Presentation on theme: "MECHANICAL ENGINEER ENERGY MATTHEW ESPER, BSME ’06 – UofM OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY 9/30/2014."— Presentation transcript:
MECHANICAL ENGINEER ENERGY MATTHEW ESPER, BSME ’06 – UofM OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY 9/30/2014
AGENDA Who Is Black & Veatch? Overview of Traditional Thermal Cycles Overview of Combined Cycles Major Equipment of Combined Cycles Design Options for Combined Cycles Air Quality Control for Combined Cycles Review of Latest CTG in CC Technology Options New Hire Responsibilities Questions AGENDA 9/30/2014 2
Founded in 1915 Global workforce of more than 10,000 Employee-owned corporation $3.6 billion in annual revenues in 2013 More than 110 offices worldwide Completed projects in more than 100 countries WE’RE BUILDING A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE. TOGETHER. Black & Veatch conducts 7,000+ active projects globally at any one time 4 9/30/2014
SOLVING THE WORLD’S COMPLEX CHALLENGES IN EACH OF OUR MARKETS Using teamwork and collaboration we provide sustainable and reliable solutions EnergyWaterTelecommunications SecurityManagement ConsultingEnvironmental IndonesiaHong Kong SARCalifornia, USA ArmeniaOklahoma, USAScotland, UK 5 9/30/2014 WHO IS BLACK & VEATCH?
BLACK & VEATCH PROVIDES CONSTRUCTION SERVICES TO THE ENERGY, WATER, TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND FEDERAL MARKETS Black & Veatch Construction, Inc. (BVCI) for union construction Overland Contracting Inc. (OCI) for open shop construction Black & Veatch International (BVI) for work outside the U.S. We have extensive construction experience on projects of complex size and scope throughout the world 6 9/30/2014 WHO IS BLACK & VEATCH?
THE RESULT IS A POSITION OF INDUSTRY LEADERSHIP Engineering News-Record 1 st –Top 20 in Telecommunications 1 st –Top 25 in Fossil Fuel 3 rd –Top 20 in Power 3 rd –Top 20 in Transmission Lines and Aqueducts 4 th –Top 25 in Transmission and Distribution Plants 4 th –Top 20 Contractors in Telecom 5 th –Top 10 in Hydroplants 5 th –Top 20 in Nuclear Plants 5 th –Top 15 in Dams and Reservoirs 6 th –Top 25 in Wastewater Treatment Plants 6 th –Top 25 in Sanitary and Storm Sewers 6 th –Top 20 in Water 8 th –Top 20 in Sewerage and Solid Waste 9 th –Top 20 Contractors in Power 10 th –Top 20 in Water Treatment, Desalination Plants 11 th –Top 50 Contractors Working Abroad 12 th –Top 25 in Refineries and Petrochemical Plants 16 th –Top 500 Design Firms CENTURION RESEARCH SOLUTIONS 2 nd –Top 100 Federal Contractors Architectural & Engineering Services 7 9/30/2014
WHO IS BLACK & VEATCH? 8 9/30/2014 BLACK & VEATCH HAS REGIONAL OFFICES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES Project offices are not included. Arizona California Colorado Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska Nevada New Jersey New York North Carolina Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania South Carolina Texas Virginia Washington
9 9/30/2014 WHO IS BLACK & VEATCH? OUR GLOBAL PRESENCE ALLOWS US TO APPLY GLOBAL EXPERTISE LOCALLY Georgia Hong Kong India Indonesia Kuwait Kazakhstan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands Afghanistan Armenia Australia Azerbaijan Bahrain Canada Chile China Czech Republic Oman Palestine Philippines Puerto Rico Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore South Africa Taiwan Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Kingdom United States Vietnam
ANN ARBOR OFFICE OVERVIEW Michigan Business Began in 1980 Ann Arbor Office Opened in 1988 260 Skilled Personnel Coal Plants Gas Turbines Combined Cycle Gasification / IGCC Renewables AQCS Energy Services Power Delivery Substations 10 9/30/2014 WHO IS BLACK & VEATCH?
