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Carsten Rahbek, PhD Patterns of Diversity Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow Ryan Burner Community Ecology 23 April 2013 scholar.google.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Carsten Rahbek, PhD Patterns of Diversity Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow Ryan Burner Community Ecology 23 April 2013 scholar.google.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carsten Rahbek, PhD Patterns of Diversity Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow Ryan Burner Community Ecology 23 April 2013 scholar.google.com

2 Education University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Biology, B.Sc., 1988 University of Wisconsin, USA, visiting graduate student, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Zoology, M.Sc., 1992 Smithsonian Institution, NMNH, Research Fellow University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Biogeography, PhD, 1995

3 Appointments Currently: Professor and Director, Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate at University of Copenhagen and President-Elect, International Biogeography Society 2005-present. Full Professor, Department of Biology, Univ. of Copenhagen, Denmark; Professor MSO, Zoological Museum, Univ. of Copenhagen, Denmark; Head of the Copenhagen Bird Ringing Centre & Curator of Birds; Associate Professor, Zoological Museum, Univ. of Copenhagen, Denmark; Assistant Professor, Zoological Museum, Univ. of Copenhagen, Denmark.

4 Research Interests Patterns of species distribution, species range sizes, species assemblages, species richness and Mechanisms that determine these patterns – “contemporary and historical factors or perhaps also just a bit of chance” “Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate” Shahid Naeem;

5 Early Work A survey of the montane forest avifauna of the Loja province, southern Ecuador; H. Bloch, M. K. Poulsen, C. Rahbek, J. F. Rasmussen Lista de aves del Parque Nacional Podocarpus J. F. Rasmussen, M. K. Poulsen, C. Rahbek, H. Bloch Avian body weights from southern Equador C. Rahbek, H. Bloch, M. K. Poulsen, J. F. Rasmussen Orange-headed Tanager wikipedia.com

6 The elevational gradient of species richness: a uniform pattern? C. Rahbek – 493 citations, beginning of a major theme in his work The relationship among area, elevation, and regional species richness in neotropical birds C. Rahbek biogeography.org Species Richness, Gradients, Patterns, and Mechanisms

7 The functional biogeography of species: biogeographical species roles of birds in Wallacea and the West Indies D. W. Carstensen, B. Dalsgaard, J. C. Svenning, C. Rahbek, J. Fjeldså, W. J. Sutherland, J. M. Olesen The role of mountain ranges in the diversification of birds J. Fjeldså, R. C. K. Bowie, C. Rahbek Dispersion fields, diversity fields and null models: uniting range sizes and species richness M. K. Borregaard, C. Rahbek Predicting continental-scale patterns of bird species richness with spatially explicit models C. Rahbek, N. J. Gotelli, R. K. Colwell, G. L. Entsminger, T. Rangel, G. R. Graves s Species Richness, Gradients, Patterns, and Mechanisms J. Fjeldså N. Sanders w/ CR G. Graves R. Colwell N. Gotelli

8 Conservation and Biogeography Species richness and endemism in South American birds: implications for the design of networks of nature reserves J. Fjeldså, C. Rahbek Continent-wide conservation priorities and diversification processes J. Fjeldså, C. Rahbek Priorities for conservation in Bolivia, illustrated by a continent-wide analysis of bird distributions J. Fjeldså, C. Rahbek Conserving biodiversity in a world of conflicts M. B. Araújo, C Rahbek x Holt et al. 2012

9 Holt et al. (2012) Redrawing Wallace’s Eco-regions by Taxa, using Phylogenetic Relationships

10 Recent Focus On “the effect of climate change, the role of scale and conceptual formulation, and practical design of null- and predictive models that allow direct testing of hypotheses related to patterns of diversity” Views his theoretical work as informing conservation priority setting and hypothesis testing

11 Effects of Climate Change on Species Diversity Habitat stability affects dispersal and the ability to track climate change C. Hof, M. Brändle, D. M. Dehling, M. Munguía, R. Brandl, M. B. Araújo, C. Rahbek Using species co‐occurrence networks to assess the impacts of climate change M. B. Araújo, A. Rozenfeld, C. Rahbek, P. A. Marquet Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity C. Hof, M. B. Araújo, W. Jetz, C. Rahbek

