies Mineral Wool Pinned across Window Head Polyiso passes NFPA 285 without any fire blocking in window opening!

46 Other Fire Tests ASTM E 84 – “Tunnel Test”: horizontal burn of material – Limited applicability to vertical wall performance. – Standard Polyiso: flame spread 75 or less, smoke 450 or less – “Class A” Polyiso: flame spread 25 or less and smoke 450 or less NFPA 286 – Corner burn test – Some polyiso foam/facer configurations can pass this test – Required if insulation will be left exposed in interior wall and ceiling applications ASTM E 84 NFPA 286

47 Learning Objective 4: List the important elements of successful installation of polyiso insulation in exterior wall assemblies. Details and Instructions Qualified installer Field quality control Reliable supplier

48 Insulation Manufacturer shall Provide Standard Details Windows Foundation Penetrations Wall-to-Roof Inter-Story Corners Expansion joints Termination at existing

49 Barriers Shown in Details Shall Align Thermal image showing alignment of wall insulation with window’s thermal break Thermal barrier Air barrier Water resistive barrier

50 Installation Instructions Board pattern Joint treatment Fastening Bonding Exposure and Protection

51 Installer shall be trained and approved by Insulation manufacturer Insulation manufacturer training can be executed through partnership with professional organizations – Trades – Air Barrier Association of America ABAA Installer Training Training Mockup

52 Coordination of work Mockups Air Leakage Test (ASTM E 1105) Water Leak Teat (ASTM E 783) Visual inspection of Polyiso Insulation (not limited to these things…) – Tight at joints OR joints are sealed – Tightly secured to wall – Weeps and drainage in place – Insulation aligned with window thermal break – Penetrations detailed properly – Termination at grade and at existing construction Field Quality Control

53 Multiple plants for nationwide service (typically within 500 miles of project) Financially secure and established in the business Dedicated sales and support personnel for WALL APPLICATIONS – Ready to assist with order fulfillment, instructions, product knowledge training and field technical issues Select a Reliable Polyiso Supplier

54 Specify polyiso, with coated glass or foil facer, for use in the exterior wall assemblies. Polyiso is a conventional, commercially-available material with a long, successful track record in construction Polyiso provides solutions for modern commercial wall construction – delivers high R-value per inch and passes the NFPA 285 fire test in many wall assemblies Several large, reputable manufacturers offer polyiso insulation, produced locally and available at a competitive price. Partner with a polyiso insulation manufacturer who is reliable and will provide support throughout the Project for a successful installation. Recap



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