WE UNDERSTAND THE ENTIRE LIFE CYCLE OF A POWER PLANT Monte Carlo Analysis Licensing / Permitting Project Schedule System Definitions Detailed Cost Estimates Soils Testing Feasibility / Initial Engineering Conceptual / Definition Engineering Project Execution Market Assessment Feasibility Study Plant Configuration Study Detailed Engineering Procurement Construction / Construction Management Startup Project Completion Monitoring / Diagnostics Operator Training Project Planning & Controls Optimization Outage Management Planning Retirement / Decommissioning Operations Maintenance & Outage Services Preliminary Schedules Systems Analysis Select Major Equipment Permitting Support Preliminary Cost Estimates Arrangement Drawings Commercial Contracting Strategies 11 9/30/2014 WHO IS BLACK & VEATCH?
Mesquite Grayling Gateway Dallman B&V ENERGY – ANN ARBOR PROJECTS Coal Plants Gasification / IGCC Biomass Carbon Capture Pre-combustion Post-combustion Gas Turbines Combined Cycle Traditional HRSG Solar Thermal Hybrid Nuclear AQCS Wind Black & Veatch has been involved in more megawatts of power generation than any other company: 121,000+ MW worldwide 12 9/30/2014 WHO IS BLACK & VEATCH?
MESQUITE GENERATING STATION (COMMERCIAL OP. 2003) 1250 MW Net with Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbines and Duct Burners 18 9/30/2014 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
GATEWAY GENERATING STATION (COMMERCIAL OP. 2009) 600 MW Net with Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbines, Duct Burners, Chillers 9/30/2014 19 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
MAJOR EQUIPMENT OF COMBINED CYCLES Combustion Turbines Heat Recovery Steam Generators Steam Turbines 9/30/2014 20 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
COMBUSTION TURBINES Aeroderivatives are generally utilized for simple cycle peaking due to their high simple cycle efficiency and low exhaust gas temperature New combined cycles generally utilize F, G, H, or J Class heavy duty frame type CTGs F, G, H and J Class CTGs have axial exhaust and cold end drives F Class utilize compressor air for cooling hot components (ie, turbine blades and transition pieces) G and J Class machines (MHI) utilize steam cooling (exception is M501GAC) Current H Class machines (GE and Siemens) do not utilize steam cooling, air cooled PARAMETERF CLASSG CLASSH and J CLASS TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE (approximate) 1400 C / 2552 F1500 C / 2732 F1600 C / 2912 F 21 9/30/2014 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
HISTORICAL PRIME MOVERS 24 1980’s to 2000’s, we saw 4 primary classes of engines serving the U.S. market F Class E Class AERO Early Frame Primary Suppliers ABB GE Westinghouse Siemens V-Class MW CF 200100 150 50 9/30/2014 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
GE 7HA.02 Series TODAY’S CT CHOICES 25 OEMS have filled in the MW gaps, increased MW and improved efficiency Siemens H MW CF 200 300 100 GE 7F.05 250150 9/30/2014 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
TODAY’S CT PRODUCT LINE (>850 MMBTU/HR) 26 NSPS = 1000 lb/MWh for Larger CTs CT MODEL MW CT Efficiency CO2, lb/MWh Nominal 2x1 CC MW CC Efficiency CO2 lb/MWh MPS J32741%1,09094361.7%724 GE 7HA.0233041.4%1,07997661.2%729 MPS GAC27639.8%1,12282659.6%750 GE 7HA.0127541.4%107981361.2%729 Siemens H27440%1,11781060.0%745 Siemens F5EE23238.8%1,15269058.6%770 Alstom GT2423040%1,11766458.4%765 GE 7F.0522739.3%1,13668859.5%752 9/30/2014 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
TODAY’S CT PRODUCT LINE 27 Combined cycle efficiency > 61% 9/30/2014 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS HRSGs are large air-to-water & steam heat exchangers Tube bundles include superheater, reheater, evaporator, and economizer sections 9/30/2014 28 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR ERECTION Tube to Header Welds Heat Transfer Module (Tube Bundle) Placement Each bundle may have 12 or more tube rows 9/30/2014 32 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