12 Habitat Stability, Dispersal, and the ability to track Climate Change Hof et al. 2012

13 Elevational Gradients in Species Diversity A major recurring theme in Carsten Rahbek’s research, and my focus for the rest of this presentation

14 Gradients in Species Diversity The patterns and causes of elevational diversity gradients N. J. Sanders, C. Rahbek Contrasting patterns of phylogenetic assemblage structure along the elevational gradient for major hummingbird clades J. L. Parra, C. Rahbek, J. A. McGuire, C. H. Graham Elevational zonation of afrotropical forest bird communities along a homogeneous forest gradient T. S. Romdal, C. Rahbek Scale effects and human impact on the elevational species richness gradients D. Nogués-Bravo, M. B. Araújo, T. Romdal, C. Rahbek The Mid‐Domain Effect: There’s a Baby in the Bathwater R. K. Colwell, C Rahbek, NJ Gotelli The Mid‐Domain Effect and Species Richness Patterns: What Have We Learned So Far? 2004 R. K. Colwell, C. Rahbek, N. J. Gotelli

15 Marine Fish Species by Latitude From Rohde (1978) and Rohde (1993), combined in Rohde (2011) Latitudinal Gradients in Species Diversity One of the ‘most universal biogeographic patterns’ Pacific Atlantic

16 Latitudinal and Elevational Gradients Similarities -Generally declining diversity -Generally declining temperatures -Generally declining vegetation cover and primary productivity Differences -Seasonality -Location of humidity peak -Scale -Replication

17 What Pattern? A First Question From Rahbek (1995)

18 The Richness/Elevation Relationship Locally From Rahbek (1995), citing Terborgh (1977) Raw DataStandardized

19 The Richness/Elevation Relationship Continent Wide Raw DataStandardized From Rahbek (1995)

20 Simple Models of Observed Distributions Rahbek (1997)

21 Models predicting a monotonic decline Monotonic Richness/ Productivity Rahbek (1997) Rapoport’s ‘Rule’

22 Models predicting a hump-shaped distribution Rahbek (1997) Hump-shaped Species/ Productivity relationship

23 Rahbek (1997) Models predicting a hump-shaped distribution Bounded Random Geographical Ranges

24 Simple Models of Observed Distributions Rahbek (1997)

25 Sampling Effects: multiple draws from the same data set Range of Elevational Gradient (m) Spatial Grain Size (km^2) Rahbek (2008)

26 Sampling Effects: multiple draws fro the same data set Range of Elevational Gradient (m) Spatial Grain Size (km^2) Rahbek (2008)

27 Sampling Effects: multiple draws from the same data set Spatial Grain Size (km^2) Range of Elevational Gradient (m) Rahbek (2008)

28 Worldwide Average Human Impact by Elevation Percent Original Vegetation Human Impact Index Rahbek (2008)

29 Proposed Mechanisms Some of the most frequently tested: – climate and productivity – source-sink dynamics – mass and area effects – disturbance – geometric factors – evolutionary history – competition N. J. Sanders and C. Rahbek (2012)

30 Thanks science.ku.dk

31 For Future Reference Colwell, R. K., et al. (2004). "The Mid‐Domain Effect and Species Richness Patterns: What Have We Learned So Far?" The American Naturalist 163(3): E1-E23. Colwell, R. K., et al. (2005). "The Mid‐Domain Effect: There’s a Baby in the Bathwater." The American Naturalist 166(5): E149-E154. Hof, C., et al. (2012). "Habitat stability affects dispersal and the ability to track climate change." Biology letters 8(4): Holt, B. G., et al. (2013). "An Update of Wallace’s Zoogeographic Regions of the World." Science 339(6115): Nogués-Bravo, D., et al. (2008). "Scale effects and human impact on the elevational species richness gradients." Nature 453(7192): Rahbek, C. (1995). "The elevational gradient of species richness: a uniform pattern?" Ecography 18(2): Rahbek, C. (1997). "The relationship among area, elevation, and regional species richness in neotropical birds." The American Naturalist 149(5): Rohde, Klaus (2011). Latitudinal Gradients in Species Diversity: Why are there so many species in the tropics? [Internet]. Version 1. Clinical Sciences. Available from: Sanders, N. J. and C. Rahbek (2012). "The patterns and causes of elevational diversity gradients." Ecography 35(1): 1-3.


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