STEAM TURBINES Startup (warm up) time requirements vary and play significant factor in combined cycle startup times The steam turbine can be purchased with the combustion turbine or can be purchased separately Possible suppliers include: General Electric, Siemens, Toshiba, Mitsubishi, Alstom, Hitachi 9/30/2014 33 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
DESIGN OPTIONS FOR COMBINED CYCLES HRSG Duct Burners for Raising STG Power Inlet Air Cooling (Evaporative or Chillers) Fuel Gas Heating Startup Time Considerations 9/30/2014 34 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
HRSG DUCT BURNERS Duct firing raises steam turbine power output Utilized when grid electrical demand is high Duct burner sizing depends on the Customers requirements Heavy Duct Firing = Duct Burner Exit Temperature 1500 to 1600 F Heavier duct firing results in a greater efficiency penalty 9/30/2014 35 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
Design Features: 2 CTGs x 1 STG Combustion Turbines GE 7FA.04* 3 Pressure Reheat Includes Duct Burners for 43 MW or 22% Output Boost for Steam Turbine Fired Condition Light Duct Firing TYPICAL COMBINED CYCLE DESIGN – DUCT BURNERS ON 9/30/2014 36 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
TYPICAL COMBINED CYCLE DESIGN – DUCT BURNERS OFF Design Features: 2 CTGs x 1 STG Combustion Turbines GE 7FA.04* 3 Pressure Reheat Includes Duct Burners for 43 MW or 22% Output Boost for Steam Turbine Unfired Condition 9/30/2014 37 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
OTHER DUCT FIRED 2X1 7FA DESIGN EXAMPLES Project Alpha Bravo Charlie Heat Rejection Once ThroughAir Cooled CondenserMechanical Tower Ambient TemperatureF47 101 95 Duct Burners FiredUnfiredFiredUnfiredFiredUnfired Exit TemperatureF1164 1297 1511 Steam Turbine OutputMW238.6195.9233.6168.5317.2181.4 Power IncreaseMW42.7 65.1 135.8 Power Increase%22 39 75 Throttle PressurePSIA19011523195013611905990 Plant Net OutputMW581.6540.2501.6436.5609.2479.4 Power IncreaseMW41.4 65.1 129.8 Net Efficiency - LHV%55.556.051.352.451.254.9 Three Separate Project Examples Same CTG, Different Cycle Designs Light Firing Increased STG Output 22% Heavy Firing Increased STG Output 75% Note Ambient Temperature and Heat Rejection Differences Note Change in STG Throttle Pressure from Unfired to Fired Condition Sliding STG Inlet Pressure 9/30/2014 38 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
INLET AIR COOLING (EVAPORATIVE TYPE) Combustion turbine inlet air cooling raises CTG power output Evaporative coolers are relatively inexpensive, but consume water Incorporated into the inlet air filter housing by the CTG OEM Evaporative coolers are most effective in arid climates, but are frequently included in plant designs for all types of climates 9/30/2014 39 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
INLET AIR COOLING (CHILLER TYPE) Chillers are expensive, but yield greater CTG power output increase Typically sized to reduce CTG inlet air temperature to 50 F from some specific ambient condition Typically water is a byproduct, condensed from the ambient air, and can be utilized elsewhere within the power plant The chilling heat transfer coil is integrated into the inlet air filter housing by the CTG OEM Chilling system designs vary, particularly the fluid passing through the coil that chills the ambient air (typically chilled water) Refrigerant types: anhydrous ammonia, R-123, etc Unlike evaporative coolers, inlet air chillers yield an efficiency penalty 9/30/2014 40 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
INLET AIR CHILLED 2X1 7FA DESIGN EXAMPLE Chiller primarily increases CTG power STG power is increased if it is not already at maximum output due to duct firing If STG was already fired to the maximum, duct firing is reduced STG power increase is due to increased CTG exhaust energy to the HRSG Chiller operation yields slight efficiency penalty Project Bravo Heat Rejection Air Cooled Condenser Ambient TemperatureF101 Chiller Status OnOffOnOff Duct Burners Fired Unfired Exit TemperatureF12381297 Steam Turbine OutputMW234.4233.6176.9168.5 Throttle PressurePSIA1950 14241361 Plant Net OutputMW553.9501.6496.4436.5 Power IncreaseMW52.3 59.9 Net Efficiency - LHV%51.051.351.852.4 9/30/2014 41 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
FUEL GAS HEATING Fuel gas heating increases the efficiency of the combined cycle Low grade heat from the HRSG is used to pre-heat the fuel gas which improves combustion turbine heat rate The heated fuel gas temperature will depend on the CTG OEM Values between 280 F and 365 F are common The temperature must be controlled to a stable set point or the CTG will run back or trip Typically feed water from either the LP drum (280 F) or the IP economizer exit (365 F) is utilized to heat the fuel gas 9/30/2014 42 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
STARTUP TIME CONSIDERATIONS Startup emissions are often limited by air permits Agencies understand startup emissions can be minimized Faster startups consume less fuel and thus save the Owner money Fast startups allow the operator to hit higher outputs faster, increasing revenue for merchant generators Combined cycles will increasingly be required to start and/or change loads quickly as wind turbine farm output and/or solar energy output to the grid varies Startup times are an increasingly important consideration for combined cycles due to the following: 9/30/2014 43 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
Impact of wind generation on power system load Wind is intermittent and is a major contributor during low load hours, but only minimal during peak load hours Wind generation requires a generation mix with more operational flexibility to serve the net load Addition of wind generation: Net Load Duration Curve becomes more steep Wind generation has small (but not zero) impact on peak load Wind generation has major impact on low and minimum load conditions Hours of Operation / Year System Load Base Load Generation Mid-Merit Generation Peaking Generation Mid-Merit Generation Base Load Generation System Load without wind Net System Load with wind Peaking Generation Gas GT Gas CCGT Clean Coal Hydro CHANGING SYSTEM DYNAMICS 9/30/2014 44 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
AIR QUALITY CONTROL FOR COMBINED CYCLES New large combined cycles in the United States typically include the following air quality control equipment and features: Dry Low NOx burners for the CTG Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system in the HRSG for NOx reduction Ammonia injection for the HRSGs SCR Carbon Monoxide (CO) catalyst in the HRSG for CO and VOC reduction 9/30/2014 45 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
HOW DOES AN ENTRY-LEVEL MECHANICAL ENGINEER GET INVOLVED? System Engineer Development of system P&ID’s Service/Potable Water Station Air Compressed Gases Wastewater Collection System and equipment sizing calculations Centrifugal/Vertical Sump Pumps Air Compressors/Dryers System Piping Development of technical specifications for equipment Pumps/Compressors Valves/Miscellaneous Piping Devices Pipe Stress Engineer Modeling of piping systems Pipe materials, temperatures & pressures Model supports Thermal growth Wind & seismic activity Verify design meets equipment and code allowables Pipe support detail drawings Anchors, rod hangers, springs, struts & shock absorbers 9/30/2014 46 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
WHAT IS A P&ID? 9/30/2014 47 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
WHAT IS A PIPING ISOMETRIC? 9/30/2014 48 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
CAREER RELEVANT COURSEWORK System Engineer Major Required: Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Electives Intro to Combustion Energy Conversion Computer Assisted Design of Thermal Systems Design of Alternative Energy Systems Pipe Stress Engineer Major Required: Materials Science & Engineering Statics Electives Intermediate Mechanics of Deformable Solids Computer Aided Design of Structures Finite Element Analysis 9/30/2014 50 OVERVIEW OF COMBINED CYCLE TURBINE TECHNOLOGY